• Title, Summary, Keyword: tumor initiation

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Monitoring microRNAs Using a Molecular Beacon in CD133+/CD338+ Human Lung Adenocarcinoma-initiating A549 Cells

  • Yao, Quan;Sun, Jian-Guo;Ma, Hu;Zhang, An-Mei;Lin, Sheng;Zhu, Cong-Hui;Zhang, Tao;Chen, Zheng-Tang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.161-166
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    • 2014
  • Lung cancer is the most common causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and a lack of effective methods for early diagnosis has greatly impacted the prognosis and survival rates of the affected patients. Tumor-initiating cells (TICs) are considered to be largely responsible for tumor genesis, resistance to tumor therapy, metastasis, and recurrence. In addition to representing a good potential treatment target, TICs can provide clues for the early diagnosis of cancer. MicroRNA (miRNA) alterations are known to be involved in the initiation and progression of human cancer, and the detection of related miRNAs in TICs is an important strategy for lung cancer early diagnosis. As Hsa-miR-155 (miR-155) can be used as a diagnostic marker for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), a smart molecular beacon of miR-155 was designed to image the expression of miR-155 in NSCLC cases. TICs expressing CD133 and CD338 were obtained from A549 cells by applying an immune magnetic bead isolation system, and miR-155 was detected using laser-scanning confocal microscopy. We found that intracellular miR-155 could be successfully detected using smart miR-155 molecular beacons. Expression was higher in TICs than in A549 cells, indicating that miR-155 may play an important role in regulating bio-behavior of TICs. As a non-invasive approach, molecular beacons could be implemented with molecular imaging to diagnose lung cancer at early stages.

Pre-initiation treatment of indole-3-carbinol(I3C) inhibits 7,12-Dimethylbenz[α] anthracene(DMBA)-induced rat mammary carcinogenesis (Indole-3-carbinol(I3C) 투여에 의한 7,12-Dimethylbenz[α] anthracene(DMBA) 유발 랫드 유선발암 억제)

  • Kang, Jin Seok;Ahn, Byeongwoo;Nam, Ki Taek;Choi, Mina;Kim, Ji Young;Kim, Dae Joong;Jang, Dong Deuk;Yang, Ki-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.549-555
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    • 2001
  • Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), one component of cruciferous vegetables (the Fammily of Cruciferae), has been shown to exert its chemopreventive effect in liver, colon and mammary tissue before or concurrent exposure of carcinogen, but there have been several evidences that consumption of I3C induced tumor promotion in some tissues. Our studies were investigated to examine the modifying effects of I3C in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[$\alpha$]anthracene (DMBA) induced rat mammary gland tumor model. Fifty-two female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups. Animals of the group 1 were given the diet containing 100ppm I3C and animals of the groups 2 and 4 were given the diet containing 300ppm I3C from 6 weeks of age. At 7 weeks of age, the animals of the groups 1, 2 and 3 were intubated with DMBA. All amimals were killed at 20 weeks after carcinogen treatment. There were significant increases of food consumption in I3C feeding groups compared with those of basal diet feeding groups. The incidences of the mammary tumors in the group 1, 2 and 3 were 75.0% (9/12), 56.3% (9/16) and 93.8% (15/16), respectively and the average number of tumors of group 1 (DMBA+I3C 100ppm: $2.08{\pm}0.61$) and 2 (DMBA+I3C 300ppm: $1.19{\pm}0.32$) were significantly lower than that of group 3 (DMBA alone: $4.63{\pm}0.72$) at the value of P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively. In the pathological examination of appearing tumors, most of them were adenocarcinoma. Many epithelial cells of tumors showed strong estrogen receptor (ER) $\alpha$ expression but there were slight difference of ER $\alpha$ expression among the type of tumors. We suggest that pre-initiation treatment of I3C has an inhibitory effects on mammary carcinogenesis induced by DMBA.

