• Title, Summary, Keyword: tumor size

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Tumor Size as a Prognostic Factor in Gastric Cancer Patient

  • Im, Won Jin;Kim, Min Gyu;Ha, Tae Kyung;Kwon, Sung Joon
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.164-172
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the prognostic significance of tumor size for 5-year survival rate in patients with gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,697 patients with gastric cancer, who underwent potentially curative gastrectomy, were evaluated. Patients were divided into 4 groups as follows, according to the median size of early and advanced gastric cancer, respectively: small early gastric cancer (tumor size ${\leq}3$ cm), large early gastric cancer (tumor size >3 cm), small advanced gastric cancer (tumor size ${\leq}$ 6 cm), and large advanced gastric cancer (tumor size >6 cm). The prognostic value of tumor size for 5-year survival rate was investigated. Results: In a univariate analysis, tumor size is a significant prognostic factor in advanced gastric cancer, but not in early gastric cancer. Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size is an independent prognostic factor for 5-year survival rate in advanced gastric cancer (P=0.003, hazard ratio=1.372, 95% confidence interval=1.115~1.690). When advanced gastric cancer is subdivided into 2 groups, according to serosa invasion: Group 1; serosa negative (T2 and T3, 7th AJCC), and Group 2; serosa positive (T4a and T4b, 7th AJCC), tumor size is an independent prognostic factor in Group 1 (P=0.011, hazard ratio=1.810, 95% confidence interval=1.149~2.852) and in Group 2 (P=0.033, hazard ratio=1.288, 95% confidence interval=1.020~1.627), respectively. Conclusions: Tumor size is an independent prognostic factor in advanced gastric cancer irrespective of the serosa invasion, but not in early gastric cancer.

Predictive Role of Tumor Size in Breast Cancer with Axillary Lymph Node Involvement - Can Size of Primary Tumor be used to Omit an Unnecessary Axillary Lymph Node Dissection?

  • Orang, Elahe;Marzony, Eisa Tahmasbpour;Afsharfard, Aboulfazl
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.717-722
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    • 2013
  • Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between tumor size and axillary lymph node involvement (ALNI) in patients with invasive lesions, to find the best candidates for a full axillary dissection. Additionally, we evaluated the association between tumor size and invasive behavior. The study was based on data from 789 patients with histopathologically proven invasive breast cancer diagnosed in Shohada University hospital in Tehran, Iran (1993-2009). Cinical and histopathological characteristics of tumors were collected. Patients were divided into 6 groups according to primary tumor size: group I ($0.1-{\leq}1cm$), II ($1.1-{\leq}2cm$), III ($2.1-{\leq}3cm$), IV ($3.1-{\leq}4cm$), V ($4.1-{\leq}5cm$) and VI (>5cm). The mean(${\pm}SD$) size of primary tumor at the time of diagnosis was $3.59{\pm}2.69$ cm that gradually declined during the course of study. There was a significant correlation between tumor size and ALNI (p<0.001). A significant positive correlation between primary tumor size and involvement of surrounding tissue was also found (p<0.001). The mean number of LNI in group VI was significantly higher than other groups (p<0.05). We observed more involvement of lymph nodes, blood vessels, skin and areola-nipple tissue with increase in tumor size. We found 15.3% overall incidence of ALNI in tumors ${\leq}2cm$, indicating the need for more investigation to omit full axillary lymph node dissection with an acceptable risk for tumors below this diameter. While in patients with tumors ${\geq}2cm$, 84.3% of them had nodal metastases, so the best management for this group would be a full ALND. Tumor size is a significant predictor of ALNM and involvement of surrounding tissue, so that an exact estimation of the size of primary tumor is necessary prior to surgery to make the best decision for management of patients with invasive breast cancer.

THE EXPRESSION OF MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-10, MMP-13 IN SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF THE TONGUE (혀의 편평상피세포암에서 MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-10, MMP-13의 발현 양상)

  • Yun, Kyoung-In;Pyo, Sung-Woon;Kim, Young-Sill;Lee, Cheol-Won
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.182-187
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    • 2002
  • Matrix metalloproteinase(MMP) is the proteolytic enzyme of the extracellular matrix. MMPs play a role in the invasion and metastasis of malignant tumor, but it is not known whether the expression of MMPs in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue is related to the prognostic factors of this tumor. In this study, 32 paraffin-embedded tumor specimens were examined immunohistochemically using monoclonal antibodies of MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-10 and MMP-13. The possible relationships between the expressions of the MMPs and TNM staging, the differentiation of tumor cells, size of tumor mass and lymph node metastasis were anlaysed statistically. The results were as follows. 1. The expression of MMP-2 increased according to TNM staging (P<0.05) and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05) and the expression of MMP-2 was not affected by the differentiation of tumor cells or tumor size. 2. The expression of MMP-3 increased with increasing tumor size (P<0.05). However it was not related to TNM staging, the differentiation of tumor cells or lymph node metastasis. 3. The expression of MMP-10 was unrelated to TNM staging, differentiation of tumor cells, lymph node metastasis or tumor size. 4. The expression of MMP-13 increased as tumor size increased (P<0.05). However it was not related to TNM staging, the differentiation of tumor cells or lymph node metastasis. We concluded that the expression patterns of MMP-2, MMP-3, and MMP-13 may play a role in the diagnosis, treatment plan and prognostic evaluation of malignant tumors of the tongue.

