• Title, Summary, Keyword: tumor invasion

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Comparison of Myometrial Invasion and Tumor Free Distance from Uterine Serosa in Endometrial Cancer

  • Ozbilen, Ozlem;Sakarya, Derya Kilic;Bezircioglu, Incim;Kasap, Burcu;Yetimalar, Hakan;Yigit, Seyran
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.519-522
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    • 2015
  • Background: We aimed to investigate whether the tumor free distance (the distance between the uterine serosa and the tumor at its deepest point) is useful in surgical staging and in predicting prognosis. Materials and Methods: Data from patients who underwent complete surgical staging for endometrial cancer between January 2006 and June 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. All demographic findings, surgical stages, histological type and grade, myometrial invasion, lymphovascular space invasion as well as abdominal cytology, cervical, adnexal, and omental involvement, and lymph node metastasis were recorded. The relations between myometrial invasion and tumor free distance from uterine serosa with prognostic factors were investigated. Results: Seventy patients were included in the study. Sixty-four (91.5%) had endometrioid type cancers and forty-four (62.9%) were grade 1. The deepest myometrial invasion was less than 1/2 in 42 patients (60%). In 18 patients (25.8%) lymphovascular invasion was noted. Eight (11.4%) were found to have cervical involvement, five (7.1%) had adnexal involvement and in 4 cases (5.7%) the peritoneal washings included malignant cells. Four patients had pelvic and one para-aortic node metastasis. We recognized that an invasion of more than 1/2 was correlated significantly with lymphovascular space involvement, histological grade, positive abdominal washing cytology, nodal and cervical involvement, but not with adnexal involvement. Tumor-free myometrial thickness was negative and statistically significant correlated with surgical stage, histological grade, lymphovascular space involvement, positive abdominal washing cytology, cervical and adnexal involvement. The importance of tumor-free myometrial thickness in determinating the lymphovascular space invasion was found to be highest in terms of sensitivity and specificity when crossing the ROC curve at 11 millimeters. Conclusions: Depth of myometrial invasion is more valuable for predicting lymph node metastasis than tumor-free myometrial thickness. The tumor-free myometrial thickness provides a better prediction for adnexal involvement.

Risk of Lymph Node Metastases from Early Gastric Cancer in Relation to Depth of Invasion: Experience in a Single Institution

  • Wang, Zheng;Ma, Li;Zhang, Xing-Mao;Zhou, Zhi-Xiang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.13
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    • pp.5371-5375
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    • 2014
  • Background: An accurate assessment of potential lymph node metastasis is important for the appropriate treatment of early gastric cancers. Therefore, this study analyzed predictive factors associated with lymph node metastasis and identified differences between mucosal and submucosal gastric cancers. Materials and Methods: A total of 518 early gastric cancer patients who underwent radical gastrectomy were reviewed in this study. Clinicopathological features were analyzed to identify predictive factors for lymph node metastasis. Results: The rate of lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer was 15.3% overall, 3.3% for mucosal cancer, and 23.5% for submucosal cancer. Using univariate analysis, risk factors for lymph node metastasis were identified as tumor location, tumor size, depth of tumor invasion, histological type and lymphovascular invasion. Multivariate analysis revealed that tumor size >2 cm, submucosal invasion, undifferentiated tumors and lymphovascular invasion were independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis. When the carcinomas were confined to the mucosal layer, tumor size showed a significant correlation with lymph node metastasis. On the other hand, histological type and lymphovascular invasion were associated with lymph node metastasis in submucosal carcinomas. Conclusions: Tumor size >2 cm, submucosal tumor, undifferentiated tumor and lymphovascular invasion are predictive factors for lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer. Risk factors are quite different depending on depth of tumor invasion. Endoscopic treatment might be possible in highly selective cases.

