• Title, Summary, Keyword: tumor immunotherapy

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Effect of Lipofectin on Antigen-presenting Function and Anti-tumor Activity of Dendritic Cells (수지상세포의 항원제시 능력 및 항암활성에 미치는 Lipofectin의 영향)

  • Noh, Young-Woock;Lim, Jong-Seok
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.102-110
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    • 2006
  • Background: Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen-presenting cells in the immune system and can induce T cell response against virus infections, microbial pathogens, and tumors. Therefore, immunization using DC loaded with tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) is a powerful method of inducing anti-tumor immunity. For induction of effective anti-tumor immunity, antigens should be efficiently introduced into DC and presented on MHC class I molecules at high levels to activate antigen-specific $CD8^+$ T cells. We have been exploring methods for loading exogenous antigens into APC with high efficiency of Ag presentation. In this study, we tested the effect of the cationic liposome (Lipofectin) for transferring and loading exogenous model antigen (OVA protein) into BM-DC. Methods: Bone marrow-derived DC (EM-DC) were incubated with OVA-Lipofectin complexes and then co-cultured with B3Z cells. B3Z activation, which is expressed as the amount of ${\beta}$-galactosidase induced by TCR stimulation, was determined by an enzymatic assay using ${\beta}$-gal assay system. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with OVA-pulsed DC to monitor the in vivo vaccination effect. After vaccination, mice were inoculated with EG7-OVA tumor cells. Results: BM-DC pulsed with OVA-Lipofectin complexes showed more efficient presentation of OVA-peptide on MHC class I molecules than soluble OVA-pulsed DC. OVA-Lipofectin complexes-pulsed DC pretreated with an inhibitor of MHC class I-mediated antigen presentation, brefeldin A, showed reduced ability in presenting OVA peptide on their surface MHC class I molecules. Finally, immunization of OVA-Lipofectin complexes-pulsed DC protected mice against subsequent tumor challenge. Conclusion: Our data provide evidence that antigen-loading into DC using Lipofectin can promote MHC class I- restricted antigen presentation. Therefore, antigen-loading into DC using Lipofectin can be one of several useful tools for achieving efficient induction of antigen-specific immunity in DC-based immunotherapy.

T Cell Stimulatory Effects of Korean Red Ginseng through Modulation of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells

  • Jeon, Chan-Oh;Kang, Soo-Won;Park, Seung-Beom;Lim, Kyung-Taek;Hwang, Kwang-Woo;Min, Hye-Young
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.462-470
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    • 2011
  • Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) actively suppress immune cells and have been considered as an impediment to successful cancer immunotherapy. Many approaches have been made to overcome such immunosuppressive factors and to exert effective anti-tumor effects, but the possibility of using medicinal plants for this purpose has been overlooked. Korean red ginseng (KRG) is widely known to possess a variety of pharmacological properties, including immunoboosting and anti-tumor activities. However, little has been done to assess the anti-tumor activity of KRG on MDSCs. Therefore, we examined the effects of KRG on MDSCs in tumor-bearing mice and evaluated immunostimulatory and anti-tumor activities of KRG through MDSC modulation. The data show that intraperitoneal administration of KRG compromises MDSC function and induces T cell proliferation and the secretion of IL-2 and IFN-${\gamma}$, while it does not exhibit direct cytotoxicity on tumor cells and reduced MDSC accumulation. MDSCs isolated from KRG-treated mice also express significantly lower levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and IL-10 accompanied by a decrease in nitric oxide production compared with control. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that KRG enhances T cell function by inhibiting the immunosuppressive activity of MDSCs and suggests that although KRG alone does not exhibit direct anti-tumor effects, the use of KRG together with conventional chemo- or immunotherapy may provide better outcomes to cancer patients through MDSC modulation.

