• Title, Summary, Keyword: tumor lymphangiogenesis

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New Model of In-situ Xenograft Lymphangiogenesis by a Human Colonic Adenocarcinoma Cell Line in Nude Mice

  • Sun, Jian-Jun;Jing, Wei;Ni, Yan-Yan;Yuan, Xiao-Jian;Zhou, Hai-Hua;Fan, Yue-Zu
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.2823-2828
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    • 2012
  • Objective: To explore a new model of in-situ xenograft lymphangiogenesis of human colonic adenocarcinomas in nude mice. Method: On the basis of establishing subcutaneous xenograft lymphangiogenesis model of human colonic adenocarcinoms, in-situ xenografts were established through the in situ growth of the HT-29 human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line in nude mice. The numbers of lymphangiogenic microvessels, the expression of lymphatic endothelial cell markers lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaloronic acid receptor-1 (LYVE-1), D2-40 and the lymphatic endothelial growth factors vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C), -D (VEGF-D) and receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) were compared by immunohistochemical staining, Western bolt and quantitative RT-PCR in xenograft in-situ models. Results: Some microlymphatics with thin walls, large and irregular or collapsed cavities and increased LMVD, with strong positive of LYVE-1, D2-40 in immunohistochemistry, were observed, identical with the morphological characteristics of lymphatic vessels and capillaries. Expression of LYVE-1 and D2-40 proteins and mRNAs were significantly higher in xenograpfts in-situ than in the negative control group(both P<0.01). Moreover, the expression of VEGF-C, VEGF-D and VEGFR-3 proteins and mRNAs were significantly higher in xenografts in-situ (both P<0.01), in conformity with the signal regulation of the VEGF-C,-D/VEGFR-3 axis of tumor lymphangiogenesis. Conclusions: In-situ xenografts of a human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line demonstrate tumor lymphangiogenesis. This novel in-situ animal model should be useful for further studying mechanisms of lymph node metastasis, drug intervention and anti-metastasis therapy in colorectal cancer.

Clinicopathological Significance of Lymphangiogenesis and Tumor Lymphovascular Invasion in Indonesian Breast Cancers

  • Widodo, Irianiwati;Ferronika, Paranita;Harijadi, Ahmad;Triningsih, F.X. Ediati;Utoro, Totok;Soeripto, Soeripto
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.997-1001
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    • 2013
  • Background: Lymphangiogenesis, assessed as lymphovascular density (LVD), is the initial step of generalized tumor lymphovascular invasion (LVI). It also involves VEGF-C as the most important protein family. Lymphangiogenesis among breast cancer cases correlations with several clinicopathological factors are important to determine prognosis and treatment strategies, but results have been controversial and require clarification. Aim: To define correlations between VEGF-C expression, LVD and LVI with several clinicopathological parameters from Indonesian breast cancer patients. Materials and Methods: Using a cross-sectional study, a total of 48 paraffin-embedded tissues of breast cancer from Dr. Sardjito General Hospital Indonesia were assessed for VEGF-C expression, LVD and LVI by immunohistochemistry. Correlations of these markers with clinicopathological parameters like patient age, tumor size, lymph node status, grade, ER/PR and Her-2 status, cell proliferation and p-53 expression were investigated by linear analysis. Correlations of VEGF-C expression and LVI with several clinicopathological parameters were analyzed with Coefficient Contingency Chi-Square test. Results: The mean of patients age was 53.0 year, pre and post-menopausal patients accounting for 56.3% and 43.8%, respectively. Some 10.4% were well, 41.7% moderate and 47.9% poorly differentiated. ER positivity was evident in 50% while PR and Her-2 positivity was found in 31.3% and 33.3%, respectively. Breast cancer cells with over-expression of p-53 was 64.6% and with high cell proliferation was 56.3%. Lymph node metastasis was noted in 63.5%, and LVI in 72.9%. Significant correlations were found between LVD and tumor size (p:0.037), grade (p:0.000), lymphnode status (p:0.036), LVI (p:0.003), as well as with p-53 and cell proliferation. There were also significant correlation of VEGF-C (p:0.011) and LVI (p:0.001) with tumor grade. Only ER status was found to have a correlation with tumor size (p:0.027). Conclusions: This study suggested that in Indonesian breast cancer patients, lymphangiogenesis is correlated with tumor size, grade, lymph node status and tumor lymphovascular invasion, the latter also being related with p-53 over expression and high cell proliferation.

