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Concept and limitation of breast cancer stem cells (유방암 줄기세포 개념 및 제한점)

  • Kim, Jong Bin;An, Jeong Shin;Lim, Woosung;Moon, Byung-In
    • The Journal of Medicine and Life Science
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.46-50
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    • 2018
  • Cancer, a leading mortality disease following cardiovascular disease worldwide, has high incidence as one out of every four adults in Korea. It was known to be caused by several reasons including somatic mutation, activation of oncogene and chromosome aneuploidy. Cancer cells show a faster growth rate and have metastatic and heterogeneous cell populations compared to normal cells. Cancer stem cells, the most invested field in cancer biology, is a theory to explain heterogeneous cell populations of cancer cells among several characteristics of cancer cells, which is providing the theoretical background for incidence of cancer and treatment failure by drug resistance. Cancer stem cells initially explain heterogeneous cell populations of cancer cells based on the same markers of normal stem cells in cancer, in which only cancer stem cells showed heterogeneity of cancer cells and tumor initiating ability of leukemia. Based on these results, cancer stem cells were reported in various solid cancers such as breast cancer, liver cancer, and lung cancer. Breast cancer stem cells were first reported in solid cancer which had tumor initiating ability and further identified as anti-cancer drug resistance. There were several identification methods in breast cancer stem cells such as specific surface markers and culture methods. The discovery of cancer stem cells not only explains heterogeneity of cancer cells, but it also provides theoretical background for targeting cancer stem cells to complete elimination of cancer cells. Many institutes have been developing new anticancer drugs targeting cancer stem cells, but there have not been noticeable results yet. Many researchers also reported a necessity for improvement of current concepts and methods of research on cancer stem cells. Herein, we discuss the limitations and the perspectives of breast cancer stem cells based on the current concept and history.

Effect of Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Isomers on Tumor Incidence and the Protein Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 and Protein Kinase C in Colonae Mucosa of DMH-Treated Rats (식이의 Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Isomer가 DMH로 처리한 쥐에서 대장점막의 종양발생과 Cyclooxygenase-2 및 Protein Linase C 단백질 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Park Hyun-Suh;Chun Chang-Soo;Yoon Jung Han
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.37 no.9
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    • pp.763-770
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    • 2004
  • This study was designed to compare the anti-carcinogenic effect of conjugated linoleic acid isomers on tumor incidence, cell proliferation and the levels of thromboxane (TX) B$_2$, prostaglandin (PG) E$_2$ and 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG), and the related enzyme expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and protein kinase C (PKC) in colonic mucosa of 1,2-dimethy- lhydrazine (DMH) -treated rats. One hundred eight male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups depending on the types of CLA isomers, i.e. control group (no CLA contained), c9t11 group (cis-9, trans-11 CLA contained), and t10c12 group (trans-10, cis-12 CLA contained). The experimental diet was composed of protein at 20%, carbohydrate at 56.2%, and fat at 14.5% including 1.0% CLA isomers by weight. The experimental diet was fed for 30 weeks with the initiation of intramuscular injection of DMH, which was injected twice a week for 6 weeks to give total dose of 180 mg per kg body weight. Two CLA isomers (c9, t11, t10, c12) significantly reduced tumor incidence and cell proliferation by reducing the protein expression of COX-2 and PKC, and the level of TXB$_2$, PGE$_2$, and DAG in colonic mucosa. However, there was no significant difference in anti-carcinogenic effect between c9t11-CLA and t10c12-CLA.

Chemoprevention of chemical-induced skin cancer by Panax ginseng root extract

  • Sharma, Jyoti;Goyal, Pradeep K.
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.265-273
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    • 2015
  • Background: Cancer has emerged as a major health problem globally as a consequence to the increased longevity of the population, changing the environment and life style. Chemoprevention is a new and promising strategy for reducing cancer burden. Recently, some natural products have been identified for their chemopreventive activity to reduce the cancer incidence. Ginseng is known for its potential to treat various ailments in human beings. The present study was designed to explore the anticancer and antioxidative potential of Panax ginseng against chemical-induced skin carcinogenesis in mammals. Methods: Skin tumors were induced in Swiss albino mice by a single topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene ($100{\mu}g/100{\mu}L$ acetone) and, 2 wks later, promoted by repeated applications of croton oil (thrice in a wk in 1% acetone) till the end of the experiment (i.e., 16 wk). Hydroalcoholic ginseng root extract at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight/d was orally administered at the periinitiation, postinitiation, and peri-post-initiation stages. Results: Ginseng root extract treatment caused a significant reduction in tumor incidence, cumulative number of tumors, tumor yield, and tumor burden, as compared to the 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-croton oil-treated control group. Further, biochemical assays revealed a significant enhancement in the levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, vitamin C, and total proteins but a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation levels in both the liver and skin with ginseng root extract treatment, as compared to carcinogen-treated control group. Conclusion: These results suggest that P. ginseng has the potential to become a pivotal chemopreventive agent that can reduce cancer in mammals.

