• Title, Summary, Keyword: tumor immunotherapy

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An engineered PD-1-based and MMP-2/9-oriented fusion protein exerts potent antitumor effects against melanoma

  • Wei, Mulan;Liu, Xujie;Cao, Chunyu;Yang, Jianlin;Lv, Yafeng;Huang, Jiaojiao;Wang, Yanlin;Qin, Ye
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.51 no.11
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    • pp.572-577
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    • 2018
  • Recent studies showed that the PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint blockade is a dramatic therapy for melanoma by enhancing antitumor immune activity. Currently, major strategies for the PD-1/PD-L1 blockade have mainly focused on the use of antibodies and compounds. Seeking an alternative approach, others employ endogenous proteins as blocking agents. The extracellular domain of PD-1 (ePD1) includes the binding site with PD-L1. Accordingly, we constructed a PD-1-based recombinantly tailored fusion protein (dFv-ePD1) that consists of bivalent variable fragments (dFv) of an MMP-2/9-targeted antibody and ePD1. The melanoma-binding intensity and antitumor activity were also investigated. We found the intense and selective binding capability of the protein dFv-ePD1 to human melanoma specimens was confirmed by a tissue microarray. In addition, dFv-ePD1 significantly suppressed the migration and invasion of mouse melanoma B16-F1 cells, and displayed cytotoxicity to cancer cells in vitro. Notably, dFv-ePD1 significantly inhibited the growth of mouse melanoma B16-F1 tumor cells in mice and in vivo fluorescence imaging showed that dFv-ePD was gradually accumulated into the B16-F1 tumor. Also the B16-F1 tumor fluorescence intensity at the tumor site was stronger than that of dFv. This study indicates that the recombinant protein dFv-ePD1 has an intensive melanoma-binding capability and exerts potent therapeutic efficacy against melanoma. The novel format of the PD-L1-blocked agent may play an active role in antitumor immunotherapy.

The CD28-B7 Family in Anti-Tumor Immunity: Emerging Concepts in Cancer Immunotherapy

  • Leung, Joanne;Suh, Woong-Kyung
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.265-276
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    • 2014
  • The interactions between B7 molecules and CD28-family receptors are crucial in the regulation of adaptive cellular immunity. In cancer, the aberrant expression of co-inhibitory B7 molecules has been attributed to reduced anti-tumor immunity and cancer immune evasion, prompting the development of cancer therapeutics that can restore T cell function. Murine tumor models have provided significant support for the targeting of multiple immune checkpoints involving CTLA-4, PD-1, ICOS, B7-H3 and B7-H4 during tumor growth, and clinical studies investigating the therapeutic effects of CTLA-4 and PD-1 blockade have shown exceptionally promising results in patients with advanced melanoma and other cancers. The expression pattern of co-inhibitory B7 ligands in the tumor microenvironment has also been largely correlated with poor patient prognosis, and recent evidence suggests that the presence of several B7 molecules may predict the responsiveness of immunotherapies that rely on pre-existing tumor-associated immune responses. While monotherapies blocking T cell co-inhibition have beneficial effects in reducing tumor burden, combinatorial immunotherapy targeting multiple immune checkpoints involved in various stages of the anti-tumor response has led to the most substantial impact on tumor reduction. In this review, we will examine the contributions of B7- and CD28-family members in the context of cancer development, and discuss the implications of current human findings in cancer immunotherapy.

A carboxymethyl dextran-based polymeric conjugate as the antigen carrier for cancer immunotherapy

  • Shin, Jung Min;Song, Seok Ho;Rao, N. Vijayakameswara;Lee, Eun Sook;Ko, Hyewon;Park, Jae Hyung
    • Biomaterials Research
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.195-201
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    • 2018
  • Background: Antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), which eliminate target cells bearing antigenic peptides presented by surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, play a key role in cancer immunotherapy. However, the majority of tumors are not immunologically rejected since they express self-antigens which are not recognized by CTLs as foreign. To foreignize these tumors for CTL-mediated immunological rejection, it is essential to develop carriers that can effectively deliver foreign antigens to cancer cells. Methods: A polymeric conjugate, composed of a carboxymethyl dextran (CMD) as the backbone and ovalbumin (OVA) as a model foreign antigen, was prepared to investigate its potential as the antigen carrier for cancer immunotherapy. Results: An in vitro cellular uptake study showed that the conjugate was successfully taken up by TC-1 cervical cancer cells. When CMD-OVA was systemically administered to tumor-bearing mice, the strong fluorescence signal was observed at the tumor site over the whole period of time period, suggesting high tumor targetability of the conjugate. Compared to free OVA, CMD-OVA induced significantly higher antigen presentation at the tumor site. Conclusions: The CMD-OVA conjugate can effectively deliver the antigen to the tumor site, implying its high potential as the antigen carrier for cancer immunotherapy.