Endostar Combined with Cisplatin Inhibits Tumor Growth and Lymphatic Metastasis of Lewis Lung Carcinoma Xenografts in Mice

  • Dong, Xiao-Peng;Xiao, Tian-Hui;Dong, Hong;Jiang, Ning;Zhao, Xiao-Gang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.3079-3083
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    • 2013
  • Objective: To investigate the effects of endostar, a recombined humanized endostatin, plus cisplatin on the growth, lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis of the Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in mice. Methods: A tumor model were established in C57BL/6 mice by intravenious transplantation of LLC cells. Then the mice were randomized to receive administration with NS, endostar, cisplatin, or endostar plus cisplatin. After the mice were sacrificed, tumor multiplicity, tumor size and lymph node metastasis were assessed. Then the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-c (VEGF-C) and podoplanin were determined by immunohistochemical staining. Results: Endostar plus cisplatin significantly suppressed tumor growth. lymphatic metastasis and prolonged survival time of the mice without obvious toxicity. The inhibition of lymphatic metastasis was associated with decreased microlymphatic vessel density (MLVD) and expression of VEGF-C. Conclusions: Endostar combined with cisplatin was more effective to suppress tumor growth and lymphatic metastasis than either agent alone. Thus this may provide a rational alternative for lung carcinoma treatment.

Effects of Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression on Lymphangiogenesis and Lymph Node Metastasis in Gastric Cancer Tissues (위암조직에 있어 COX-2 발현이 림프관신생과 림프절 전이에 미치는 영향)

  • Chun, Hu-An;Paik, Seung-Sam;Song, Young-Soo;Kwon, Sung-Joon
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.284-290
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: Many previous studies have suggested that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) over expression is closely related to angiogenesis. However, few have reported the relationship between COX-2 and lymphangiogenesis which is still unclear, The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between COX-2 expression and lymphangiogenetic factor, VEGF-C, in human gastric cancer and to correlate COX-2 and VEGF-C expression with other clinocopathological features to investigate whether COX-2 contributes to lymphangiogenesis and enhances lymph node metastasis. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients who underwent curative radical surgery in Hanyang University hospital from July 1998 to June 2001 were selected. The expression of COX-2 and VEGF-C were detected by using immunohistochemistry, and the relationships between these two parameters and several clinicopathological factors (gender, stage, lymph node status, tumor location, Lauren classification and angioinvasion) were determined. Results: Increased COX-2 expression was found in 86 of 100 tumor samples (86%) and in 70 of 100 tumor samples (70%) with VEGF-C. A high correlation between VEGF-C expression and lymph node metastasis was observed (P=0.033) along as well as COX-2 expression (P=0.012). Also, there was a significant correlation between COX-2 and VEGF-C expression (P=0.026), yet no correlation were found between COX-2 and VEGF-C expression and other clinicopathological parameters. Conclusion: Our study suggests that COX-2 expression contributes to lymphangiogenesis by mediating VEGF-C and finally promoting lymph node metastasis.

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Inhibition of Lymphatic Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor in a Murine Model of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (구강 편평상피세포암 마우스 모델에서 림프관내피 성장인자 수용체의 억제)

  • Kye, Jun-Young;Park, Young-Wook
    • Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: Tumor associated angiogenesis and/or lymphangiogenesis are known to be linked by VEGFR signaling pathways. These processes are regulated by several growth factors including VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3. E7080 is an orally active inhibitor of multiple tyrosine kinases including VEGFR-2, 3. Therefore, it was proposed that E7080 may inhibit angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of E7080 in a nude mouse model of OSCC. Methods: KB cells were xenografted into the submucosal tissue of the mouth floor of athymic mice. Seven days after the xenograft, the mice were randomized into 2 groups. E7080 were administered orally to the experimental group once per day. The mice were sacrificed 3 weeks after the treatment. The tumors were examined histopathologically. Immunohistochemical assays with anti- VEGF-C, VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3, phosphorylated VEGFR-2/3 (pVEGFR-2/3), and D2-40 antibodies were then performed. Results: The transplantation of human OSCC tumor cells into the mouth floor resulted in the formation of orthotopic tumors. The experimental (E7080 treatment) group showed a slowly increased tumor volume. Moreover, immunohistochemical staining demonstrated higher levels of VEGF-C, VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3, pVEGFR-2/3 and D2-40 expression in the control group than in the experimental group. Conclusion: These results suggest that E7080 may provide therapeutic benefits in OSCC.

Scabraside D Derived from Sea Cucumber Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Metastasis via iNOS and STAT-3 Expression in Human Cholangiocarcinoma Xenografts

