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Cytotoxic Effects of Tenebrio molitor Larval Extracts against Hepatocellular Carcinoma (갈색거저리 유충 추출물의 간암세포에 대한 세포독성 효능)

  • Lee, Ji-Eun;Lee, An-Jung;Jo, Da-Eun;Cho, Ju Hyeong;Youn, Kumju;Yun, Eun-Young;Hwang, Jae-Sam;Jun, Mira;Kang, Byoung Heon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.200-207
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    • 2015
  • Various natural products or their derivatives, mostly originating from plants, fungi, and bacteria, have been exploited as therapeutic drugs to treat various human diseases. In addition to previously explored organisms, research on natural compounds has now expanded into unexamined living organisms in order to identify novel bioactive substances. Here, we determined whether or not the larval form of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor, a species of darkling beetle, contains cytotoxic substances that exclusively affect cancer cell viability. Ethanol extract and its solvent partitioned fractions, hexane and ethyl acetate fractions, showed anticancer effects against various human cancer cells derived from the prostate (PC3 and 22Rv1), cervix (HeLa), liver (PLC/PRF5, HepG2, Hep3B, and SK-HEP-1), colon (HCT116), lung (NCI-H460), breast (MDA-MB231), and ovary (SKOV3). Cell death induced by the fractions was a mix of apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. The hexane fraction was administered intraperitoneally to nude mice bearing a hepatocellular carcinoma SK-HEP-1 and showed inhibition of tumor growth in vivo. Therefore, we concluded that worm extracts contain cytotoxic substances, which can be enriched by proper fractionation protocols, and further separation and purification could lead to the identification of novel molecules to treat human cancers.

Medicinal Herb Extracts Attenuate 1-Chloro-2,4dinitrobenzene-induced Development of Atopic Dermatitis-like Skin Lesions (한약재 단일 추출물 및 복합 추출물을 이용한 아토피성 피부염 억제 효과)

  • Lee, Moon Hee;Han, Min Ho;Yoon, Jung Jeh;Song, Myung Kyu;Kim, Min Ju;Hong, Su Hyun;Choi, Byung Tae;Kim, Byung Woo;Hwang, Hye Jin;Choi, Yung Hyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.8
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    • pp.851-859
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    • 2014
  • The present study was designed to investigate whether ethanol extracts of Sophora flavescens (GS), Glycyrrhiza uralensis (GC), Dictamnus dasycarpus (BSP), and their mixtures (GGB-1, -2, -3, and -4) inhibit 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD) in a mouse model. DNCB was topically applied on the dorsal surface of Balb/c mice to induce AD-like skin lesions. The pathological phenotypes of AD, such as erythema, ear thickness, edema, scabs, and discharge, were significantly decreased in the GGB (DNCB + GS:GC:BSP = 3:1:1 mixture)-1-treated groups compared with the other treated groups. The weight of the spleen in immune organs was significantly decreased in the GGB-1-treated groups, whereas the weight of the liver in a control group was similar to that of the groups treated with the samples. Furthermore, toluidine blue staining analysis, a method used to specifically identify mast cells, showed that master cell infiltration into the dermis of the GGB-1-treated group was significantly decreased. The immunoglobulin E concentration was lower in the GGB-1-treated group. In addition, the levels of inflammatory cytokines (interferon-${\gamma}$, interleukin-1, 4, 5, 6, and 13, $1{\beta}$, and tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$) were also significantly reduced in the GGB-1-treated group. Taken together, these results suggest that a mixture of GS, GC, and BSP in a proportion of 3:1:1 (GGB-1) may contribute to the relief of AD symptoms and may be considered an excellent candidate for an AD therapeutic drug.

