• Title, Summary, Keyword: tumor infiltrating lymphocytes

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Study of the Expression of FasL and of Apoptosis in Gastric Epithelial Dysplasia and Gastric Adenocarcinomas (위상피이형성과 위암종에서 FasL의 발현 및 Apoptosis에 관한 연구)

  • Park Gun Uk;Han Sang Young;Lee Jong Hun;Keum Dong Joo;Roh Myung Hwan;Choi Seok Ryeol;Kim Jong Seong;Roh Mee Sook
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.83-91
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    • 2001
  • Purpose: This study was to observe whether the apoptotic function of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) is induced in human gastric epithelial dysplasia and gastric adenocarcinoma according to the role of FasL expression. Materials and Methods: A total of 56 gastric epithelial dysplasia and gastric adenocarcinoma patients were enrolled in this study: 9 cases of gastric epithelial dysplasia, 18 cases of early gastric carcinomas (EGC) and 29 cases of advanced gastric carcinomas (AGC). Immunohistochemical staining was performed for FasL and CD45, and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) method was used to detect cell death in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Results: 1) Positive reactions of FasL to neoplastic cells were $88.9\%$ (8/9) in gastric epithelial dysplasia, $83.3\%$ (15/18) in EGC, and $75.9\%$ (22/29) in AGC. 2) Expression of TIL was decreased in the FasL positive region and was increased in the FasL negative region, and significant expression of TIL was observed in the AGC group (P=0.001). 3) Expression of apoptotic TIL was very similar to the FasL expression, and $100\%$ expression was observed in gastric epithelial dysplasia group. 4) Expression of apoptotic TIL was increased in the FasL positive region and decreased in the FasL negative region, and significant apoptotic expression was observed in the gastric epithelial dysplasia and EGC groups (P=0.0420, P=0.0263, respectively). Conclusion: These results suggest that FasL is a prevalent mediator of immune privilege in epithelial dysplasia and cancer of the stomach.

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Contrasting Prognostic Effects of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocyte Density in Cardia and Non-cardia Gastric Adenocarcinomas

  • Kim, Hyoung-Il;Kim, Sang Yong;Yu, Jae Eun;Shin, Su-Jin;Roh, Yun Ho;Cheong, Jae-Ho;Hyung, Woo Jin;Noh, Sung Hoon;Park, Chung-Gyu;Lee, Hyuk-Joon
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.190-201
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: This study sought to investigate the prognostic significance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in relation to tumor location within the stomach. Materials and Methods: The densities and prognostic significance of TIL subsets were evaluated in 542 gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy. Immunohistochemical staining for CD3, CD4, CD8, forkhead/winged helix transcription factor (Foxp3), and granzyme B was performed. Results: Cardia cancer was associated with significantly lower densities of CD8 T-cells and higher densities of Foxp3 and granzyme B T-cells than non-cardia tumors. Multivariate analysis showed that advanced age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.023; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.006-1.040), advanced T classification (HR, 2.029; 95% CI, 1.106-3.721), lymph node metastasis (HR, 3.319; 95% CI, 1.947-5.658), low CD3 expression (HR, 0.997; 95% CI, 0.994-0.999), and a high Foxp3/CD4 ratio (HR, 1.007; 95% CI, 1.001-1.012) were independent predictors of poor overall survival in cardia cancer patients. In non-cardia cancer patients, total gastrectomy (HR, 2.147; 95% CI, 1.507-3.059), advanced T classification (HR, 2.158; 95% CI, 1.425-3.266), lymph node metastasis (HR, 1.854; 95% CI, 1.250-2.750), and a low Foxp3/CD4 ratio (HR, 0.978; 95% CI, 0.959-0.997) were poor prognostic factors for survival. Conclusions: The densities and prognostic effects of TILs differed in relation to the location of tumors within the stomach. The contrasting prognostic effects of Foxp3/CD4 ratio in cardia and non-cardia gastric cancer patients suggests that clinicians ought to consider tumor location when determining treatment strategies.