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Thallium-201 SPECT Imaging of Brain Tumors (Thallium-201 SPECT 뇌종양 영상)

  • Kim, Sang-Eun;Choi, Chang-Woon;Lee, Dong-Soo;Chung, June-Key;Lee, Myung-Chul;Koh, Chang-Soon;Yoon, Byung-Woo;Roh, Jae-Kyu;Jung, Hee-Won
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.14-25
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    • 1992
  • Thallium-201 $(^{201}T1)$ SPECT studies were performed on a normal volunteer and 12 patients with intracerebral lesions: 3 patients with gliomas, 3 patients with meningiomas, 1 patient each with metastatic tumor, brain abscess, and cerebral infarction, and 3 postirradiation patients. (2 with metastatic tumors, 1 with lymphoma). A $^{201}T1$ index, based on the ratio of $^{201}T1$ uptake in the brain lesion versus the homologous contralateral brain, was calculated and compared with tumor histology and CT/MRI findings. The SPECT $^{201}T1$ scan showed minimal uptake of tracer in a normal brain. There was substantial uptake of $^{201}T1$ in high-grade gliomas (index>1.5) with little uptake in low-grade lesions. A previously irradiated patient with recurrent astrocytoma, in whom MRI study was unable to distinguish tumor recurrence from necrosis, showed the lesions with high $^{201}T1$ indices in both hemispheric regions (2.50/1.93), suggesting tumor recurrence. Two meningiomas and a metastatic tumor showed varying degrees of $^{201}T1$ uptake (index $1.71\sim8.15$), revealing that $^{201}T1$ uptake is not exclusive to high-grade gliomas. In 2 postirradiation patients with metastatic tumors, no abnormal $^{201}T1$ uptake was found in the cerebral lesions, shortly after the initiation of radiation therapy or despite the persistence of enhancing lesions-though improved-on MR images, suggesting that $^{201}T1$ uptake may reflect the metabolic and possibly clonogenic activities of tumors and the brain $^{201}T1$ SPECT imaging might be valuable for the evaluation of tumor responsiveness to the therapy and for early detection of tumor recurrence. A patient with brain abscess on antibiotic treatment, showig increased uptake of $^{201}T1$ in the resolving lesions (index 2.87/1.52) is discussed. In a patient with cerebral infarction, there was no abnormal uptake of $^{201}T1$ in infarcted tissue. When using a threshold index of 1.5, correlation rate between $^{201}T1$ uptake and contrast enhancement of the cerebral lesions on CT/MRI was 73% (8/11). In conclusion, the brain $^{201}T1$ SPECT imaging may be useful for assessment of tumor response to the therapy and to predict low-or high-grade lesions.

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PRE-INITIATION TREATMENT OF INDOLE-3-CARBINOL (I3C) INHIBITS 7,12-DIMETHYLBENZ[a]ANTHRACENE(DMBA)-INDUCED RAT MAMMARY CARCINOGENESIS

  • kang, Jin-Seok;Ahn, Byeong-Woo;Lee, Kook-Kyung;Nam, Ki-Taek;Che, Jeong-Hwan;Choi, Mina;Kim, Ji-Young;Kim, Dae-Joong;Jang, Dong-Deuk;Yang, Ki-Hwa
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Toxicology Conference
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    • pp.85-86
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    • 2001
  • Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), one component of cruciferous vegetables (the Family of Cruciferae), has been shown to exert chemopreventive effects in liver, colon and mammary tissue, but there has been substantial evidence that consumption of I3C induces tumor promotion in some tissues. Our studies were investigated to examine the modifying effects of I3C in the 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced rat mammary tumor model.(omitted)

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Autophagy in Cervical Cancer: An Emerging Therapeutic Target

  • Pandey, Saumya;Chandravati, Chandravati
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.4867-4871
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    • 2012
  • Cervical cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women worldwide. Although the human papillomavirus (HPV) is considered the major causative agent of cervical cancer, yet the viral infection alone is not sufficient for cancer progression. The etiopathogenesis of cervical cancer is indeed complex; a precise understanding of the complex cellular/molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation, progression and/or prevention of the uterine cervix is therefore essential. Autophagy is emerging as an important biological mechanism in targeting human cancers, including cervical cancer. Furthermore, autophagy, a process of cytoplasm and cellular organelle degradation in lysosomes, has been implicated in homeostasis. Autophagic flux may vary depending on the cell/tissue type, thereby altering cell fate under stress conditions leading to cell survival and/or cell death. Autophagy may in turn govern tumor metastasis and subsequent carcinogenesis. Inflammation is a known hallmark of cancer. Vascular insufficiency in tumors, including cervical tissue, leads to depletion of glucose and/or oxygen perturbing the osmotic mileu causing extracellular acidosis in the tumor microenvironment that may eventually result in autophagy. Thus, targeted manipulation of complex autophagic signaling may prove to be an innovative strategy in identification of clinically relevant biomarkers in cervical cancer in the near future.