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Poly-${\gamma}$-Glutamic Acid on DNCB-Induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis in Dogs (개에서 DNCB에 의해 유발된 알레르기성 접촉피부염에 대한 폴리감마글루탐산의 항염증 효과)

  • Kim, Hyun-Gon;Kim, Kil-Soo;Oh, Tae-Ho
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.283-296
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    • 2012
  • Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is an inflammatory skin disease and regarded as a prototype of T-cell mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. Poly-${\gamma}$-glutamic acid (PGA) is a biodegradable polymer that is produced by Bacillus subtilis. This study was performed to assess the effects of PGA in a canine model of ACD. ACD was induced on the back of dogs induced by sensitization and repeated application by 2,4-dinitro-1-chlorobenzene (DNCB). Topical treatment of PGA was applied once a day for 12 days and skin biophysical parameters including transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration, skin pH, skin thickness and erythema index, were measured every two days during experimental periods. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry were performed to evaluate the antiinflammatory effect. In skin biophysical parameters, TEWL, skin hydration, skin thickness and erythema index were significantly increased, with a maximum increase appeared on day 2 (p < 0.05). On the other hand, skin pH was significantly decreased, with a maximum decrease appeared on day 2 (p < 0.01). After the completion of PGA treatment, skin biophysical parameters were significantly reached those of baseline in a time-dependent manner (p < 0.05). In histopathology, marked increases of epidermal thicknesses were induced after DNCB challenge with numerous inflammatory cell infiltrations and edematous changes, decreases of connective tissue occupied regions in dermis. In addition, marked increases of cytokine - tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ (TNF-${\alpha}$) and interferon-${\gamma}$ (IFN-${\gamma}$)-immunoreactivities in the dermis and of apoptotic markers - caspase-3 and PARP-immunoreactivities in the epidermis were observed in DNCB-PBS control as compared with intact control, respectively (p < 0.01). It means, the ACD and related apoptotic changes were induced by DNCB in the present study. However, these ACD induced by DNCB and related apoptosis in epidermis were significantly inhibited by treatment of PGA treated skin, the decreases of infiltrated inflammatory cells and related decreases of pro-inflammatory cytokine immunoreactivities were also observed (p < 0.01). Based on these findings, PGA may have anti-inflammatory and alleviatory effects in the allergic contact dermatitis.

Anti-inflammatory Effect of Lactuca sativa L. Extract in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells and Improvement of Lipid Levels in Mice Fed a High-fat Diet (상추 추출물(Lactuca sativa L.)의 혈관내피세포에서 항염증 작용과 고지방 식이 생쥐에서 혈중 지질농도 개선에 미치는 영향)

  • Hwang-Bo, Jeon;Jang, Kyung Ok;Chung, Hayoung;Park, Jong-Hwa;Lee, Tae Hoon;Kim, Jiyoung;Chung, In Sik
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.998-1007
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) extract on the inflammation of human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) and blood lipid improvement in hypercholesterolemic mice fed a high cholesterol diet. The lettuce extract (100% ethanol extract) inhibited the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in HUVEC treated with tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ (TNF-${\alpha}$). The lettuce extract suppressed the adhesion of THP-1 to TNF-${\alpha}$-treated HUVEC. The lettuce extract decreased the TNF-${\alpha}$-stimulated production of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein 1. In hypercholesterolemic mice, the lettuce extract reduced serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level, while the lettuce extract elevated high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level, resulting in the decrease of atherogenic index and cardiac risk factor level. These results suggested that lettuce extract can be an useful resource to show an anti-inflammatory effect and improve lipid metabolism.

Beneficial Effects of Acanthopanax senticosus Extract in Type II Diabetes Animal Model via Down-Regulation of Advanced Glycated Hemoglobin and Glycosylation End Products (제2형 당뇨 동물모델에서 가시오가피 추출물의 당화혈색소 및 최종당화산물 억제를 통한 혈당조절 효과)