B7-H4 Expression is Associated with Cancer Progression and Predicts Patient Survival in Human Thyroid Cancer

  • Zhu, Jian;Chu, Bing-Feng;Yang, Yi-Peng;Zhang, Sheng-Lai;Zhuang, Ming;Lu, Wen-Jie;Liu, Ying-Bin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.3011-3015
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    • 2013
  • Objective: This study aimed to investigate the expression of B7-H4 in human thyroid cancer and determine any association with patient clinicopathological parameters and survival. Methods: B7-H4 expression in 64 clinical thyroid cancer specimens was assessed with immunohistochemistry. Moreover, B7-H4 mRNA expression in 10 fresh resected specimens were evaluated by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Immunohistochemical staining of CD3 was performed to assess the number of tumor infiltrating T lymphocytes (TILs) in thyroid cancers. Results: Positive B7-H4 immunohistochemical staining was observed in 61 out of 64 (95.3%) specimens of thyroid cancer tissues. Significantly more B7-H4 mRNA copies were found in thyroid cancer tissue than that adjacent normal tissue. Moreover, B7-H4 expression in human thyroid cancer tissues was significantly correlated with patient TNM stages and extrathyroidal extension (P<0.05), being inversely correlated with the number of TILs (P<0.05). The overall survival rate of the patients with higher B7-H4 expression was significantly worse than that of the patients with lower B7-H4 expression. Conclusions: This present study suggests that high B7-H4 expression is associated with cancer progression, reduced tumor immunosurveillance and worse patient outcomes in human thyroid cancer.

Bilateral Breast Metastases from Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Gastric Cancer during Pregnancy: Is There a Method to Its Madness?

  • Quaquarini, Erica;Vanoli, Alessandro;Frascaroli, Mara;Viglio, Alessandra;Lucioni, Marco;Presti, Daniele;Lobascio, Gessica;Pietrabissa, Andrea;Bernardo, Antonio;Paulli, Marco
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.106-114
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    • 2020
  • Breast metastases of extramammary malignant neoplasms are rare, with an incidence of 0.3%-2.7% among all malignant mammary tumors. Breast metastases from gastric carcinoma are very rare (<0.1%), and this event is even rarer during pregnancy. Herein, we describe a 39-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of an Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) that was characterized by prominent tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. Three years after undergoing radical surgery, the patient developed bilateral breast nodules during her pregnancy. A breast biopsy was performed, and histology confirmed a diagnosis of EBVaGC; tumor cells showed positivity for cytokeratin 8/18 and E-cadherin, and negativity for cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 20, cytokeratin 5/6, caudal type homebox 2, androgen receptor, mammaglobin, gross cystic disease fluid protein-15, and estrogen and progesterone receptors. We also discuss the main diagnostic pitfalls. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an EBVaGC with lymphoid stroma that developed breast metastases during pregnancy.

Increased Frequency of Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells in Mice with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  • Du, Yong;Chen, Xin;Huang, Zhi-Ming;Ye, Xiao-Hua;Niu, Qing
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.3815-3819
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    • 2012
  • The CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell (Treg) is a special kind of T cell subset. Studies have showed that Treg cells are involved in a number of physiological processes and pathologic conditions such as autoimmune diseases, transplantation tolerance and cancer. Tregs with unique capacity for immune inhibition can impair anti-tumour immunity and help tumor cells to escape from immune surveillance. The aim of our study was to investigate whether Tregs are involved in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A BABL/C mouse with HCC in situ model was established to evaluate the Treg existence in carcinoma tissues and the changes of Tregs in spleen using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry methods. Granzyme B expression in carcinoma tissues was analyzed by immunohistochemistry to investigate the tumor local immune status.The proportion of CD4+CD25+/CD4+ spleen lymphocytes of tumor bearing mice ($18.8%{\pm}1.26%$) was found to be significantly higher than that in normal mice ($9.99%{\pm}1.90%$) (P<0.01 ). Immunohistochemistry of spleen tissue also confirmed that there was an increase in Treg in tumor-bearing mice, while in carcinomas it showed Treg cells to be present in tumor infiltrating lymphocyte areas while Granzyme B was rarely observed. Anti-tumour immunity was suppressed, and this might be associated with the increase of Tregs. Our observations suggest that the CD4+CD25+Treg/CD4+ proportion in spleen lymphocytes can be a sensitive index to evaluate the change of Tregs in hepatocellular carcinoma mice and the Treg may be a promising therapeutic target for cancer.