Methylation Status and Immunohistochemistry of BRCA1 in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

  • Pradjatmo, Heru;Dasuki, Djaswadi;Anwar, Mohammad;Mubarika, Sofia;Harijadi, Harijadi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.21
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    • pp.9479-9485
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    • 2014
  • Background: Cancer initiation and progression are controlled by genetic and epigenetic events. One epigenetic process which is widely known is DNA methylation, a cause of gene silencing. If a gene is silenced the protein which it encodes will not expressed. Objectives: 1. Identify the methylation status of BRCA1 in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC)and assess BRCA1 protein expression in tumor tissue. 2. Examine whether BRCA1 gene methylation and BRCA1 protein are associated with survival of epithelial ovarian cancer patients. Methods: The study design was a prospective-cohort study, conducted at Sardjito hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Results: A total of 69 cases were analyzed in this study. The data showed that the methylation status of BRCA1 in EOC was positive in 89.9%, with clear protein expression of BRCA1 in 31.9%. Methylation status and expression of BRCA1 were not prognosticators of EOC patients. Menarche, CA125 level, clinical stage and residual tumor were independent factors for prognosis.

Adverse effects of farnesyltransferase inhibitors on insulin actions

  • Yi, Sun-Ju;Jhun, Byung Hak;Kim, Kyunghwan
    • Journal of Biomedical and Translational Research
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.113-117
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    • 2017
  • Ras activates a series of downstream effectors, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and the Rac/Rho pathway after insulin stimulation. Mutations in Ras are found in approximately 30% of all human cancers and are critical factors in tumor initiation and maintenance. There are four Ras proteins with 80-90% amino acid sequence homology with major differences in the carboxyl termini. Ras proteins undergo farnesylation on their carboxyl termini catalyzed by the enzyme protein farnesyltransferase (FTase), which facilitates localization of Ras proteins to the inner surface of the plasma membrane. Because inhibition of FTase would prevent Ras from processing into its active form, FTase is viewed as a potential therapeutic target. A variety of FTase inhibitors have showed great potency against tumor cells in preclinical studies. Although many farnesyltransferase inhibitors have been developed, their adverse effects on the mitogenic and metabolic actions of insulin are not completely understood. Here we show that YH3096, a farnesyltransferase inhibitor, inhibits insulin-mediated DNA synthesis in HIRc-B cells without affecting c-Jun expression and membrane ruffling in HIRc-B cells. Moreover, YH3096 and its derivatives did not affect insulin-induced glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our results provide a laboratory evaluation of the effects of Ras inhibitors on insulin functions.

Regulation of Tumor Neceosis Factor-${\alpha}$ Receptors and Signal Transduction Pathways

  • Han, Hyung-Mee
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.343-357
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    • 1992
  • Tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$(TNF), a polypeptide hormone secreted primarily by activated macrophages, was originally identified on the basis of its ability to cause hemorrhagic necrosis and tumor regression in vivo. Subsequently, TNF has been shown to be an important component of the host responses to infection and cancer and may mediate the wasting syndrome known as cachexia. These systemic actions of TNF are reflected in its diverse effects on target cells in vitro. TNF initiates its diverse cellular actions by binding to specific cell surface receptors. Although TNF receptors have been identified on most of animal cells, regulation of these receptors and the mechanisms which transduce TNF receptor binding into cellular responses are not well understood. Therefore, in the present study, the mechanisms how TNF receptors are being regulated and how TNF receptor binding is being transduced into cellular responses were investigated in rat liver plasma membranes (PM) and ME-180 human cervical carcinoma cell lines. $^{125}I$-TNF bound to high ($K_d=1.51{\pm}0.35nM$)affinity receptors in rat liver PM. Solubilization of PM with 1% Triton X-100 increased both high affinity (from $0.33{\pm}0.04\;to\;1.67{\pm}0.05$ pmoles/mg protein) and low affinity (from $1.92{\pm}0.16\;to\;7.57{\pm}0.50$ pmoles/mg protein) TNF binding without affecting the affinities for TNF, suggesting the presence of a large latent pool of TNF receptors. Affinity labeling of receptors whether from PM or solubilized PM resulted in cross-linking of $^{125}I$-TNF into $M_r$ 130 kDa, 90 kDa and 66kDa complexes. Thus, the properties of the latent TNF receptors were similar to those initially accessible to TNF. To determine if exposure of latent receptors is regulated by TNF, $^{125}I$-TNF binding to control and TNF-pretreated membranes were assayed. Specific binding was increased by pretreatment with TNF (P<0.05), demonstrating that hepatic PM contains latent TNF receptors whose exposure is promoted by TNF. Homologous up-regulation of TNF receptors may, in part, be responsible for sustained hepatic responsiveness during chronic exposure to TNF. As a next step, the post-receptor events induced by TNF were examined. Although the signal transduction pathways for TNF have not been delineated clearly, the actions of many other hormones are mediated by the reversible phosphorylation of specific enzymes or target proteins. The present study demonstrated that TNF induces phosphorylation of 28 kDa protein (p28). Two dimensional soidum dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(SDS-PAGE) resolved the 28kDa phosphoprotein into two isoforms having pIs of 6.2 and 6.1. The pIs and relative molecular weight of p28 were consistent with those of a previously characterized mRNA cap binding protein. mRNA cap binding proteins are a class of translation initiation factors that recognize the 7-methylguanosine cap structure found on the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs. In vitro, these proteins are defined by their specific elution from affinity columns composed of 7-methylguanosine 5'-triphosphate($m^7$GTP)-Sepharose. Affinity purification of mRNA cap binding proteins from control and TNF treated ME-180 cells proved that TNF rapidly stimulates phosphorylation of an mRNA cap binding protein. Phosphorylation occurred in several cell types that are important in vitro models of TNF action. The mRNA cap binding protein phosphorylated in response to TNF treatment was purifice, sequenced, and identified as the proto-oncogene product eukaryotic initiation factor-4E(eIF-4E). These data show that phosphorylation of a key component of the cellular translational machinery is a common early event in the diverse cellular actions of TNF.