DIFFERENT EFFECTS OF QUERCETIN ON MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES EXPRESSION IN EARLY AND LATE PASSAGE HUMAN FIBROBLASTS

  • Eum, Sung-Yong;Oh, Jang-Hee;Park, Jong-Min;Chung, An-Sik
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Toxicology Conference
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    • pp.158-158
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    • 2001
  • Bioflavonoids have been regarded as therapeutic agents for a wide range of disease including cancer. The increase of matrix metalloproteinases expression is a key event in several pathological conditions, e.g., dermal photocarcinogenesis, tumor initiation, invasion and metastasis. In this study, we investigated effects of quercetin, a major bioflavonoid in human diet, on matrix metalloproteinase (MMR)-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9 mRNA expression during cellular aging in cultured human foreskin fibroblast. (omitted)

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Chemopreventive Effects of Ginseng on Rat Carcinogenesis

  • Wanibuchi Hideki;Ichihara Toshio;Morimura Keiichirou;Fukushima Shoji
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
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    • pp.277-287
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    • 2002
  • The chemopreventive effects of ginseng on rat carcinogenesis models were investigated, In the present study, the inhibitory effects of white and red ginseng on tumor development were examined using medium-term liver, initiation and medium-term multi-organ carcinogenicity bioassay systems. No modifying potential of the ginsengs was evident in terms of the numbers or areas of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST -P)-positive foci, which is a marker of preneoplastic lesion in rat livers. However, white ginseng, but not red ginseng was found to decrease the incidences of adenocarcinoma of the small intestine and colon in the medium-term multi-organ carcinogenesis model. These results indicate that white ginseng may have inhibitory effects on progression stage of rat intestinal carcinogenesis, but the influence is not strong. Ginseng is unlikely to have promoting or inhibitory effects in other organs under the present type of experimental conditions. Possible application on ginseng for chemoprevention of colon cancer in humans, can be concluded given the lack of obvious adverse effects.

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Resveratrol, an Antioxidant in Red Wine, Inhibits Metabolic Formation of Catechol Estrogens and Their Induction of Oxidative Dna Damage and Cell Death

  • Chen, Zhi-Hua;Hurh, Yeon-Jin;Na, Hye-Kyung;Kim, Do-Hee;Chun, Young-Jin;Kim, Dong-Hyun;Surh, Young-Joon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Toxicology Conference
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    • pp.182-182
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    • 2003
  • cResveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), a naturally occurring phytoalexin present in grapes and other foods, has been well documented for chemopreventive effects in different systems based on its striking inhibition of diverse cellular events associated with tumor initiation, promotion and progression.(omitted)

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Dietary Fats and Cancer (식이 지방과 암)

  • Choe, Myeon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.513-518
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    • 1991
  • Evidence from recent studies in several laboratories indicates a relationship between type or level of fat in the diet and occurance of tumor at specific sites. The essential fatty acids in fat and degree of their unsaturation are important to determine the influence of a dietary fats on carcinogenesis. Alteration of dietary fat can also change carcinogenesis of cell in several tissues. Dietary fats appear to be important in both initiation and promotion stages of carcinogenesis. Several possible mechanisms have been investigated how dietary fat could affect to carcinogenesis at cellular level. One potential mechanism of dietary fat on carcinogenesis is through modulation of protein kinase C activity in the cell.

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Effects of Hwangryun-Hae-Dok-tang on TNF-${alpha}$ and IL-4 Stimulated TARC, eotaxin, RANTES in the Human Bronchial Epithelial A549 Cells

  • Choi, Jong-Min;Kim, Hee-Taek
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.1649-1653
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    • 2006
  • Allergic diseases are the result of Th2-dominated responses to single or multiple environmental allergens. Th2 cytokines regulate these mechanisms of allergic disease at many levels, including initiation, progression, and persistence. The effect of hwangryun-Hae-Dok-Tang (HRHDT) on tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ (TNF-${\alpha}$) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) stimulated inflammation was investigated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), eotaxin, regulated on activation normal T cells expressed and secreted (RANTES) immunoassay on the human bronchial epithelial microglial cells. From the present study, the crude extract of Hwangryun-Hae-Dok-tang suppressed the TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-4 stimulated TARC, eotaxin, and RANTES production in the human bronchial epithelial A549 cells. Based on the present results, Hwangryun-Hae-Dok-tang may be useful in the treatment asthmatic allergy by inhibiting TARC, eotaxin, and RANTES chemokines.