The Relationship between the Size and the Invasion Depth of Tumors in Head and Neck Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  • Lee, Sam Yong;Hwang, Won Joo;Kim, Kyung Pil;Kim, Hong Min;Hwang, Jae Ha;Kim, Kwang Seog
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.538-543
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    • 2016
  • Background Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), which occurs in keratinocytes of the epidermis and is the second most common skin cancer, has a more invasive growth pattern and higher potential to metastasize than basal cell carcinoma. Total excision of the primary tumor is the treatment of choice. For clear excision of the tumor, invasion depth is one of the most important factors. This study was conducted to clarify the relationship between the size and the invasion depth of cutaneous SCC. Methods Twenty-six cases were collected for this prospective study. Frozen biopsies were examined after complete resection of the tumor, followed by histological confirmation by pathological examination. The major and minor axis lengths of the tumor, the invasion depth, and the level of invasion were measured. Recurrence or metastasis was recorded through regular follow-up. Results The Pearson correlation coefficient was used for statistical analysis. Significant results were observed for the relationship between the major and minor axis lengths and the invasion depth of the tumor (0.747, 0.773). No cases of recurrence or metastasis were observed. Conclusions In head and neck cutaneous SCC, the invasion depth of the tumor is closely related to the major and minor axis lengths of the tumor. Therefore, the invasion depth of the tumor can be estimated by measuring the size of the tumor, and a standard vertical safety margin for head and neck cutaneous SCC can be established, which could be helpful in the development of a preoperative reconstruction plan.

Clinicopathologic Features Predicting Involvement of Nonsentinel Axillary Lymph Nodes in Iranian Women with Breast Cancer

  • Moosavi, Seyed Alireza;Abdirad, Afshin;Omranipour, Ramesh;Hadji, Maryam;Razavi, Amirnader Emami;Najafi, Massoome
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.17
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    • pp.7049-7054
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    • 2014
  • Background: Almost half of the breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes have no additional disease in the remaining axillary lymph nodes. This group of patients do not benefit from complete axillary lymph node dissection. This study was designed to assess the clinicopathologic factors that predict non-sentinel lymph node metastasis in Iranian breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes. Materials and Methods: The records of patients who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy, between 2003 and 2012, were reviewed. Patients with at least one positive sentinel lymph node who underwent completion axillary lymph node dissection were enrolled in the present study. Demographic and clinicopathologic characteristics including age, primary tumor size, histological and nuclear grade, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, extracapsular invasion, and number of harvested lymph nodes, were evaluated. Results: The data of 167 patients were analyzed. A total of 92 (55.1%) had non-sentinel lymph node metastasis. Univariate analysis of data revealed that age, primary tumor size, histological grade, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, extracapsular invasion, and the number of positive sentinel lymph nodes to the total number of harvested sentinel lymph nodes ratio, were associated with non-sentinel lymph node metastasis. After logistic regression analysis, age (OR=0.13; 95% CI, 0.02-0.8), primary tumor size (OR=7.7; 95% CI, 1.4-42.2), lymphovascular invasion (OR=19.4; 95% CI, 1.4-268.6), extracapsular invasion (OR=13.3; 95% CI, 2.3-76), and the number of positive sentinel lymph nodes to the total number of harvested sentinel lymph nodes ratio (OR=20.2; 95% CI, 3.4-121.9), were significantly associated with non-sentinel lymph node metastasis. Conclusions: According to this study, age, primary tumor size, lymphovascular invasion, extracapsular invasion, and the ratio of positive sentinel lymph nodes to the total number of harvested sentinel lymph nodes, were found to be independent predictors of non-sentinel lymph node metastasis.

Ellagic Acid Inhibits Migration and Invasion by Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

  • Pitchakarn, Pornsiri;Chewonarin, Teera;Ogawa, Kumiko;Suzuki, Shugo;Asamoto, Makoto;Takahashi, Satoru;Shirai, Tomoyuki;Limtrakul, Pornngarm
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.2859-2863
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    • 2013
  • Polyphenolic compounds from pomegranate fruit extracts (PFEs) have been reported to possess antiproliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-invasion effects in prostate and other cancers. However, the mechanisms responsible for the inhibition of cancer invasion remain to be clarified. In the present study, we investigated anti-invasive effects of ellagic acid (EA) in androgen-independent human (PC-3) and rat (PLS10) prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. The results indicated that non-toxic concentrations of EA significantly inhibited the motility and invasion of cells examined in migration and invasion assays. The EA treatment slightly decreased secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 but not MMP-9 from both cell lines. We further found that EA significantly reduced proteolytic activity of collagenase/gelatinase secreted from the PLS-10 cell line. Collagenase IV activity was also concentration-dependently inhibited by EA. These results demonstrated that EA has an ability to inhibit invasive potential of prostate cancer cells through action on protease activity.

Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) leaf extract inhibits the growth of MDA-MB-231 tumors in nude mouse xenografts and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells

  • You, Mi-Kyoung;Kim, Min-Sook;Jeong, Kyu-Shik;Kim, Eun;Kim, Yong-Jae;Kim, Hyeon-A
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.139-147
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    • 2016
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECFTIVES: The present study was conducted to examine the inhibitory effect of loquat leaves on MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation and invasion. MATERIALS/METHODS: Female athymic nude mice were given a subcutaneous (s.c.) inoculation of MDA-MB-231 cells and randomly grouped to receive a s.c. injection of either 500 mg/kg ethanol, water extract or vehicle five times a week. Tumor growth, mitotic rate and necrosis were examined. MDA-MB-231 cells were cultured with DMSO or with various concentrations of loquat water or ethanol extract. Proliferation, adhesion, migration, invasion and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity were examined. RESULTS: Tumor growth of xenograft nude mouse was significantly reduced by loquat extracts. The results of mitotic examination revealed that loquat extracts reduced tumor cell division. Both ethanol and water extracts significantly inhibited MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation. The protein expression of ErbB3 was significantly down-regulated by loquat leaf extracts. Loquat leaf extracts increased apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells following 24 hour incubation and the ethanol extract was more potent in inducing apoptosis than the water extract. Furthermore, loquat extracts inhibited adhesion, migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. MMP activity was significantly inhibited by loquat extracts. CONCLUSION: Our results show that extracts of loquat inhibit the growth of tumor in MDA-MB-231 xenograft nude mice and the invasion of human breast cancer cells, indicating the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and invasion.

Accuracy of Preoperative Urinary Symptoms, Urinalysis, Computed Tomography and Cystoscopic Findings for the Diagnosis of Urinary Bladder Invasion in Patients with Colorectal Cancer

  • Woranisarakul, Varat;Ramart, Patkawat;Phinthusophon, Kittipong;Chotikawanich, Ekkarin;Prapasrivorakul, Siriluck;Lohsiriwat, Varut
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.17
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    • pp.7241-7244
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    • 2014
  • Background: To determine the accuracy of preoperative urinary symptoms, urinalysis, computed tomography (CT) and cystoscopic findings for the diagnosis of urinary bladder invasion in patients with colorectal cancer. Materials and Methods: Records of patients with colorectal cancer and a suspicion of bladder invasion, who underwent tumor resection with partial or total cystectomy between 2002 and 2013 at the Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, were reviewed. Correlations between preoperative urinary symptoms, urinalysis, cystoscopic finding, CT imaging and final pathological reports were analyzed. Results: This study included 90 eligible cases (71% male). The most common site of primary colorectal cancer was the sigmoid colon (44%), followed by the rectum (33%). Final pathological reports showed definite bladder invasion in 53 cases (59%). Significant features for predicting definite tumor invasion were gross hematuria (OR 13.6, sensitivity 39%, specificity 73%), and visible tumor during cystoscopy (OR 5.33, sensitivity 50%, specificity 84%). Predictive signs in CT imaging were gross tumor invasion (OR 7.07, sensitivity 89%, specificity 46%), abnormal enhancing mass at bladder wall (OR 4.09, sensitivity 68%, specificity 66%), irregular bladder mucosa (OR 3.53, sensitivity 70%, specificity 60% ), and loss of perivesical fat plane (OR 3.17, sensitivity 81%, specificity 43%). However, urinary analysis and other urinary tract symptoms were poor predictors of bladder involvement. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that the most relevant preoperative predictors of definite bladder invasion in patients with colorectal cancer are gross hematuria, a visible tumor during cystoscopy, and abnormal CT findings.