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Differential Anti-Carcinogenic Effect of Mountain Cultivated Ginseng and Ginseng on Mouse Skin Carcinogenesis (마우스 피부암에 대한 장뇌삼과 인삼의 특이적 항암 효능)

  • Lee, Min-Hee;Choi, Sang-Won;Kim, Eun-Jung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.462-470
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    • 2012
  • Mountain cultivated ginseng (MCG) is a type of Panax ginseng C. A. Mayer, grown in the mountains by artificial seeding. In general, it has been known that the biophysical activities of MCG is greater than that of ginseng. However, the in vivo efficacy of MCG on cancer has not been studied. In this study, we investigated the anti-carcinogenic effect of MCG and ginseng using the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol- 13-acetate (TPA) two stage mouse skin carcinogenesis model. Six weeks of female ICR mice were divided into control, MCG, and ginseng diet groups and were subjected into two different experimental protocols. In the first study, each experimental diet was fed with TPA promotion for 24 weeks. The result showed that supplementation of MCG reduced tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and tumor size compared to those of the control and ginseng groups. In the second study, 3 groups of mice were supplied with each diet 4 weeks before DMBA tumor initiation, until the end of experiment. The result showed that tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and tumor size were reduced in the ginseng diet group compared to those of the control and MCG groups. TPA-induced BrdU incorporation was also significantly reduced in the ginseng diet group. Taken together, these results suggest that MCG is chemotherapeutic, whereas ginseng has a chemopreventative effect on mouse skin cancer.

Quantitative Approaches to Assess Key Carcinogenic Events of Genotoxic Carcinogens

  • Fukushima, Shoji;Gi, Min;Fujioka, Masaki;Kakehashi, Anna;Wanibuchi, Hideki;Matsumoto, Michiharu
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.291-296
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    • 2018
  • Chemical carcinogenesis is a multistep process. Genotoxic carcinogens, which are DNA-reactive, induce DNA adduct formation and genetic alterations in target cells, thereby generating mutated cells (initiation). Subsequently, preneoplastic lesions appear through clonal proliferation of the mutated cells and transform into tumors (promotion and progression). Many factors may influence these processes in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, quantitative analysis plays an important role in studies on the carcinogenic threshold of genotoxic carcinogens. Herein, we present data on the relationship between key carcinogenic events and their deriving point of departure (PoD). Their PoDs were also compared to those of the carcinogenesis pathway. In an experiment, the liver of rats exposed to 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo-(4,5-f)quinoxaline (MeIQx) was examined to determine the formation of MeIQx-DNA adducts, generation of mutations at LacI transgene, and induction of preneoplastic glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive foci and tumors (benign and malignant). The PoDs of the above key events in the carcinogenicity of MeIQx were increased as the carcinogenesis advanced; however, these PoDs were lower than those of tumor induction. Thus, the order of key events during tumor induction in the liver was as follows: formation of DNA adducts ${\ll}$ Mutations ${\ll}$ GST-positive foci (preneoplasia) ${\ll}$ Tumor (adenoma and carcinoma). We also obtained similar data on the genotoxic and carcinogenic PoDs of other hepatocarcinogens, such as 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoline. These results contribute to elucidating the existence of a genotoxic and carcinogenic threshold.