Active Immunization Study of Colon Cancer Derived 1-8D Peptide in HHD Mice

  • Jung, Hun-Soon;Ahn, In-Sook;Do, Hyung-Ki;Lemonnier, Francois A.;Song, Kuk-Hyun;Do, Myoung-Sool
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.157-162
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    • 2005
  • Background: 1-8D gene is a member of human 1-8 interferon inducible gene family and was shown to be overexpressed in fresh colon cancer tissues. Three peptides 1-6, 3-5 and 3-7 derived from human 1-8D gene were shown to have immunogenicity against colon cancer. Methods: To study tumor immunotherapy, of three peptides we established an active immunization model using HHD mice. $D^{b-/-}{\times}{\beta}2$ microglobulin $({\beta}2m)$ null mice transgenic for a chimeric HLA-$A2.1/D^{b-}\;{\beta}2m$ single chain (HHD mice) were challenged with B16/HHD/1-8D tumor cells and were immunized with irradiated peptide-loaded RMA- S/HHD/B7.1 transfectants. In therapy model tumor growth was retarded in HHD mice that were injected with 3-5 peptide-loaded RMA-S/HHD/B7.1. In survival test vaccination with 1-8D-derived peptide protects HHD mice from tumor progression after tumor challenge. Results: These studies show that peptide 3-5 derived from 1-8D gene can be the most effective candidate for the vaccine of immunotherapy against colon cancer and highlight 1-8D gene as putative colon carcinoma associated antigens. Conclusion: We demonstrated that RMA-S/HHD/ B7.1 loaded with 1-8D peptides, especially 3-5, immunization generates potent antitumor immunity against tumor cells in HHD mice and designed active immunization as proper immunotherapeutic protocols.

Cross-immunizing potential of tumor MAGE-A epitopes recognized by HLA-A*02:01-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes

  • Huang, Ze-Min;Jia, Zheng-Cai;Tang, Jun;Zhang, Yi;Tian, Yi;Ni, Dong-Jing;Wang, Fang;Wu, Yu-Zhang;Ni, Bing
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.45 no.7
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    • pp.408-413
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    • 2012
  • Almost all melanoma cells express at least one member of the MAGE-A antigen family, making the cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) epitopes with cross-immunizing potential in this family attractive candidates for the broad spectrum of anti-melanoma immunotherapy. In this study, four highly homologous peptides (P264: FLWGPRALA, P264I9: FLWGPRALI, P264V9: FLWGPRALV, and P264H8: FLWGPRAHA) from the MAGE-A antigens were selected by homologous alignment. All four peptides showed high binding affinity and stability to HLA-A$^*02:01$ molecules, and could prime CTL immune responses in human PBMCs and in HLA-A$^*02:01/K^b$ transgenic mice. CTLs elicited by the four epitope peptides could cross-lyse tumor cells expressing the mutual target antigens, except MAGE-A11 which was not tested. However, CTLs induced by P264V9 and P264I9 showed the strongest target cell lysis capabilities, suggesting both peptides may represent the common CTL epitopes shared by the eight MAGE-A antigens, which could induce more potent and broad-spectrum antitumor responses in immunotherapy.

Adoptive Immunotherapy for Small Cell Lung Cancer by Expanded Activated Autologous Lymphocytes: a Retrospective Clinical Analysis

  • Zhang, Guo-Qing;Li, Fang;Sun, Sheng-Jie;Hu, Yi;Wang, Gang;Wang, Yu;Cui, Xiao-Xia;Jiao, Shun-Chang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.1487-1494
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    • 2015
  • Background: To investigate the clinical efficacy of expanded activated autologous lymphocytes (EAAL) in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Materials and Methods: A total of 32 SCLC patients were selected and randomly divided into EAAL treatment and control groups, 16 cases in each. EAAL were obtained by proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients followed by phenotype determination. Clinical data of all patients were recorded. Patients of both groups were followed up and the overall survival (OS) were compared retrospectively. Results: After culture and proliferation in vitro, the percentages of $CD3^+$, $CD3^+CD8^+$, $CD45RO^+$, $CD28^+$, $CD29^+$, $CD8^+CD28^+$ and $CD3^+CD16^+/CD56^+$ cells increased markedly (p<0.05). The OS of the EAAL treatment group was longer than that of control group, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.060, HR=0.487, 95%CI 0.228~1.037). 1- to 3-year survival rates in EAAL treatment group were longer than those in control group, but there was still no significant difference (p>0.05). COX multivariate regression analysis showed that the number of chemotherapy cycles and the application of EAAL immunotherapy were independent prognostic factors for SCLC patients. The OS in females and chemotherapy${\leq}6$ cycles were obviously prolonged after EAAL immunotherapy. Conclusions: In vitro induction and proliferation of EAAL is easy and biologically safe. Generally, EAAL adoptive immunotherapy can evidently prolong the OS of SCLC patients.