  • Kwon, Han Ol;Lee, Minhee;Kim, Yong Jae;Kim, Eun;Kim, Ok-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.7
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    • pp.929-937
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Acanthopanax senticosus extract (ASE) (ethanol : DW=1:1, v/v) on inhibition of type 2 diabetes using an OLETF rat model via regulation of HbA1c and AGEs levels. Supplementation with ASE 0.1% and 0.5% effectively lowered levels of glucose, insulin, oral glucose tolerance test, and Homa-insulin resistance, suggesting reduced insulin resistance. Blood levels of HbA1c and AGEs were significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner. As oxidative stress plays a key role in accelerating production of HbA1c and AGEs, which worsen symptoms of type 2 diabetes, levels of malonaldehyde and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured. Lipid peroxidation in both blood and liver tissues was significantly reduced, and induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-${\beta}$ and tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$, which elevate production of HbA1c and AGEs, was inhibited (P<0.05). To evaluate the possible cellular events after AGEs receptor activation, genetic expression of protein kinase C (PKC)-${\delta}$ and transforming growth factor (TGF)-${\beta}$ was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Supplementation with both ASE 0.1% and 0.5% significantly inhibited mRNA expression of PKC-${\delta}$ and TGF-${\beta}$, indicating that ASE may have beneficial effects on preventing insulin-resistant cells or tissues from progressing to diabetic complications. Taken together, ASE has potential to improve type 2 diabetes by inhibiting insulin resistance and protein glycosylation, including production of HbA1c and AGEs. Anti-oxidative activities of ASE are a main requisite for reducing production of HbA1c and AGEs and are also related to regulation of the PKC signaling pathway, resulting in suppression of TGF-${\beta}$, which increases synthesis of collagen, prostaglandin, and disease-related proteins.

Immunomodulatory Activity of Water Extract of Ulmus macrocarpa in Macrophages (유근피 추출물이 대식세포 면역조절에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwon, Da Hye;Kang, Hye-Joo;Choi, Yung Hyun;Chung, Kyung Tae;Lee, Jong Hwan;Kang, Kyung Hwa;Hyun, Sook Kyung;Kim, Byung Woo;Hwang, Hye Jin
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.50-58
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    • 2016
  • The root bark of Ulmus macrocarpa has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases such as edema, infection and inflammation. Nevertheless, the biological activities and underlying mechanisms of the immunomodulatory effects remain unclear. In this study, as part of our ongoing screening program to evaluate the immunomodulatory potential of new compounds from traditional medicinal resources, we investigated the effects of U. macrocarpa water extract (UME) on immune modulation in a murine RAW 264.7 macrophage model. As immune response parameters, the productions of as nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines such tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10 were evaluated. Although the release of IL-1β remained unchanged in UME-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages, the productions of NO, TNF-α and IL-10 were significantly increased, along with the increased expression of inducible NO synthase, TNF-α and IL-10 expression at concentrations with no cytotoxicity. UME treatment also induced the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and phosphorylation of Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) indicating that UME activated macrophages through the activation of NF-κB, phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and MAPKs signaling pathways in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, pre-treatment with UME significantly attenuated the production of NO, but not TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10, in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells suggesting that UME may be useful in preventing inflammatory diseases mediated by excessive production of NO. These findings suggest that the beneficial therapeutic effects of UME may be attributed partly to its ability to modulate immune functions in macrophages.

Immuno-stimulatory Activities of a High Molecular Weight Fraction from Cynanchum wilfordii Radix Obtained by Ultrafiltration (한외거르기(Ultrafiltration)에 의하여 분리된 백수오 고분자 분획물의 면역증진 활성)

  • Jang, Mi;Lim, Tae-Gyu;Hong, Hee-Do;Rhee, Young Kyoung;Kim, Kyung-Tack;Lee, Eunjung;Lee, Jeong Hoon;Lee, Yun Ji;Kim, Yeon Bok;Cho, Chang-Won
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.268-274
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the immuno-stimulatory activity of the high-molecular-weight fraction (HMWF) of Cynanchum wilfordii (CW) extracts obtained by ultrafiltration in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and to assess its immuno-stimulatory effect in mice. Ultrafiltration was performed with polyethersulfone membranes (30 kDa cutoff) in a cross-flow filtration system to obtain the HMWF of CW. The results showed that the HMWF increased the production of various cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$, interleukin-6, and nitric oxide in dose-ependent manners. In addition, HMWF treatment increased the relative spleen weight as well as splenocyte proliferation induced by concanavalin A or bacterial lipopolysaccharide in mice. Natural killer (NK) cell activity in the HMWF-treated group was significantly increased compared to that in the control group. These results suggest that the HMWF of CW can support the immune system through secretion of macrophage cytokines, thereby enhancing NK cell activity and murine splenocyte proliferation.