New opportunities for nanoparticles in cancer immunotherapy

  • Park, Wooram;Heo, Young-Jae;Han, Dong Keun
    • Biomaterials Research
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.211-220
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    • 2018
  • Background: Recently, cancer immunotherapy has become standard for cancer treatment. Immunotherapy not only treats primary tumors, but also prevents metastasis and recurrence, representing a major advantage over conventional cancer treatments. However, existing cancer immunotherapies have limited clinical benefits because cancer antigens are often not effectively delivered to immune cells. Furthermore, unlike lymphoma, solid tumors evade anti-cancer immunity by forming an immune-suppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). One approach for overcoming these limitations of cancer immunotherapy involves nanoparticles based on biomaterials. Main body: Here, we review in detail recent trends in the use of nanoparticles in cancer immunotherapy. First, to illustrate the unmet needs for nanoparticles in this field, we describe the mechanisms underlying cancer immunotherapy. We then explain the role of nanoparticles in the delivery of cancer antigens and adjuvants. Next, we discuss how nanoparticles can be helpful within the immune-suppressive TME. Finally, we summarize current and future uses of nanoparticles with image-guided interventional techniques in cancer immunotherapy. Conclusion: Recently developed approaches for using nanoparticles in cancer immunotherapy have enormous potential for improving cancer treatment. Cancer immunotherapy based on nanoparticles is anticipated not only to overcome the limitations of existing immunotherapy, but also to generate synergistic effects via cooperation between nanoparticles and immune cells.

Cancer Immunotherapy: Cancer Vaccines

  • Lee, Na Kyung;Kim, Hong Sung
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.161-165
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    • 2017
  • It has well reported that host immune system is closely related to cancer growth and eradication. Among cancer immunotherapy, cancer vaccine is focused on this review. Cancer vaccine is using host immune system against various tumor antigens to treat cancer. We discuss the classification and characteristics of the preventive vaccine, therapeutic vaccine and combination cancer immunotherapy.

The Effectiveness of IL-12 Administration and Fusion on Tumor Antigen Sensitization Methods for Dendritic Cells Derived from Patients with Myelogenous Leukemia (골수성백혈병에서 배양한 수지상세포(Dendritic Cell)에 대한 종양항원 감작법으로 IL-12 첨가와 융합법의 효과)

  • Kim, Kee Won;Park, Suk Young;Hong, Young Seon
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.38-43
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    • 2004
  • Backgroud: Immunotherapy using dendritic cells (DC) loaded with tumor antigens may represent a potentially effective method for inducing antitumor immunity. We evaluated the effectiveness of DC-based antitumor immune response in various conditions. Methods: DC were cultured from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) in myelogenous leukemia (ML) and lysates of autologous leukemic cells are used as tumor antigen. The effectiveness of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and CD40L (CD154) on the antigen presenting function of lysates-loaded DC was analyzed by proliferation, cytokine production, and cytotoxicity tests with activated PBMNC (mainly lymphocytes). For generating antigen-loaded DC, direct fusion of DC with ML was studied. Results: Antigen loaded DC induced significantly effective antitumor immune response against autologous leukemic cells. Administration of IL-12 on the DC based antitumor immune response showed higher proliferation activity, IFN-$\gamma$ production, and cytotoxic activity of PBMNC. Also, fused cell has a potent antitumor immune response. Conclusion: We conclude that lysates-loaded DC with IL-12 may be effectively utilized as inducer of antitumor immune reaction in ML and in vivo application with DC-based antitumor immunotherapy or tumor vaccination seems to be feasible.

Effect of Peripheral Blood CD4 + CD25 + Regulatory T Cell on Postoperative Immunotherapy for Patients with Renal Carcinoma