Vascular Morphometric Changes During Tumor Growth and Chemotherapy in a Murine Mammary Tumor Model Using OCT Angiography: a Preliminary Study

  • Kim, Hoonsup;Eom, Tae Joong;Kim, Jae Gwan
    • Current Optics and Photonics
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.54-65
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    • 2019
  • To develop a biomarker predicting tumor treatment efficacy is helpful to reduce time, medical expenditure, and efforts in oncology therapy. In clinics, microvessel density using immunohistochemistry has been proposed as an indicator that correlates with both tumor size and metastasis of cancer. In the preclinical study, we hypothesized that vascular morphometrics using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) could be potential indicators to estimate the treatment efficacy of breast cancer. To verify this hypothesis, a 13762-MAT-B-III rat breast tumor was grown in a dorsal skinfold window chamber which was applied to a nude mouse, and the change in vascular morphology was longitudinally monitored during tumor growth and metronomic cyclophosphamide treatment. Based on the daily OCTA maximum intensity projection map, multiple vessel parameters (vessel skeleton density, vessel diameter index, fractal dimension, and lacunarity) were compared with the tumor size in no tumor, treated tumor, and untreated tumor cases. Although each case has only one animal, we found that the vessel skeleton density (VSD), vessel diameter index and fractal dimension (FD) tended to be positively correlated with tumor size while lacunarity showed a partially negative correlation. Moreover, we observed that the changes in the VSD and FD are prior to the morphological change of the tumor. This feasibility study would be helpful in evaluating the tumor vascular response to treatment in preclinical settings.

Distribution Characteristics of 3,369 Chinese Colorectal Cancer Patients for Gender, Age, Location and Tumor Size During Colonoscopy

  • Cai, Bin;Wang, Mu-Yong;Liao, Kai;Xu, Yan-Song;Wei, Wei-Yuan;Zhuang, Yuan;Zhang, Sen
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.20
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    • pp.8951-8955
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    • 2014
  • Background: Studies have shown the existence of gender- and age-related differences in the incidence and anatomic distribution of colorectal cancers. The purposes of this study were to analyze the distribution characteristics of colorectal cancer patients regarding gender, age, location and tumor size in the course of colonoscopy. Materials and Methods: All colorectal cancer patients who underwent colonoscopy in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University from 2003 to 2012 were included in our retrospective study. Demographic information (age and gender) and colonoscopy report information (tumor size and location) were collected and analyzed. To compare the gender differences in tumor location and tumor size, as well as the size differences in tumor location, the chi-square test was used. Results: A total of 3, 369 colorectal cancer patients (2, 007 men vs 1, 362 women) were included in our study. Statistical analysis showed there was no gender difference in the anatomic distribution of the tumors (p>0.05). However, there was a gender difference in tumor size (p<0.05). In addition, our study found there was a significant difference in tumor size between rectal and colon tumors (p<0.001). Conclusions: There was no gender difference in the anatomic distribution of colorectal tumors. In addition, tumors observed in men were larger than in women.

The Effects of the Tumor Mass Size Inoculated in Immunologically Competent Balb/c Mice on Delayed-type Hypersensitivity Response (정상 면역 생쥐에 접종된 암세포주의 종괴 형성이 숙주의 지연성과민반응에 미치는 영향)

  • Lim, Hyun-Ja;Woo, A-Mi;Jung, Young-Ju;Kang, Jae-Seung;Shin, Dong-Hoon;Lee, Wang-Jae;Hwang, Young-Il
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.185-191
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    • 2006
  • Background: Based on outstanding progresses in animal experiments, vaccines for some human tumors have been developed. However, clinical effects of these vaccines have been far below than expected. This discrepancy might come from differences between animal models and human patients with respect to immunocompetency. The immune status of mice after tumor inoculation has not been well studied, which make us cautious in interpreting and applying the results from mice to human. We evaluated cell-mediated immune responses in mice after tumor cell inoculation. Methods: Mice were inoculated with TA3Ha, CT26, or 4T1. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses were induced 2-4 weeks after inoculation using 2,4-dinitro-1-fluorobenzene as an antigen. The relationships between the severity of DTH responses and the duration of tumor inoculation or the size of tumor mass were analyzed. Results: In T A3Ha groups, DTH response was elevated 2 weeks after inoculation, but depressed after 4 weeks, compared to the control group. When analyzed based on the sizes of tumor masses elicited, DTH responses were inversely related to the mass size, especially in those greater than 10 mm in diameter. In CT26 groups, while the duration after inoculation did not affect the severity of DTH responses, those with large mass showed depressed responses regardless the duration of inoculation. 4T1 cells grew so slowly that the size of tumor mass was small even 4 weeks after inoculation, and this group showed much higher DTH responses compared to that of tumor-free group. Conclusion: At least in an experimental setting where tumor model was induced by inoculating tumor cell lines into immunologically competent mice, the host immune response was elevated in early stage, and then depressed in late stage when the mass grew over a critical size.

