• Title, Summary, Keyword: tumor cells

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Convergence of Cancer Metabolism and Immunity: an Overview

  • Van Dang, Chi;Kim, Jung-whan
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.4-9
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    • 2018
  • Cancer metabolism as a field of research was founded almost 100 years ago by Otto Warburg, who described the propensity for cancers to convert glucose to lactate despite the presence of oxygen, which in yeast diminishes glycolytic metabolism known as the Pasteur effect. In the past 20 years, the resurgence of interest in cancer metabolism provided significant insights into processes involved in maintenance metabolism of non-proliferating cells and proliferative metabolism, which is regulated by proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors in normal proliferating cells. In cancer cells, depending on the driving oncogenic event, metabolism is re-wired for nutrient import, redox homeostasis, protein quality control, and biosynthesis to support cell growth and division. In general, resting cells rely on oxidative metabolism, while proliferating cells rewire metabolism toward glycolysis, which favors many biosynthetic pathways for proliferation. Oncogenes such as MYC, BRAF, KRAS, and PI3K have been documented to rewire metabolism in favor of proliferation. These cell intrinsic mechanisms, however, are insufficient to drive tumorigenesis because immune surveillance continuously seeks to destroy neo-antigenic tumor cells. In this regard, evasion of cancer cells from immunity involves checkpoints that blunt cytotoxic T cells, which are also attenuated by the metabolic tumor microenvironment, which is rich in immuno-modulating metabolites such as lactate, 2-hydroxyglutarate, kynurenine, and the proton (low pH). As such, a full understanding of tumor metabolism requires an appreciation of the convergence of cancer cell intrinsic metabolism and that of the tumor microenvironment including stromal and immune cells.

Turning Hepatic Cancer Stem Cells Inside Out - A Deeper Understanding through Multiple Perspectives

  • Chan, Lok-Hei;Luk, Steve T.;Ma, Stephanie
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.202-209
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    • 2015
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a highly malignant disease and the third leading cause of all cancer mortalities worldwide, often responses poorly to current treatments and results in dismal outcomes due to frequent chemoresistance and tumor relapse. The heterogeneity of HCC is an important attribute of the disease. It is the outcome of many factors, including the cross-talk between tumor cells within the tumor microenvironment and the acquisition and accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in tumor cells. In addition, there is accumulating evidence in recent years to show that the malignancy of HCC can be attributed partly to the presence of cancer stem cell (CSC). CSCs are capable to self-renew, differentiate and initiate tumor formation. The regulation of the stem cell-like properties by several important signaling pathways have been found to endow the tumor cells with an increased level of tumorigenicity, chemoresistance, and metastatic ability. In this review, we will discuss the recent findings on hepatic CSCs, with special emphasis on their putative origins, relationship with hepatitis viruses, regulatory signaling networks, tumor microenvironment, and how these factors control the stemness of hepatic CSCs. We will also discuss some novel therapeutic strategies targeted at hepatic CSCs for combating HCC and perspectives of future investigation.

CXCR4-STAT3 Axis Plays a Role in Tumor Cell Infiltration in an Orthotopic Mouse Glioblastoma Model

  • Han, Ji-hun;Yoon, Jeong Seon;Chang, Da-Young;Cho, Kyung Gi;Lim, Jaejoon;Kim, Sung-Soo;Suh-Kim, Haeyoung
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.539-550
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    • 2020
  • Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a fatal malignant tumor that is characterized by diffusive growth of tumor cells into the surrounding brain parenchyma. However, the diffusive nature of GBM and its relationship with the tumor microenvironment (TME) is still unknown. Here, we investigated the interactions of GBM with the surrounding microenvironment in orthotopic xenograft animal models using two human glioma cell lines, U87 and LN229. The GBM cells in our model showed different features on the aspects of cell growth rate during their development, dispersive nature of glioma tumor cells along blood vessels, and invasion into the brain parenchyma. Our results indicated that these differences in the two models are in part due to differences in the expression of CXCR4 and STAT3, both of which play an important role in tumor progression. In addition, the GBM shows considerable accumulation of resident microglia and peripheral macrophages, but polarizes differently into tumor-supporting cells. These results suggest that the intrinsic factors of GBM and their interaction with the TME determine the diffusive nature and probably the responsiveness to non-cancer cells in the TME.