Immunotherapy with methyl gallate, an inhibitor of Treg cell migration, enhances the anti-cancer effect of cisplatin therapy

  • Kim, Hyunseong;Lee, Gihyun;Sohn, Sung-Hwa;Lee, Chanju;Kwak, Jung Won;Bae, Hyunsu
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.261-268
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    • 2016
  • $Foxp3^+$ $CD25^+CD4^+$ regulatory T (Treg) cells are crucial for the maintenance of immunological self-tolerance and are abundant in tumors. Most of these cells are chemo-attracted to tumor tissues and suppress anti-tumor responses inside the tumor. Currently, several cancer immunotherapies targeting Treg cells are being clinically tested. Cisplatin is one of the most potent chemotherapy drugs widely used for cancer treatment. While cisplatin is a powerful drug for the treatment of multiple cancers, there are obstacles that limit its use, such as renal dysfunction and the development of cisplatin-resistant cancer cells after its use. To minimize these barriers, combinatorial therapies of cisplatin with other drugs have been developed and have proven to be more effective to treat cancer. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of the combination therapy using methyl gallate with cisplatin in EL4 murine lymphoma bearing C57BL/6 mice. The combinatorial therapy of methyl gallate and cisplatin showed stronger anti-cancer effects than methyl gallate or cisplatin as single treatments. In Treg cell-depleted mice, however, the effect of methyl gallate vanished. It was found that methyl gallate treatment inhibited Treg cell migration into the tumor regardless of cisplatin treatment. Additionally, in both the normal and cisplatin-treated tumor-bearing mice, there was no renal toxicity attributed to methyl gallate treatment. These findings suggest that methyl gallate treatment could be useful as an adjuvant method accompanied with cisplatin therapy.

Anti-cancer Effect of Hematopoietic Stem Cell-derived Allogeneic-DC Vaccine in Melanoma Metastasis Model (마우스 동종 줄기세포 유래 수지상 세포를 이용한 백신의 흑색종 폐암 전이 모델에서의 항암 효과 및 기전 연구)

  • Kim, Myoung-Joo;Shon, Hye-Jin;Baek, So-Young;Lee, Kang-Eun;Lee, Young-Joon;Lee, Hyun-Ah
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.154-162
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    • 2006
  • Background: Dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer immunotherapy is studied for several years. However, it is mainly derived from autologous PBMC or leukapheresis from patient, which has limitations about yield and ability of DC production according to individual status. In order to solve these problems, inquiries about allogeneic DCs are performed but there are no preclinical trial answers for effect or toxicity of allogeneic DC to use for clinical trial. In this study, we compared the anti-tumor effect of allogeneic and autologous DCs from mouse bone marrow stem cells in mouse metastatic melanoma model. Methods: B16F10 melanoma cells ($5{\times}10^4$/mouse) were injected intravenously into the C57BL/6 mouse. Therapeutic DCs were differentiated from autologous (C57BL/6: CDC) or allogeneic (B6C3F1: BDC) bone marrow stem cells with GM-CSF, SCF and IL-4 for 13days and pulsed with B16F10 tumor cell lysate (Blys) for 18hrs. DC intra-peritoneal injections began on the 8th day after the tumor cell injection by twice with one week interval. Results: Anti-tumor response was observed by DC treatment without any toxicity especially in allogeneic DC treated mice (tumor burden score: $2.667{\pm}0.184,\;2.500{\pm}0.463,\;2.000{\pm}0.286,\;1.500{\pm}0.286,\;1.667 {\pm}0.297$ for saline, CDC/unpulsed-DC: U-DC, CDC/Blys-DC, BDC/U-DC and BDC/Blys-DC, respectively). IFN-${\gamma}$ secretion was significantly increased in allogeneic DC group stimulated with B16F10 cell lysate ($2,643.3{\pm}5,89.7,\;8,561.5{\pm}2,204.9.\;6,901.2{\pm}141.1pg/1{\times}10^6$ cells for saline, BDC/U-DC and BDC/Blys-DC, respectively) with increased NK cell activity. Conclusion: Conclusively, promising data was obtained that allogeneic DC can be used for DC-based cancer immunotherapy.

