• Title, Summary, Keyword: tumor immunotherapy

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Expression of Cancer-Testis Genes in Brain Tumors

  • Lee, Myoung-Hee;Son, Eun-Ik;Kim, Ealmaan;Kim, In-Soo;Yim, Man-Bin;Kim, Sang-Pyo
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.190-193
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    • 2008
  • Objective : Cancer-testis (CT) genes are considered promising candidates for immunotherapeutic approaches. The aim of this study was to investigate which CT genes should be targeted in immunotherapy for brain tumors. Methods : We investigated the expression of 6 CT genes (MAGE-E1, SOX-6, SCP-1, SSX-2, SSX-4, and HOMTES-85) using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction in 26 meningiomas and 32 other various brain tumor specimens, obtained from the patients during tumor surgery from 2000 to 2005. Results : The most frequently expressed CT genes of meningiomas were MAGE-E1, which were found in 22/26 (85%) meningioma samples, followed by SOX-6 (9/26 or 35%). Glioblastomas were most frequently expressed SOX-6 (6/7 or 86%), MAGE-E1 (5/7 or 71%), followed by SSX-2 (2/7 or 29%) and SCP-1 (1/7 or 14%). However, 4 astrocytomas, 3 anaplastic astrocytomas, and 3 oligodendroglial tumors only expressed MAGE-E1 and SOX-6. Schwannomas also expressed SOX-6 (5/6 or 83%), MAGE-E1 (4/6 or 67%), and SCP-1 (2/6 or 33%). Conclusion : The data presented here suggest that MAGE-E1 and SOX-6 genes are expressed in a high percentage of human central nervous system tumors, which implies the CT genes could be the potential targets of immunotherapy for human central nervous system tumors.

Adoptive Transfer of Colon Cancer Derived Peptide-specific CD8+ T Cells in HHD Mice (HHD Mice를 이용한 대장암세포유래 펩타이드 특이적 CD8+ T 세포의 입양전이)

  • Jung, Hun-Soon;Ahn, In-Sook;Do, Hyung-Ki;Lemonnier, Francois A.;Tirosh, Boaz;Tzehoval, Esther;Vadai, Ezra;Eisenbach, Lea;Do, Myoung-Sool
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.31-37
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    • 2004
  • Background: 1-8D gene is a member of human 1-8 interferon inducible gene family and is shown to be overexpressed in fresh colon cancer tissues. Three peptides 1-6, 3-5 and 3-7 derived from 1-8D gene were shown to have immunogenicity against colon cancer. Methods: To study tumor immunotherapy of these peptides we established an adoptive transfer model. $D^{b-/-}{\times}{\beta}2$ microglobulin (${\beta}2m$) null mice transgenic for a chimeric HLA-A2.1/$D^b-{\beta}2m$ single chain (HHD mice) were immunized with irradiated peptide-loaded RMA-S/HHD/B7.1 transfectants. Spleens were removed after last immunization, and splenocytes were re-stimulated in vitro. Lymphocytes from vaccinated HHD mice were transferred together with IL-2 to the tumor bearing nude mice that were challenged S.C. with the HCT/HHD/B7 colon carcinoma cell line that was found to grow in these mice. Results: Peptide 3-5 was found to be highly effective in CTL activity. Adoptively transferred anti-peptide 3-5 cytolytic T lymphocytes caused significant retardation in tumor growth. Conclusion: This study shows that peptide 3-5 can be the most effective candidate for the vaccine of adoptive immunotherapy against colon cancer.

Enhanced CEA-specific Immune Responses by Tat-LLO Fusion Protein (Tat-LLO 융합 단백질에 의한 CEA 특이 항종양 면역 반응의 증가)

  • Yi, Soon-Aei;Sohn, Hyun-Jung;Kim, Chang-Hyun;Park, Mi-Young;Oh, Seong-Taek;Kim, Tai-Gyu
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.172-178
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    • 2005
  • Background: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is well-known soluble tumor marker frequently detectable in peripheral blood of carcinoma patients and considered as good target for antigen-specific immunotherapy. However, it is known that the induction of immune response to CEA is very difficult because CEA is a self-antigen expressed in fetal cells and weakly expressed in normal colorectal epithelial cells. To enhance anti-tumor immunity specific for CEA, recombinant CEA protein was modified using listeriolysin O (LLO) for endosomal lysis and trans activator of transcription (Tat) domain for transducing extracellular proteins into cytoplasm. Methods: After immunization using dendritic cells pulsed with Tat-CEA, both Tat-CEA and LLO, and both Tat-CEA and Tat-LLO, antibody titer to CEA and LLO, cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and the frequency of IFN-${\gamma}$ producing T lymphocytes were measured. Results: Immunization using DC pulsed with both Tat-CEA and Tat-LLO protein showed the increasement of production of CEA-specific antibody in serum, cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity, the frequency of IFN-${\gamma}$ secreting T cells, compared with DC pulsed with both Tat-CEA and LLO. Furthermore the ratio of CD8+T cell to $CD4^+$ cell among CEA-specific T cells was increased in group pulsed with both Tat-CEA and Tat-LLO. Conclusion: These results suggested that DC vaccine using Tat-LLO could be used for the development of effective immunotherapy for the treatment of tumor.

CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNE PROCESSES AND CONTROL OF CANCER

  • Lee, Kwon-Soon;Chung, Hyeng-Hwan
    • Proceedings of the KOSOMBE Conference
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    • v.1991 no.05
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    • pp.82-85
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    • 1991
  • Cell kinetics and the chemical mass action principle formulate the basis of immune system dynamics which may be synthesized mathematically as cascades of bilinear systems which are connected by nonlinear nondynamical terms. In this manner, a model for cell-mediated immune response (CMI) to tumor antigens and debris is developed. We also consider parametric control variables relevant to the latest experimental data, i.e., sigmoidal dose-response relationship and Michaelis-Menten dynamics. The preliminary results show that the parametric control variable is important in the destruction of tumors. As well as that, the exacerbation theory is a good method for tumor treatment. Finally, tumor control as an application of immunotherapy is analyzed from the basis established above.

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The Role of Regulatory T Cells in Cancer

  • Ha, Tai-You
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.209-235
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    • 2009
  • There has been an explosion of literature focusing on the role of regulatory T (Treg) cells in cancer immunity. It is becoming increasingly clear that Treg cells play an active and significant role in the progression of cancer, and have an important role in suppressing tumor-specific immunity. Thus, there is a clear rationale for developing clinical strategies to diminish their regulatory influences, with the ultimate goal of augmenting antitimor immunity. Therefore, manipulation of Treg cells represent new strategies for cancer treatment. In this Review, I will summarize and review the explosive recent studies demonstrating that Treg cells are increased in patients with malignancies and restoration of antitumor immunity in mice and humans by depletion or reduction of Treg cells. In addition, I will discuss both the prognostic value of Treg cells in tumor progression in tumor-bearing hosts and the rationale for strategies for therapeutic vaccination and immunotherapeutic targeting of Treg cells with drugs and microRNA.

Anti-tumor Immunity Induced by Tumor Cells Expressing a Membrane-bound Form of IL-2 and SDF-1

  • Choi, Jin-Wha;Lim, Ho-Yong;Chang, Mi-Ra;Cheon, Ji-Yeon;Kim, Young-Sang
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.193-201
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    • 2008
  • The eventual goal of tumor immunotherapy is to develop a vaccine inducing a specific anti-tumor immunity. Cytokine gene therapy is an effective way at least in animal models, but limited efficacy and various side effects obstruct clinical applications. In this study, we developed a tumor vaccine expressing a membrane-bound form of IL-2(mbIL-2) and SDF-1 in B16F10 melanoma cells. The tumor clones expressing mbIL-2 showed reduced tumorigenicity, and additional expression of SDF-1 to mbIL-2 expressing tumor cells caused more severe reduction in tumorigenicity. However, expression of the SDF-1 alone did not affect on the tumorigenicity, probably because of limited production of SDF-1 in the SDF-1 transfected clones. When the mice once rejected mbIL-2/SDF-1 expressing tumor clone were re-challenged with wild type B16F10 tumor cells, all of the mice survived. This result suggests that mbIL-2/SDF-1 tumor clone is effective in inducing systemic anti-tumor immunity against wild type B16 melanoma. Furthermore, culture supernatant of tumor clones expressing SDF-1 induced lymphocyte migration in vitro. These results, all together, suggest that expression of mbIL-2 and SDF-1 in tumor cells enhances anti-tumor immune responses through different roles; the secreted SDF-1 may function as a chemoattractant to recruit immune cells to tumor vaccine injection site, and the mbIL-2 on tumor cells may provide costimulatory signal for CTL activation in physical contacts.

Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) of the ascending colon: the implication of IFN-${\alpha}$ 2b treatment

  • Park, Sun-Ju;Han, Dong-Kyun;Baek, Hee-Jo;Chung, Sang-Young;Nam, Jong-Hee;Kook, Hoon;Hwang, Tai-Ju
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.53 no.11
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    • pp.975-978
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    • 2010
  • A 7-year-old boy presented with hematochezia and abdominal pain. A 3.7-cm-sized mass was identified in the ascending colon by abdominal computed tomography and colonoscopy. The patient underwent surgical resection. Pathological examination revealed a low-grade perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa). PEComa in the colon is very rare. Only a few cases have been reported so far. An effective treatment method for this rare tumor has not been established yet. The patient received adjuvant interferon-${\alpha}$ immunotherapy for 1 year. He has been tumor-free for 26 months since the initial diagnosis. This report is the first documented case of the use of interferon-${\alpha}$ for pediatric PEComa of the colon.