Study on Effect of Takrisodokyeum Extract on Antitumoral Activity and Immune Response (탁리소독음(托裏消毒飮)의 항종양(抗腫瘍) 효과(效果) 및 면역조절반응(免疫調節反應)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Yang Ki-Ho
    • Herbal Formula Science
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.147-168
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    • 1997
  • Tish study was carried out to evaluate the possible therapeutic or antitumoral effects of Takrisodokyeum extract against tumor, and immunomodulatory effect. Some kinds of tumor were induced by the typical application of 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) or by the implantation(s.c) of malignant tumor cells such as leukemia cells(3LL cells) or sarcoma cells(S-I80 and Fas II cells). Treatment of the Takrisodokyeum water-extract(daily 1mg mouse, i.p.) was continued for 7 days prior to tumor induction and after that the treatment was lasted for 15 days. Against squamous cell carcinoma induced by MCA, Takrisodokyeum decreased not only the frequency of tumor production but also the number and the weight of tumors per tumor bearing mice (TBM). Takrisodokyeum also significantly suppressed the development of 3LLcell and S-180 cell by frequency and their size, and some developed tumors were regressed by the continuous treatment of Takrisodokyeum extract into TBM. However, when tumor was induced by FsaII cell-implantation, the growth of implanted cells in mice was delayed by the water extract of Takrisodokyeum until day 7 and then rapid growth ensued. In vitro, treatment of Takrisodokyeum extract had no effect on the growth of some kind of cell lines such as FsaII, A-131 strain but significantly inhibited the proliferation of 3LL, S-180 cells. Takrisodokyeum also stimulated the migrative ability of leucocyte, the MIF and IL 2-production of T lymphocytes, but not IL 6 production of B cells. Takrisodokyeum enhanced Arthus reaction and DTH to sheep erythrocytes, and NK cells activities. These results demonstrated that Takrisodokyeum extract different results according to the type of tumor cells. And these results also suggested that antitumor effect of Takrisodokyeum might be chiefly due to nonspecific enhancement of NK cell activities and cell-mediated immune responses.

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Immunological Studies on the Antitumor Componets of the Basidiocarps of Agrocybe cylindracea

  • Kim, Byong-Kak;Hyun, Jin-won;Yoon, Jong-Myung;Choi, Eung-Chil
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.128-137
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    • 1997
  • The effects of cylindan, a polysaccharide isolated from the basidiocarps of Agrocybe cylindracea, on murine sarcoma 180 tumor and murine immune cells were examined after intraperitoneal administration. Cylindan exhibited a marked life extension effect in mice against ascite forms of sarcoma 180 and Lewis lung carcinoma at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day, although it did not show any direct cytotoxicity against sarcoma 180, X5563, and MM46 murine tumor cells. Cylindan increased numbers of bone marrow stem cells as well as peritoneal exudate cells in flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies. The tumor bearing mice group apparently showed the increase of macrophages and cytotoxic T lymphocytes in mouse spleen cells during the early stage of tumor growth. But during the later stage, the control group decreased immune cells and cylindan restored the decreased immune cells in the tumor bearing mice to the normal level. In non-specific immune response, cylindan stimulated the bacterial phagocytosis and acid phosphatase production in macrophages. It also activated components of the alternative complement pathway and natural killer activity against YAC-1 lymphoma. In number of plasma cells as token of stimulation of the differentiation of B lymphocytes. In cellular immunity, cylindan restored the depressed response of delayed type hypersensitivity in the tumor bearing mice to 60% of the normal level and increased the interleukin-2 (IL-2) responsiveness in the IL-2 dependent CTLL-2 cells. These results suggest that cylindan did not show direct cytotoxic effects on tumor cells but restored the decreased immune response of the tumor bearing mice.