Inhibition of Human Pancreatic Tumor Growth by Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells in Nude Mouse Xenograft Model

  • Kim, Ji Sung;Park, Yun Soo;Kim, Ju Young;Kim, Yong Guk;Kim, Yeon Jin;Lee, Hong Kyung;Kim, Hyung Sook;Hong, Jin Tae;Kim, Youngsoo;Han, Sang-Bae
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.247-252
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    • 2012
  • Pancreatic cancer is the fourth commonest cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. However, no adequate therapy for pancreatic cancer has yet been found. In this study, the antitumor activity of cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells against the human pancreatic cancer was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured with IL-2-containing medium in anti-CD3 for 14 days. The resulting populations of CIK cells comprised 94% $CD3^+$, 4% $CD3^-CD56^+$, 41% $CD3^+CD56^+$, 11% $CD4^+$, and 73% $CD8^+$. This heterogeneous cell population was called cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells. At an effector-target cell ratio of 100 : 1, CIK cells destroyed 51% of AsPC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells, as measured by the $^{51}Cr$-release assay. In addition, CIK cells at doses of 3 and 10 million cells per mouse inhibited 42% and 70% of AsPC-1 tumor growth in nude mouse xenograft assays, respectively. This study suggests that CIK cells may be used as an adoptive immunotherapy for pancreatic cancer patients.

Are So-Called Cancer-Testis Genes Expressed Only in Testis?

  • Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh;Rezazadeh, Fatemeh;Zare-Abdollahi, Davood;Omrani, Mir Davood;Movafagh, Abolfazl
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.18
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    • pp.7703-7705
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    • 2014
  • Cancer-testis (CT) antigens are a group of tumor-associated antigens with restricted expression in normal tissues except for testis and expression in a wide variety of tumor tissues. This pattern of expression makes them suitable targets for immunotherapy as well as potential biomarkers for early detection of cancer. However, some genes attributed to this family are now known to be expressed in other normal tissues which put their potential applications in immunotherapy and cancer detection under question. Here we analyzed expression of two previously known CT antigens, RHOXF2 and PIWIL2, in AML patients versus normal donors and found no significant difference in the expression of these genes between the two groups. As these two genes showed expression in normal leukocytes, their expression pattern seems to be wider than to be attributed to the CT gene family. Future research should focus on the expression profiles of so called CT antigens to find those with more testis specific expression.

Morphologic Evidence of Anti-Tumor Specificity of T Cells Activated by Denritic Cells Derived from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Thyroid Cancer Patients

  • Lee, Dae-Heui
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.243-247
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    • 2012
  • Recent studies suggest that immunization with autologous dendritic cells (DCs) results in protective immunity and rejection of established tumors in various human malignancies. The purpose of this study is to determine whether DCs are generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNs) by using cytokines such as F1t-3 ligand (FL), granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-4, and TNF-${\alpha}$, and whether cytotoxic T cells activated against the thyroid cancer tissues by the DCs. Peripheral blood was obtained from 2 patients with thyroid cancer. DCs were established from PBMNs by culturing in the presence of FL, GM-CSF, IL-4, and TNF-${\alpha}$ for 14 days. At day 14, the differentiated DCs was analyzed morphologically. The immunophenotypic features of DCs such as CDla, CD83, and CD86 were analyzed by immunofluorelescence microscopy. At day 18, DCs and T cells were incubated with thyroid cancer tissues or normal thyroid tissues for additional 4 days, respectively. DCs generated from the PBMNs showed the typical morphology of DCs. Activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were observed also. DCs and the CTLs were attached to the cancer tissues on scanning electron microscope. The DCs activated the CTLs, which able to specifically attack the thyroid cancer. This study provides morphologic evidence that the coculture of T cells/cancer tissues activated the T cells and differentiated CTLs. The CTLs tightly adhered to cancer tissues and lysed cancer tissues vigorously. Therefore DCs could be used as potential vaccines in the immunotherapy.