Role of Transforming Growth Factor-β in Tumor Invasion and Metastasis

  • Kim, Eun-Sook;Moon, Aree
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.197-205
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    • 2007
  • Cancer metastasis is a major determinant of cancer patient mortality. Mounting evidence favors a strong positive role for $TGF-{\beta}$ in human cancer progression. The complex pattern on cross-talk of $TGF-{\beta}$ and the related other signaling pathways is an important area of investigation that will ultimately contribute to understanding of the bifunctional role of $TGF-{\beta}$ in cancer progression. This review summarizes some of the current understanding of $TGF-{\beta}$ signaling with a major focus in its contribution to the tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Five issues are addressed in this review: (1) $TGF-{\beta}$ signaling, (2) $TGF-{\beta}$ and EMT, (3) $TGF-{\beta}$ and MMP, (4) $TGF-{\beta}$ and Ras, and (5) Role of $TGF-{\beta}$ in invasion and metastasis. Due to the bifunctional cellular effects of $TGF-{\beta}$, as a tumor promoter and a tumor suppressor, more precisely defined $TGF-{\beta}$ signaling pathways need to be elucidated. According to the current literature, $TGF-{\beta}$ is clearly a major factor stimulating tumor progression through a complex spectrum of the interplay and cross-talk between various signaling molecules. Understanding the role of $TGF-{\beta}$ in invasion and metastasis will provide valuable information on establishing strategies to manipulate $TGF-{\beta}$ signaling which should be a high priority for the development of anti-metastatic therapeutics.

Clinical study on mandibular invasion by oral cancer (구강암의 하악골 침윤에 관한 임상적 연구)

  • Kim, B.Y.;Kim, H.J.;Cha, I.H.;Lee, E.W.
    • Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.508-514
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    • 1994
  • For the complete cure of oral cancer suspected to have invaded the mandible in clinical & radiological evaluation, the mandible resection in planned. The aim of this clinical study was to help in decision making in the method & the extent of the mandibular resection surgery. This study was conducted on 46 oral cancer patients, who received cancer surgery including mandibulectomy. And we evaluated the relationship between the pathologic results of resected mandible and the location, size and clinical newk node involvement, tumor cell differentiation. The results are that ; (1) Hiher incidence of bone invasion patterns were observed in tumor of mouth floor & gingiva compared to those of tongue & tonsil, and (2) No significant relationship was found between bone invasion of tumor and tumor size, neck node involvement tumor cell differentiation. The approximation between tumor and bone seems to be the most reliable factor among the other factors in decision making of mandibular resection.

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An Immunohistochemical Study of Tumor Angiogenesity in Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma (여포상 갑상선암종의 종양맥관형성도)

  • Chung Woong-Youn;Lee Mi-Kyung;Chang Hang-Suk;Park Cheong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.191-198
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    • 1998
  • Objectives: We performed an immunohistochemical study to examine the place of neovascularization in the tumorigenic process of follicular thyroid carcinoma and to determine whether tumor angiogenic activity in follicular carcinoma plays a role in tumor aggression. Materials & Methods: We studied 63 follicular thyroid carcinomas and compared with 22 follicular adenomas. The areas of capsular invasion, vascular invasion and cellular atypism of the tumor were confimed on H & E stains. The paraffin embedded tissues were stained by the use of monoclonal antibodies against Ag CD34. Microvesseles were counted in the area of highest vascular density at 200 times magnification. The microvessel densities(MVD) were analized in relation to histologic type and location of the tumors. Results: There were 59 minimal invasive types and 4 widely invasive types of carcinoma. In the histologic specimens of carcinomas, capsular invasion was identified in all the cases, vascular invasion in 46 and cellular atypism in 24. Mean values of the MVDs of the minimal invasive carcinomas, the widely invasive carcinomas and the adenomas were $263.8{\pm}69.2,\;256.l{\pm}49.3\;and\;241.5{\pm}159.4$, respectively and there was no significant difference between each group. In follicular carcinomas, there was a regional difference of the MVDs. The areas of tumor showing cellular atypism and adjacent to or penetrating the capsule, in which represents the tumorigenic process of carcinoma, had a higher rate of vascularization, than other areas of the tumor(p<0.05). However, these features were not noted in the follicular adenomas. Conclusion: Although there was no significant difference of the MVD between follicular carcinomas and adenomas, there was a regional difference of the MVD within the carcinomas and the values were significantly higher in the more malignant areas, as indicated by cellular atypism and capsular invasion. Therefore, tumor angiogenic activity measured by MVD may play a role in tumor aggression in follicular thyroid carcinoma.

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