  • Assawasuparerk, Kanjana;Rawangchue, Thanakorn;Phonarknguen, Rassameepen
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.2151-2157
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    • 2016
  • Scabraside D, a sulfated triterpene glycoside, was extracted from the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra. It shows anti-proliferation in many of cancer cell lines, but the function and mechanisms of action of scabraside D in human cholangiocarcinoma (HuCCA) have not previously determined. In this study, we investigated the activity of scabraside D on HuCCA cell apoptosis, lymphangiogenesis and metastasis in a nude mouse model. Scabraside D induced signs of apoptosis, such as cell shrinkage, nuclear condensation, nuclear fragmentation and DNA fragmentation on TUNEL assays, while effectively decreasing expression of BCl-2 but increasing caspase-3 gene level expression. Immunohistochemistry revealed that scabraside D significantly reduced lymphatic vessel density (LVD). Moreover, scabraside D treatment significantly decreased VEGF-C, MMP-9 and uPA gene expression, which play important roles in the lymphangiogenesis and invasion of cancer cells in metastasis processes. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that scabraside D significantly decreased iNOS and STAT-3 gene expression. This study demonstrated that scabraside D plays a role in activation of HuCCA tumor apoptosis and inhibition of lymphangiogenesis, invasion and metastasis through decreasing BCl-2, MMP-9, uPA and VEGF-C and increasing caspase-3 expression by suppression of iNOS and STAT-3 expression. Therefore, scabraside D could be a promising candidate for cholangiocarcinoma treatment.

IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY ON EXPRESSION OF LYMPHANGIOGENIC FACTORS IN ORAL CANCER (구강암에서 림프관형성 인자의 발현에 관한 면역조직화학적 연구)

  • Park, Young-Wook;Kwon, Kwang-Jun;Lee, Jong-Won
    • Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2010
  • Background and Purpose: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-3 are involved in tumor lymphangiogenesis. Oral mucosal squamous cell carcinoma (OMSCC) preferentially metastasizes to cervical lymph nodes, so we investigated the expression and distribution of VEGFR-3 signaling proteins in OMSCC. Materials and Methods: Tissue samples of 18 OMSCC, 10 oral mucosal leukoplakia, and 3 normal oral mucosa were evaluated for expression of VEGF-C, VEGF-D, and VEGFR-3 by immunohistochemical staining. The presence of lymphatic vessels was determined using D2-40 staining, by which we also measured lymphatic vessel density (LVD). Results: 72% (13/18) and 56% (10/18) of tissue samples showed VEGF-C and VEGF-D immunopositivity in tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells. VEGFR-3 was also expressed in most of OMSCC, which was up-regulated when compared with normal mucosa or with leukoplakia. Furthermore, LVD was higher in OMSCC than in leukoplakia. Conclusion: Taken together, our results suggest that autocrine activation of lymphatic endothelial cell via VEGFR-3 by VEGF-C and/or VEGF-D could be involved in progression of OMSCC. Therefore, VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 signaling pathway can be a molecular target for anti-metastatic therapy in OMSCC.

Structure and function of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor system

  • Park, Seong Ah;Jeong, Mi Suk;Ha, Ki-Tae;Jang, Se Bok
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.51 no.2
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    • pp.73-78
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    • 2018
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor (VEGF-VEGFR) system play a critical role in the regulation of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in vertebrates. Each of the VEGF has specific receptors, which it activates by binding to the extracellular domain of the receptors, and, thus, regulates the angiogenic balance in the early embryonic and adult stages. However, de-regulation of the VEGF-VEGFR implicates directly in various diseases, particularly cancer. Moreover, tumor growth needs a dedicated blood supply to provide oxygen and other essential nutrients. Tumor metastasis requires blood vessels to carry tumors to distant sites, where they can implant and begin the growth of secondary tumors. Thus, investigation of signaling systems related to the human disease, such as VEGF-VEGFR, will facilitate the development of treatments for such illnesses.

5-Aminoisoquinolinone Reduces the Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-C via the Nuclear Factor-kappa B Signaling Pathway in CT26 Cells

  • Wu, Wei-Qiang;Fauzee, Nilufer Jasmine Selimah;Wang, Ya-Lan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.991-994
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    • 2012
  • Objective: VEGF-C has recently been identified as a key molecule which is involved in tumor lymphangiogenesis. The aim of this research was to investigate the role of PARP-1 inhibition in the regulation of VEGF-C expression in CT26 cells. Methods: CT26 cells were treated with or without the PARP-1 inhibitor 5-aminoisoquinolinone (5-AIQ). The expression of PARP-1, NF-kB, and VEGF-C proteins in CT26 cells was measured by Western blot analysis and the VEGF-C mRNA level was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). CT26-secreted VEGF-C was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: The results of Western blot analysis showed that the expression levels of PARP-1, NF-kB, and VEGF-C were reduced in 5-AIQ treated CT26 cells and the levels of VEGF-C mRNA in 5-AIQ treated CT26 were significantly lower than t in 5-AIQ-untreated cells (P<0.05). The concentrations of CT26-secreted VEGF-C were also dramatically decreased (P<0.05). Conclusion: Here, we provide evidence for the first time that PARP-1 inhibition dramatically reduces VEGF-C expression via the nuclear factor NF-kB signaling pathway. We therefore propose that PARP-1 inhibition has an anti-lymphangiogenic effect and may contribute to the prevention of metastatic dissemination via the lymphatic system.