Tumor-derived CD4+CD25+ Tregs Inhibit the Maturation and Antigen-Presenting Function of Dendritic Cells

  • Du, Yong;Chen, Xin;Lin, Xiu-Qing;Wu, Wei;Huang, Zhi-Ming
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.7
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    • pp.2665-2669
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    • 2015
  • CD4+CD25+regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a key role in regulation of immnue response and maintenance of self-tolerance. Studies have found Tregs could suppress tumor-specific T cell-mediated immune response and promote cancer progression. Depletion of Tregs can enhance antitumor immunity. Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells and capable of activating antigen-specific immune responses, which make them ideal candidate for cancer immunotherapy. Now various DC vaccines are considered as effective treatment for cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate variation of Tregs in BALB/C mice with hepatocellular carcinoma and investigate the interaction between tumor-derived Tregs, effector T cells (Teff) and splenic DCs. We found the percentages of Tregs/CD4+ in the peripheral blood of tumor-bearing mice were higher than in normal mice. Tumor-derived Tregs diminished the up-regulation of costimulatory molecule expression on splenic DCs, even in the presence of Teff cells and simultaneously inhibited IL-12 and $TNF-{\alpha}$ secretion by DCs.

Immunocell Therapy for Lung Cancer: Dendritic Cell Based Adjuvant Therapy in Mouse Lung Cancer Model (폐암의 면역세포 치료: 동물 모델에서 수지상 세포를 이용한 Adjuvant Therapy 가능성 연구)

  • Lee, Seog-Jae;Kim, Myung-Joo;In, So-Hee;Baek, So-Young;Lee, Hyun-Ah
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.36-44
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    • 2005
  • Background: The anti-tumor therapeutic effect of autologous tumor cell lysate pulseddendritic cells (DCs) was studied for non-immunogenic and immune suppressive lung cancer model. To test the possibility as an adjuvant therapy, minimal residual disease model was considered in mouse in vivo experiments. Methods: Syngeneic 3LL lung cancer cells were inoculated intravenously into the C57BL/6 mouse. Autologous tumor cell (3LL) or allogeneic leukemia cell (WEHI-3) lysate pulsed-DCs were injected twice in two weeks. Intraperitoneal DC injection was started one day (MRD model) after tumor cell inoculation. Two weeks after the final DC injection, tumor formation in the lung and the tumor-specific systemic immunity were observed. Tumor-specific lymphocyte proliferation and the IFN-${\gamma}$ secretion were analyzed for the immune monitoring. Therapeutic DCs were cultured from the bone marrow myeloid lineage cells with GM-CSF and IL-4 for 7 days and pulsed with tumor cell lysate for 18 hrs. Results: Compared to the saline treated group, tumor formation was suppressed in 3LL tumor cell lysate pulsed-DC treated group, while 3LL-specific immune stimulation was minimum. WEHI-3-specific immune stimulation occurred in WEHI-3 lysate-pulsed DC treated group, which had no correlation with tumor regression. Conclusion: The data suggest the possible anti-tumor effect of cultured DCs as an adjuvant therapy for minimal residual disease state of lung cancer. The significance of immune modulation in DC therapy including the possible involvement of NK cell as well as antigen-specific cytotoxic T cell activity induction was discussed.

Prognostic factores in the treatment of lung cancer related to postoperative radiochemoimmunotherapy; BPM therapy[PS-K] of lung cancer followed by surgery (폐암절제례의 예후와 면역요법)

  • 김광택
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.47-53
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    • 1993
  • The high relapse rate after curative surgery of lung cancer suggests that tumor cells are remained at the site of resection and in the distant organs. Postoperative radiochemoimmunotherapy including protein-bound polysaccharide PS-K[Copolang] and/or chemotherapy to improve the prognosis in lung cancer has been adopted. The patients with lung cancer who were treated with a combined modality therapy after surgery were reviewed to determine the effects of adjuvant immunotherapy[PS-K] and the relationship between midterm survival and clinicopathologic variables. During the past 5 years, 95 patients with lung cancer underwent resective operation. Of them, 30 cases were curative surgery, 29 were relative curative surgery, and the remainders were non-curative surgery. Postoperative combination therapies consisted of three types of therapies: postoperative BRM[biological response modifiers] with PS-K [Copolang] 50 mg/kg for 24 weeks[Group 1], chemoimmunotherapy with chemotherapy[a combination of cisplatin, etoposide, vindesine] and PS-K [Group 2], radioimmunotherapy with postoperative prophylactic irradiation to the mediastinum at total dose of 54 Gy-60 Gy and PS-K [Group 3] and surgery without adjuvant therapy[Group 4]. Twenty months survival rates of localized disease [Stages I and II] treated with PS-K, with radioimmunotherapy and no therapy were 73 %, 60 %, and 50 %, respectively [p [0.05]. Three-year survival rates of regionally advanced cases [stage Ilia and IIIb] were 23 % in Group 1.57 % in Group 2.20 % in Group 3, and 0 % in Group 4, respectively.According to above results, we suggest that postoperative combination therapy including PS-K might improve the prognosis of lung cancer. The similar survival pattern of patients with squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma treated with BRM, chemoimmunotherapy or radioimmunotherapy need to evaluate the role of postoperative immunotherapy[PS-K] in randomized studies.

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