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Growth, Clonability, and Radiation Resistance of Esophageal Carcinoma-derived Stem-like Cells

  • Li, Jian-Cheng;Liu, Di;Yang, Yan;Wang, Xiao-Ying;Pan, Ding-Long;Qiu, Zi-Dan;Su, Ying;Pan, Jian-Ji
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.8
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    • pp.4891-4896
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    • 2013
  • Objective: To separate/enrich tumor stem-like cells from the human esophageal carcinoma cell line OE-19 by using serum-free suspension culture and to identify their biological characteristics and radiation resistance. Methods: OE-19 cells were cultivated using adherent and suspension culture methods. The tumor stem-like phenotype of CD44 expression was detected using flow cytometry. We examined growth characteristics, cloning capacity in soft agar, and radiation resistance of 2 groups of cells. Results: Suspended cells in serum-free medium formed spheres that were enriched for CD44 expression. CD44 was expressed in 62.5% of suspended cells, but only in 11.7% of adherent cells. The suspended cells had greater capacity for proliferation and colony formation in soft agar than the adherent cells. When the suspended and adherent cells were irradiated at 5 Gy, 10 Gy, or 15 Gy, the proportion of CD44+ suspended cells strongly and weakly positive for CD44 was 77.8%, 66.5%, 57.5%; and 21.7%, 31.6%, 41.4%, respectively. In contrast, the proportion of CD44+ adherent cells strongly positive for CD44 was 18.9%, 14.%, and 9.95%, respectively. When the irradiation dose was increased to 30 Gy, the survival of the suspended and adherent cells was significantly reduced, and viable CD44+ cells were not detected. Conclusion: Suspended cell spheres generated from OE-19 esophageal carcinoma cells in serum-free stem medium are enriched in tumor stem-like cells. CD44 may be a marker for these cells.

Improving Combination Cancer Therapy by Acetaminophen and Romidepsin in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

  • Lee, Seong-Min;Park, James S.;Kim, Keun-Sik
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.293-301
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    • 2019
  • Combination chemotherapy is more effective than mono-chemotherapy and is widely used in clinical practice for enhanced cancer treatment. In this study, we investigated the potential synergistic effects of acetaminophen, a common component in many cold medicines, and romidepsin, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, in the A549 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line. The combination of acetaminophen and romidepsin also exerted significant cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by activation of caspase-3 on tumor cells in vitro. Moreover, combination therapy significantly induced increased production of chemokines that stimulate migration of activated T-cells into tumor cells. This mechanism can lead to active T-cell mediated anti-tumor immunity in addition to the direct cytotoxic chemotherapeutic effect. Activated T-cells led to enhanced cytotoxicity in drug-treated A549 cells through interaction with tumor cells. These results suggested that the interaction between the two drugs is synergistic and significant. In conclusion, our data showed that the use of romidepsin and low concentrations acetaminophen could induce effective anti-tumor effects via enhanced tumor immune and direct cytotoxic chemotherapeutic responses. The combination of acetaminophen with romidepsin should be considered as a promising strategy for the treatment of lung cancer.

Tumor-associated autoantibodies as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers

  • Heo, Chang-Kyu;Bahk, Young Yil;Cho, Eun-Wie
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.45 no.12
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    • pp.677-685
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    • 2012
  • In the process of tumorigenesis, normal cells are remodeled to cancer cells and protein expression patterns are changed to those of tumor cells. A newly formed tumor microenvironment elicits the immune system and, as a result, a humoral immune response takes place. Although the tumor antigens are undetectable in sera at the early stage of tumorigenesis, the nature of an antibody amplification response to antigens makes tumor-associated autoantibodies as promising early biomarkers in cancer diagnosis. Moreover, the recent development of proteomic techniques that make neo-epitopes of tumor-associated autoantigens discovered concomitantly has opened a new area of 'immuno-proteomics', which presents tumor-associated autoantibody signatures and confers information to redefine the process of tumorigenesis. In this article, the strategies recently used to identify and validate serum autoantibodies are outlined and tumor-associated antigens suggested until now as diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers in various tumor types are reviewed. Also, the meaning of autoantibody signatures and their clinical utility in personalized medicine are discussed.