Adoptive Cell Therapy of Melanoma with Cytokine-induced Killer Cells

  • Kim, Ji Sung;Kim, Yong Guk;Pyo, Minji;Lee, Hong Kyung;Hong, Jin Tae;Kim, Youngsoo;Han, Sang-Bae
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.58-65
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    • 2015
  • Melanoma is the most aggressive skin cancer and its incidence is gradually increasing worldwide. Patients with metastatic melanoma have a very poor prognosis (estimated 5-year survival rate of <16%). In the last few years, several drugs have been approved for malignant melanoma, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immune checkpoint blockades. Although new therapeutic agents have improved progression-free and overall survival, their use is limited by drug resistance and drug-related toxicity. At the same time, adoptive cell therapy of metastatic melanoma with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes has shown promising results in preclinical and clinical studies. In this review, we summarize the currently available drugs for treatment of malignant melanoma. In addition, we suggest cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells as another candidate approach for adoptive cell therapy of melanoma. Our preclinical study and several previous studies have shown that CIK cells have potent anti-tumor activity against melanomas in vitro and in an in vivo human tumor xenograft model without any toxicity.

The prognostic impact of lymphocyte subsets in newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia

  • Park, Yumi;Lim, Jinsook;Kim, Seonyoung;Song, Ikchan;Kwon, Kyechul;Koo, Sunhoe;Kim, Jimyung
    • BLOOD RESEARCH
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    • v.53 no.3
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    • pp.198-204
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    • 2018
  • Background Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, which form a part of the host immune system, affect the development and progression of cancer. This study investigated whether subsets of lymphocytes reflecting host-tumor immunologic interactions are related to the prognosis of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Methods Lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood of 88 patients who were newly diagnosed with AML were analyzed by quantitative flow cytometry. The relationships of lymphocyte subsets with AML subtypes, genetic risk, and clinical courses were analyzed. Results The percentages of T and NK cells differed between patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and those with AML with myelodysplasia-related changes. In non-APL, a high proportion of NK cells (>16.6%) was associated with a higher rate of death before remission (P=0.0438), whereas a low proportion of NK cells (${\leq}9.4%$) was associated with higher rates of adverse genetic abnormalities (P=0.0244) and relapse (P=0.0567). A multivariate analysis showed that the lymphocyte subsets were not independent predictors of survival. Conclusion Lymphocyte subsets at diagnosis differ between patients with different specific subtypes of AML. A low proportion of NK cells is associated with adverse genetic abnormalities, whereas a high proportion is related to death before remission. However, the proportion of NK cells may not show independent correlations with survival.

Clinicopathological Characterization and Prognostic Implication of SMAD4 Expression in Colorectal Carcinoma

  • Yoo, Seung-Yeon;Lee, Ji-Ae;Shin, Yunjoo;Cho, Nam-Yun;Bae, Jeong Mo;Kang, Gyeong Hoon
    • Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
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    • v.53 no.5
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    • pp.289-297
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    • 2019
  • Background: SMAD family member 4 (SMAD4) has gained attention as a promising prognostic factor of colorectal cancer (CRC) as well as a key molecule to understand the tumorigenesis and progression of CRC. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 1,281 CRC cases immunohistochemically for their expression status of SMAD4, and correlated this status with clinicopathologic and molecular features of CRCs. Results: A loss of nuclear SMAD4 was significantly associated with frequent lymphovascular and perineural invasion, tumor budding, fewer tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, higher pT and pN category, and frequent distant metastasis. In contrast, tumors overexpressing SMAD4 showed a significant association with sporadic microsatellite instability. After adjustment for TNM stage, tumor differentiation, adjuvant chemotherapy, and lymphovascular invasion, the loss of SMAD4 was found to be an independent prognostic factor for worse 5-year progression-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.60; p=.042) and 7-year cancerspecific survival (HR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.99; p=.022). Conclusions: We confirmed the value of determining the loss of SMAD4 immunohistochemically as an independent prognostic factor for CRC in general. In addition, we identified some histologic and molecular features that might be clues to elucidate the role of SMAD4 in colorectal tumorigenesis and progression.