Development of a Pancreatic Cancer Specific Binding Peptide Using Phage Display (파지 디스플레이를 이용한 췌장암 특이적 결합 펩타이드 개발)

  • Lee, Dong Won;Park, Jae Myung;Yang, Seung Mok;Kwak, Moon Hwa;Roh, Yoon Jin;Lee, In Seok;Choi, Myung-Gyu
    • The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology
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    • v.74 no.1
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    • pp.30-41
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    • 2019
  • Background/Aims: Pancreatic cancer has a very poor prognosis, and early diagnosis is a way to increase the survival rate of patients. The purpose of this study was to develop pancreatic cancer-specific peptides for imaging studies. Methods: Three pancreatic cancer cell lines, MIA PaCa-2, UACC-462, and BxPC-3, and a control cell line, CCD841, were used. Biopannings were performed on MIA PaCa-2 using a phage display library. After this, the peptides were synthesized and labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). Immunocytochemistry (ICC), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) were performed to examine the specific binding. To examine its therapeutic applications, a photosensitizer, chlorin e6 (Ce6), was conjugated on the peptide and photodynamic therapy was performed. Cell survival was investigated using a [3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide] assay. Results: After three biopannings, the phages were amplified from 1.4×104 to 3.2×105 plaque-forming units. The most strongly binding phage was selected from the ELISA and ICC results. FITC-labeled peptide, M5, in the three pancreatic cancer cell lines showed significantly higher immunofluorescence in the ICC experiments than that of CCD841. The higher binding ability to MIA PaCa-2 cells was confirmed from FACS analysis, which showed a right shift compared to CCD841. M5 bound to Ce6 showed a significantly lower cell survival rate than that of Ce6 alone in photodynamic therapy, which was observed consistently as a change in the tumor size and fluorescence intensity in MIA PaCa-2 cell-implanted animal models. Conclusions: This study showed that the noble peptide, M5, binds specifically to the pancreatic cancer cell line, MIA PaCa-2. The M5 peptide has potential use in future optical diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