Hypoxic Microenvironmental Control of Stress Protein and Erythropoietin Gene Expression

  • Beak, Sun-Hee;Han, Mi-Young;Lee, Seung-Hoon;Choi, Eun-Mi;Park, Young-Mee
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.112-118
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    • 1999
  • The presence of hypoxic cells in solid tumors has long been considered a problem in cancer treatment such as in radiation therapy or treatment with some anticancer drugs. It has been suggested that hypoxic cells are involved in the development of a more aggressive phenotype and contribute to metastasis. In this study, as an attempt to understand how tumor cells adapt to hypoxic stress, we investigated the regulation of the hypoxia-induced expression of proteins that control essential processes of tumor cell survival and angiogenesis. We first examined whether hypoxia induces stress protein gene expression of murine solid tumor RIF cells. We also examined hypoxia-induced changes in angiogenic gene expression in these cells. Finally, we investigated the association of the elevated levels of stress proteins with the regulation of hypoxia-induced angiogenic gene expression. Results demonstrated that hypoxia induced the expression of the erythropoietin (EPO) gene and at least two major members of stress proteins, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and 25 (HSP25) in RIF tumor cells. Evidence that the expression of EPO gene was greatly potentiated in TR cells suggested that the elevated levels of HSPs may play an important role in the regulation of the hypoxia-induced EPO gene expression. One of the RIF variant cell lines, TR, displays elevated levels of HSPs constitutively. Taken together, our results suggest that a hypoxic tumor microenvironment may promote the survival and malignant progression of the tumor cells by temporarily increasing the level of stress proteins and expressing angiogenic genes. We suspect that stress proteins may be associated with the increase of the angiogenic potential of tumor cells under hypoxia.

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Metastatic Malignant Mixed Tumor of Mammary Glands in an Irish Setter Dog : A Case Report (개의 악성유선혼합종의 전이 예)

  • Kang Boo-Hyon;Seo Il-Bok
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.457-466
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    • 1992
  • An 11 years old Irish Setter bitch was euthanlzed and necropsied because of clinical findings such as severe purulent nasal discharge and formation of large tumor mass, 8 ${\times}$8cm in size, in the abdominal cavity. A complete unilateral mastectomy had been carried out twice 14 and 22 months before necropsy. The surgically removed masess of the mammary glands had been diagnosed as malignant mixed tumor in each time. Grossly, tumor masses were observed in nasal cavity, infralumbar lymph node, lung, abdominal cavityn and brain. Microscopic findings of the surgically removed masses consisted of tumor epithelial cells, tumor hyaline cartilage-like structures and abundant connective tissues. The mass of the lymph node had similar microscopic features to those of the original malignant mixed tumor of the mammary glands. The tumor osseous tissue and osteoid were observed in the abdominal cavity, lung, and brain. Myoepithelial cells were frequently found on association with the metastatic tumors. From the results, it was concluded that malignant mixed tumor of the mammary glands metastasized to the infralunbar lymph node, abdominal cavity, lung and brain. In addition, the observation in this study supported two theories at the same time that the bone in malignant mixed tumor arises by endochondral ossification of the cartilage formed by the myoepithelial cells and arises by intramembranous ossification of stromal connective tissue or transformed myeopithelial cells. Solid carcinoma of the nasal epielia and granulosa cell tumor were also diagnosed in a mass of the nasal cavity and of the ovaries respectively.

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