Comparison of Primary Breast Cancer Size by Mammography and Sonography

  • Wang, Jian-Tao;Chang, Li-Ming;Song, Xin;Zhao, Li-Xin;Li, Jun-Tao;Zhang, Wei-Guo;Ji, Ying-Bin;Cai, Li-Na;Di, Wei;Yang, Xin-Yu
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.22
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    • pp.9759-9761
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: To compare tumor size by mammography and sonography and align with pathological results in primary breast cancer cases. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 95 primary breast cancer patients who underwent mammography and sonography from January 2011 to June 2012. The largest tumor diameter was chosen as sizing reference for each imaging modality. The measurements of mammography and sonography were considered concordant if they were within the measurement of pathological results ${\pm}0.5cm$. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated for imaging results. Results: The range of the maximum diameter was 0.6cm-10.5cm and mean value was $3.81{\pm}2.04cm$ by pathological results, 0.7cm-12.4 cm and $3.99{\pm}2.19cm$ by mammography, and 0.9cm-11.0cm and $3.63{\pm}2.01cm$ by sonography, respectively. Sonography (R: 0.754), underestimated tumor size, but had a better correlation with pathological tumor size compared to mammography (R: 0.676), which overestimated tumor size. Conclusions: Sonography is superior to mammography in assessment of primary breast cancer.

Automatic Detection Algorithm of Radiation Surgery Area using Morphological Operation and Average of Brain Tumor Size (형태학적 연산과 뇌종양 평균 크기를 이용한 감마나이프 치료 범위 자동 검출 알고리즘)

  • Na, S.D.;Lee, G.H.;Kim, M.N.
    • Journal of Korea Multimedia Society
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    • v.18 no.10
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    • pp.1189-1196
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    • 2015
  • In this paper, we proposed automatic extraction of brain tumor using morphological operation and statistical tumors size in MR images. Neurosurgery have used gamma-knife therapy by MR images. However, the gamma-knife plan systems needs the brain tumor regions, because gamma-ray should intensively radiate to the brain tumor except for normal cells. Therefore, gamma-knife plan systems spend too much time on designating the tumor regions. In order to reduce the time of designation of tumors, we progress the automatical extraction of tumors using proposed method. The proposed method consist of two steps. First, the information of skull at MRI slices remove using statistical tumors size. Second, the ROI is extracted by tumor feature and average of tumors size. The detection of tumor is progressed using proposed and threshold method. Moreover, in order to compare the effeminacy of proposed method, we compared snap-shot and results of proposed method.

Analysis According to Characteristics of 18 Cases of Brachial Plexus Tumors : A Review of Surgical Treatment Experience

  • Jung, In-Ho;Yoon, Kyeong-Wook;Kim, Young-Jin;Lee, Sang Koo
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.61 no.5
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    • pp.625-632
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    • 2018
  • Objective : Because the anatomical structure of the brachial plexus is very complex, surgical treatment of tumors in this region is challenging. Therefore, a lot of clinical and surgical experience is required for successful treatment; however, many neurosurgeons have difficulty accumulating this experience owing to the rarity of brachial plexus tumors. The purpose of this report is to share our surgical experience with brachial plexus tumor with other neurosurgeons. Methods : The records of 18 consecutive patients with brachial plexus tumors who underwent surgical treatment between January 2010 and December 2017 in a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. The surgical approach was determined according to the tumor location and size, and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) was used in most of cases to prevent iatrogenic nerve injury during surgery. In addition, to evaluate the differences in tumor characteristics according to pathologic diagnosis, the tumors were divided twice into two groups, based on two separate classifications, and statistical analysis was performed. Results : The 18 brachial plexus tumors comprised 15 (83.3%) benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors including schwannoma and neurofibroma, one (5.6%) malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, one (5.6%) benign tumor of non-neural sheath origin (neurogenic cyst), and one (5.6%) metastatic tumor (papillary carcinoma). The authors analyzed relationship between tumor size/location and tumor characteristic parameters such as age, size, right-left, and pathology. There were no statistically significant differences except a tendency of bigger tumor size in young age. Conclusion : For a successful surgical outcome, an appropriate surgical approach is essential, and the appropriate surgical approach is determined by the location and size of the tumor. Furthermore, applying IONM may prevent postoperative complications and it is favorable option for brachial plexus tumors surgery.