Improvement of Pneumonia in a Patient with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated with Herbal Medicine after Cessation of Antibiotics - a Case Report

  • Song, Si Yeon;Jeon, Hyeonjin;Lee, Sookyung
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.78-84
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    • 2017
  • A 73-year-old non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patient admitted due to cough, sputum, and dyspnea, aggravated a week ago. She was diagnosed as pneumonia based on the assessment of inflammation markers, chest X-ray and sputum culture. Computed tomography (CT) scan was conducted to exclude malignant tumor metastasis. At the initiation of treatment, considering underlying disease and inflammation marker level, herbal medicine and antibiotics were concurrently used and antibiotics had been discontinued after 10days. Using the monotherapy of herbal medicine in the next 6 days, chest X-ray showed remarkably decreased infiltration in right middle lung and right lower lung. This case represented additional improvement of chest X-ray when treated only with herb medicine after termination of antibiotic therapy and demonstrated the possibility of applying herbal medicine in patients with limited use of antibiotics.

Result of Radiation Therapy for the Lung Cancer (폐암의 방사선치료 결과)

  • Kim Joo-Young;Choi Myung-Sun;Suh Won-Hyck
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.213-225
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    • 1989
  • An analysis has been made of two hundred seven patients who were treated at the department of Radiation Oncology of Korea University Hospital for lung cancer from January 1981 through December 1986. There were 137 patients of nonsmall cell carcinoma (137/207, 66%), 26 patients of small cell carcinoma (26/207, 12.5%) and 44 patients of unproven histology. By aims of treatment, there were 104 patients (104/207, 50%) treated for cure, 89 patients (89/207, 42.9%) for palliation and 14 patients treated postoperatively. In 22 out of 207 patients, chemotherapy was done with radiotherapy, 12 of which were patients with small cell carcinoma. Stage II patients were 49 (49/207, 23.6%), stage III patients were 157 (157/207, 75.8%) and one patient had an occult cancer The tumor was initial Iy measured by CAT scan and chest X-rays in the 165 (165/207, 79.7%) patients, among which 117 patients had tumor diameter more than 5cm and 48 patients less than 5cm. Radiation therapy was given with Cobalt 60 teletherapy unit and the treatment volume encompassed primary tumor and the mediastinum. For curative aim, daily tumor dose of 180 cGy was given up to the range of 5,400~6,120cGy/30~34F/6~7 week period and for palliative aim, daily tumor dose of 300 cGy was given up to the range of 3,600~4,500 cGy/12~15F/2~3 week period. Postoperatively, mediastinum was treated for total dose of 5,040 cGy/28F/5.5 week period. 123 patients (123/207, 59%) were followed up after completion of radiotherapy for 14 months to 7 years. Local tumor response to the irradiation was measured by chest X-ray taken at one month follow up and was evaluated for response rate, if they were regressed more than 50% or less than 50% of the initial tumor size. The treatment results were as follows; 1. The median survival time was 8.5 months and survival rates for 1 year, 2 year and 5 year was 25%, 3.5% and 1% of nonsmall cell lung ca of 74 evaluable patients. 2. More than 50% of local tumor response rate was obtained in about half of overall cases; 90.5% for small cell ca, 50% for squamous cell ca, 25% for adenoca and 57% for large cell ca. 3. Response rate more than 50% was seen in the 50% of the patient group with tumor diameter more than 5cm and in the 55% of those with tumor diameter less than 5cm. 4. By total raidation dose given, patient group which was given 5,400~6,120 cGy equivalent dose or higher showed tumor response rate more than 50% in 53% of the patients, whereas the group with dose less than 5,400cGy equivalent, in 25% of the patients. 5. Survival rate for 6 month, 1 year and 2 year was compared between the group of local tumor response rate more than 50% vs. group with response rate less than 50%; 74% vs. 43%, 33% vs, 23%, 10% vs. 1%, respectively. 6. Local failure was seen in 21%(44/207) of the patients, which occured mostly within 15 months after completion of radiation therapy. Distant metastases were seen in 49.7%(103/207) of the patients, of which 43 cases were found before initiation of radiotherapy. The most common metastatic sites were bone and brain. In this sutdy, 1 year,2 year and S year survival rates were somewhat poor compared to the other studies. It mainly seems to be due to the poor general status of the patients and the far-advanced stage of the disease. In nonsmall cell cancer patients who had limited local disease and had small primary tumor size, we observed better local response. In addition, dose higher than 6,000 cGy group showed better tumor control than lower dose group. Survival rate was better for the local control group. For imporvement of local control of the lung cancer and hence, the survival of the patients with lung cancer, proper radical radiotherapy with high dose for localized disease is needed. New modality of treatment such as high LET beam in radiation therapy or drugs for the advanced disease as well as early diagnosis is also needed.

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