Correlation of p53 Protein Overexpression, Gene Mutation with Prognosis in Resected Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer(NSCLC) Patients (비소세포폐암에서 p53유전자의 구조적 이상 및 단백질 발현이 예후에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Y.H.;Shin, D.H.;Kim, J.H.;Lim, H.Y.;Chung, K.Y.;Yang, W.I.;Kim, S.K.;Chang, J.;Roh, J.K.;Kim, S.K.;Lee, W.Y.;Kim, B.S.;Kim, B.S.
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.339-353
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    • 1994
  • Background : The p53 gene codes for a DNA-binding nuclear phosphoprotein that appears to inhibit the progression of cells from the G1 to the S phase of the cell cycle. Mutations of the p53 gene are common in a wide variety of human cancers, including lung cancer. In lung cancers, point mutations of the p53 gene have been found in all histological types including approximately 45% of resected NSCLC and even more frequently in SCLC specimens. Mutant forms of the p53 protein have transforming activity and interfere with the cell-cycle regulatory function of the wild-type protein. The majority of p53 gene mutations produce proteins with altered conformation and prolonged half life; these mutant proteins accumulate in the cell nucleus and can be detected by immunohistochemical staining. But protein overexpression has been reported in the absence of mutation. p53 protein overexpression or gene mutation is reported poor prognostic factor in breast cancer, but in lung cancer, its prognostic significance is controversial. Method : We investigated the p53 abnormalities by nucleotide sequencing, polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism(PCR-SSCP), and immunohistochemical staining. We correlated these results with each other and survival in 75 patients with NSCLC resected with curative intent. Overexpression of the p53 protein was studied immunohistochemically in archival paraffin- embedded tumor samples using the D07(Novocastra, U.K.) antibody. Overexpression of p53 protein was defined by the nuclear staining of greater than 25% immunopositive cells in tumors. Detection of p53 gene mutation was done by PCR-SSCP and nucleotide sequencing from the exon 5-9 of p53 gene. Result: 1) Of the 75 patients, 36%(27/75) showed p53 overexpression by immunohistochemical stain. There was no survival difference between positive and negative p53 immunostaining(overall median survival of 26 months, disease free median survival of 13 months in both groups). 2) By PCR-SSCP, 27.6%(16/58) of the patients showed mobility shift. There was no significant difference in survival according to mobility shift(overall median survival of 27 in patients without mobility shift vs 20 months in patients with mobility shift, disease free median survival of 8 months vs 10 months respectively). 3) Nucleotide sequence was analysed from 29 patients, and 34.5%(10/29) had mutant p53 sequence. Patients with the presence of gene mutations showed tendency to shortened survival compared with the patients with no mutation(overall median survival of 22 vs 27 months, disease free median survival of 10 vs 20 months), but there was no statistical significance. 4) The sensitivity and specificity of immunostain based on PCR-SSCP was 67.0%, 74.0%, and that of the PCR-SSCP based on the nucleotide sequencing was 91.8%, 96.2% respectively. The concordance rate between the immunostain and PCR-SSCP was 62.5%, and the rate between the PCR-SSCP and nucleotide sequencing was 95.3%. Conclusion : In terms of detection of p53 gene mutation, PCR-SSCP was superior to immunostaining. p53 gene abnormalities either overexpression or mutation were not a significant prognostic factor in NSCLC patients resected with curative intent. However, patients with the mutated p53 gene showed the trends of early relapse.

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The Effect of $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$-SR Gene Transfer on the Sensitivity of Human Lung Cancer Cell Lines to Cisplatin and Paclitaxel ($I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$-SR 유전자이입이 Cisplatin, Paclitaxel에 대한 폐암세포주의 감수성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Seok-Young;Seol, Ja-Young;Park, Kyung-Ho;Park, Gun-Min;Hwang, Yong-Il;Kim, Cheol-Hyeon;Jang, Seung-Hun;Kwon, Sung-Youn;Yoo, Chul-Gyu;Kim, Young-Whan;Han, Sung-Koo;Shim, Young-Soo;Lee, Choon-Taek
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.51 no.2
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    • pp.122-134
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    • 2001
  • Background : Some chemotherapeutic drugs induce NF-${\kappa}B$ activation by degrading the $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ protein in cancer cells which contributes to anticancer drug resistance. We hypothesized that inhibiting $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation would block NF-${\kappa}B$ activation and result in increased tumor cell mortality in response to chemotherapy. Methods : The "superrepressor" form of the NF-${\kappa}B$ inhibitor was transferred by an adenoviral vector (Ad-$I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$-SR) to the human lung cancer cell lines (NCI H157 and NCI H460). With a MIT assay, the level of sensitization to cisplatin and paclitaxel were measured. To confirm the mechanism, an EMSA and Annexin V assay were performed. Results : EMSA showed that $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$-SR effectively blocked the NF-${\kappa}B$ activation induced by cisplatin. Transduction with Ad-$I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$-SR resulted in an increased sensitivity of the lung cancer cell lines to cisplatin and paclitaxel by a factor of 2~3 in terms of $IC_{50}$. Annexin-V analysis suggests that this increment in chemosensitivity to cisplatin probably occurs through the induction of apoptosis. Conclusion : The blockade of chemotherapeutics induced NF-${\kappa}B$ activation by inducing Ad-$I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$-SR, increased apoptosis and increasing the chemosensitivity of the lung cancer cell lines tested, subsequently. Gene transfer of $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$-SR appears to be a new therapeutic strategy of chemosensitization in lung cancer.

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