  • Zhang, Chao-Hua;Huang, Yan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.2027-2030
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    • 2016
  • Objective: To investigate the effect of peripheral blood CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T cell on postoperative immunotherapy in patients with renal carcinoma. Methods: 38 patients with renal cell carcinoma were recruited, and 20 patients from the operation group purely underwent the radical nephrectomy therapy, 18 patients from the combined group successively underwent the radical nephrectomy therapy and IFN-${\alpha}$ adjuvant immunotherapy. Additionally, 12 healthy subjects were recruited in the same period of time and regarded as the control group. Flow cytometry was used to detect CD4 +, CD8 +, CD4 + CD25+ T lymphocyte subset content and the ratio of all parts in the pre-operative period, in the first post-operative week and in the third post-operative month, compare and analyze its variation trend. Results: The CD4+CD25+ T lymphocyte subset content of individual renal carcinoma patients was significantly higher than that of the control group, also increases with the progression in the tumor stage (P<0.05). The post-operative CD4 + CD25+T lymphocytes of individual operation group and combined group patients showed different degrees of increment, but the increment of the combined group was significantly lower than that of the operation group (P<0.05). For the combined group patients with less pre-operative CD4 + CD25+T lymphocytes, their levels would increase after the immunotherapy, while the pre-operative patients with more CD4 + CD25+ T lymphocytes were the opposite situation. Conclusion: The detection of peripheral blood CD4+CD25+ regulatory T lymphocyte subset can reflect the anti-tumor immune status of renal cell carcinoma patient body. It can contribute to predict the prognosis of immunotherapy and provide reference for the choice of renal carcinoma post-operative adjuvant immunotherapy.

Impact of IL-2 and IL-2R SNPs on Proliferation and Tumor-killing Activity of Lymphokine-Activated Killer Cells from Healthy Chinese Blood Donors

  • Li, Yan;Meng, Fan-Dong;Tian, Xin;Sui, Cheng-Guang;Liu, Yun-Peng;Jiang, You-Hong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.18
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    • pp.7965-7970
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    • 2014
  • One of the goals of tumor immunotherapy is to generate immune cells with potent anti-tumor activity through in vitro techniques using peripheral blood collected from patients. However, cancer patients generally have poor immunological function. Thus using patient T cells, which have reduced in vitro proliferative capabilities and less tumor cell killing activity to generate lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells, fails to achieve optimal clinical efficacy. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a potent activating cytokine for both T cells and natural killer cells. Thus, this study aimed to identify optimal donors for allogeneic LAK cell immunotherapy based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the IL-2 and IL-2R genes. IL-2 and IL-2R SNPs were analyzed using HRM-PCR. LAK cells were derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by culturing with IL-2. The frequency and tumor-killing activity of LAK cells in each group were analyzed by flow cytometry and tumor cell killing assays, respectively. Regarding polymorphisms at IL-2-330 (rs2069762) T/G, LAK cells from GG donors had significantly greater proliferation, tumor-killing activity, and IFN-${\gamma}$ production than LAK cells from TT donors (P<0.05). Regarding polymorphisms at IL-2R rs2104286 A/G, LAK cell proliferation and tumor cell killing were significantly greater in LAK cells from AA donors than GG donors (P<0.05). These data suggest that either IL-2-330(rs2069762)T/G GG donors or IL-2R rs2104286 A/G AA donors are excellent candidates for allogeneic LAK cell immunotherapy.

Expression of Cancer-Testis Antigens in Stem Cells: Is it a Potential Drawback or an Advantage in Cancer Immunotherapy

  • Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.7
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    • pp.3079-3081
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    • 2015
  • Cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) are a group of tumor associated antigens with a restricted expression pattern in normal gametogenic tissues but expression in a broad range of malignancies. Their expression pattern has made them potential targets for immunotherapy. However, expression of some of these antigens has been demonstrated in normal stem cells as well as cancer stem cells (CSCs). As CSCs have been shown to be sources of metastasis and tumor recurrence, novel therapies are being focused on their eradication. On the other hand, CTA expression in normal stem cells raises the possibility that CTA based immunotherapies cause side effects in normal tissues.

Development of Genetically Modified Tumor Cell Containing Co-stimulatory Molecule

  • Kim, Hong Sung
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.398-406
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    • 2019
  • Cancer immunotherapy using gene-modified tumor cells is safe and customized cancer treatment method. In this study, we made gene-modified tumor cells by transferring costimulatory molecules, 4-1BBL and OX40L, into tumor cells using lentivirus vector, and identified anti-cancer effect of gene-modified tumor cells in CT26 mouse colorectal tumor model. We construct pLVX-puro-4-1BBL, -OX40L vector for lentivirus production and optimized the transfection efficiency and transduction efficiency. The transfection efficiency is maximal at DNA:cationic polymer = 1:0.5 and DNA 2 ㎍ for lentivirus production. Then, the lentiviral including 4-1BBL and OX40L was used to deliver CT26 mouse tumor cells to establish optimal delivery conditions according to the amount of virus. The transduction efficiency is maximal at 500 μL volume of lentiviral stock without change in cell shape or growth rate. CT26-4-1BBL, CT26-OX40L significantly inhibited the tumor growth compare with CT26-WT or CT26-β-gal cell line. These data showed the possibility the use of genetically modified tumor cells with costimulatory molecule as cancer immunotherapy agent.