Effects of FasL Expression in Oral Squamous Cell Cancer

  • Fang, Li;Sun, Lin;Hu, Fang-Fang;Chen, Qiao-Er
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.281-285
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: To probe the role of FasL in cell apoptosis in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). Methods: The expression of Fas/FasL was assessed in 10 cases of normal oral epithelium, 38 cases of OSCC and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), and 11 cases of metastatic lymph nodes by immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis of tumor cells and TIL was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assay (TUNEL). FasL-induction of T cell apoptosis was tested by co-culture assay in vitro with SCC-9 and Jurkat T cells. Results: The 10 cases of normal oral epithelium all demonstrated extensive expression of Fas, the positive rate being largely down-regulated in OSCC (21/38) (P<0.05) compared to the normal (10/10). At the same time, the positive rate of FasL significantly increased in OSCC (P<0.05) especially those with lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). The positive rates of Fas in well and middle differentiated OSCC were higher than those in poor differentiated OSCC (P<0.05). The AI of tumor cells in Fas-positive OSCC was remarkably higher than that in Fas-negative OSCC (P<0.01), with a positive correlation between Fas expression and cell differentiation as well as apoptosis (r=0.68, P<0.01). The AI of tumor cells in FasL positive OSCC was remarkably lower than that in control while the AI of TIL was higher than in FasL negative OSCC (P<0.05). The AI of tumor cells reversely correlated with that of TIL (r = -0. 72, P<0.05). It was found that SCC-9 cells expressing functional FasL could induce apoptosis of Jurkat cells as demonstrated by co-culture assays. As a conclusion, it is evident that OSCC cells expressing FasL can induce apoptosis in Fas-expressing T cells. Conclusions: In progression of OSCC, expression of the Fas/FasL changes significantly. The results suggest that FasL is a mediator of immune privilege in OSCC and may serve as an marker for predicting malignant change in oral tissues.

Loss of Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I Expression Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Patients with Advanced Breast Cancer

  • Park, Hong Sik;Cho, Uiju;Im, So Young;Yoo, Chang Young;Jung, Ji Han;Suh, Young Jin;Choi, Hyun Joo
    • Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.75-85
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    • 2019
  • Background: Human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I) molecules play important roles in regulating immune responses. Loss or reduction of HLA-I expression has been shown to be associated with prognosis in several cancers. Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) also play critical functions in immune response regulation. Evaluation of HLA-I expression status by the EMR8-5 antibody and its clinical impact in breast cancer have not been well studied, and its relationship with Tregs remains unclear. Methods: We evaluated HLA-I expression and Treg infiltration by immunohistochemistry in 465 surgically resected breast cancer samples. We examined the correlation between HLA-I expression and Treg infiltration and clinicopathologic characteristics and survival analyses were performed. Results: Total loss of HLA-I expression was found in 84 breast cancer samples (18.1%). Univariate survival analysis revealed that loss of HLA-I expression was significantly associated with worse disease-specific survival (DSS) (p=.029). HLA-I was not an independent prognostic factor in the entire patient group, but it was an adverse independent prognostic factor for DSS in patients with advanced disease (stage II-IV) (p=.031). Treg numbers were significantly higher in the intratumoral stroma of HLA-I-positive tumors than in HLA-I-negative tumors (median 6.3 cells/high power field vs 2.1 cells/high power field, p<.001). However, Tregs were not an independent prognostic factor in our cohort. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the loss of HLA-I expression is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients, highlighting the role of HLA-I alterations in immune evasion mechanisms of breast cancer. HLA-I could be a promising marker that enables the application of more effective and precise immunotherapies for patients with advanced breast cancer.