• Title, Summary, Keyword: tumor cells

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MethA Fibrosarcoma Cells Expressing Membrane-Bound Forms of IL-2 Enhance Antitumor Immunity

  • Sonn, Chung-Hee;Yoon, Hee-Ryung;Seong, In-Ock;Chang, Mi-Ra;Kim, Yong-Chan;Kang, Han-Chul;Suh, Seok-Cheol;Kim, Young-Sang
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.1919-1927
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    • 2006
  • Tumor cells genetically engineered to secrete cytokines are effective in tumor therapy, but various unexpected side effects are observed, which may result from the bulk activation of various bystander cells. In this study, we tested tumor vaccines expressing various membrane-bound forms of IL-2 (mbIL-2) on MethA fibrosarcoma cells to focus antitumor immune responses to CTL. Chimeric forms of IL-2 with whole CD4, deletion forms of CD4, and TNF were expressed on the tumor cell surface, respectively. Tumor clones expressing mbIL-2 or secretory form of IL-2 were able to support the cell growth of CTLL-2, an IL-2-dependent T cell line, and the proliferation of spleen cells from 2C TCR transgenic mice that are responsive to the $p2Ca/L^d$ MHC class I complex. Expression of mbIL-2 on tumor cells reduced the tumorigenicity of tumor cells, and the mice that once rejected the live IL-2/TNF tumor clone acquired systemic immunity against wild-type MethA cells. The IL-2/TNF clone was inferior to other clones in tumor formation, and superior in the stimulation of the CD8+ T cell population in vitro. These results suggest that the IL-2/TNF clone is the best tumor vaccine, and may stimulate CD8+ T cells by direct priming. Expression of IL-2/TNF on tumor cells may serve as an effective gene therapy method to ameliorate the side effects encountered in the recombinant cytokine therapy and the conventional cytokine gene therapy using the secretory form of IL-2.

Tumor Induces the Expansion of Foxp3+CD25high and CD11b+Gr-1+ Cell Population in the Early Phase of Tumor Progression

  • Lee, Na Kyung;Kim, Hong Sung
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.172-180
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    • 2015
  • It is well reported that tumor cells can regulate host immune systems. To identify the detailed changes of immune cells between tumor bearing mice and normal mice, we evaluated the systemic immune cell phenotype of B16F10 tumor bearing mice in a time dependent manner. The lymphocytic population (CD4+ and CD8+ T cells) of tumor bearing mice significantly decreased compared to that of normal mice. We found that the Foxp3+CD25+ CD4 T cell decreased, but the Foxp3+$CD25^{high}$ CD4 T cell significantly increased. All subpopulations of CD8 T cells decreased, except the CD62L-CD44+ CD8 T cell subpopulation. The myeloid cell population (CD11b+ and Gr-1+ cells) of tumor bearing mice significantly increased. Specifically, Foxp3+$CD25^{high}$ CD4 T cell and CD11b+Gr-1+ cells significantly increased in early phase of tumor progression. These results are helpful to understand the change of the systemic immune cell subpopulation of tumor bearing mice in a time-dependent manner.

Generation of Renal Cell Carcinoma-specific CD4+/CD8+ T Cells Restricted by an HLA-39 from a RCC Patient Vaccinated with GM-CSF Gene-Transduced Tumor Cells

  • Jun, Do Youn;Moutner, Joseph;Jaffee, Elizabeth
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.96-102
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    • 2003
  • Background: Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene-transduced tumor cell vaccines induce very potent systemic anti-tumor immunity in preclinical and clinical models. Our previous phase I clinical trial in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has demonstrated both immune cell infiltration at vaccine sites and T cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to whole tumor cell vaccines. Methods: To investigate the immune responses to autologous genetically- modified tumor cell vaccines, tumor-specific $CD8^+$ T cell lines were generated from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of a RCC patient 1.24 by repeated in vitro stimulation with either B7.1-transduced autologous RCC tumor cells or B7.1-transduced autologous tumor cells treated with interferon gamma ($IFN{\gamma}$), and cloned by limiting dilution. Results: Among several RCC-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), a $CD4^+/CD8^+$ double positive T cell clone (17/A2) appeared to recognize $IFN{\gamma}$-treated autologous RCC restricted by HLA-B39. The 17/A2 also recognized other HLA-B39 positive RCC tumor cells after $IFN{\gamma}$ treatment. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that autologous RCC vaccination successfully generates the tumor-specific CTL 17/A2, and suggest that the presentation and recognition of the tumor antigen by the 17/A2 might be upregulated by $IFN{\gamma}$.

MDP-Lys (L18), a Synthetic Muramyl Dipeptide Derivative, Enhances Antitumor Activity of an Inactivated Tumor Vaccine

  • Yoo, Yung-Choon;Park, Seung-Yong;Lee, Kyung-Bok;Azuma, Ichiro
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.399-404
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    • 2000
  • The adjuvant effect of a muramyl dipeptide (MDP) derivative, MDP-Lys(L18), on enhancing of antitumor immunity induced by X-irradiated tumor cells against highly metastatic B16-BL6 melanoma cells was examined in mice. Mice immunized intradermally (i.d.) with a mixture of X-irradiated B16-BL6 cells and MDP-Lys (L18) [Vac+MDP-Lys (L18)] followed by an intravenous (i.v.)inoculation of $10^4$ viable tumor cells 7 days after immunization, showed a significant inhibition of experimental lung metastasis of B16-BL6 melanoma cells. The most effective immunization for the prophylactic inhibition of tumor metastasis was obtained from the mixture of $100{\;}\mu\textrm{g}$ of MDP-Lys (L18) and $10^4$ X-irradiatied tumor vaccine. Furthermore, immunization of mice with Vac+MDP-Lys(L18), 3 days after tumor challenge, resulted in a significant inhibition of lung metastasis of B16-BL6 melanoma cells in an experimental lung metastasis model. Similarly, the administration of Vac+MDP-Lys(L18), 1 or 7 days after tumor removal, markedly inhibited tumor metastasis of B16-BL6 in a spontaneous lung metastasis model. When Vac+MDP-Lys (L18) was i.d. administered 3 days after subcutaneous (s.c.) inoculation of tumor cells ($5{\times}10^5/site$) on the back, mice treated with Vac+MDP-Lys(L18) showed inhibition of significantly tumor growth on day 20. These results suggest that MDP-Lys (L18) is able to enhance antitumor activity induced by X-irradiated tumor vaccine to reduce lung metastasis of tumor cells, and is a potent immunomodulating agent which may be applied prophylactically as well as therapeutically to treatment of cancer metastasis.

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The Anti-tumor Activity of Vitamin C via the Increase of Fas (CD95) and MHC I expression on Human Stomach Cancer Cell Line, SNU1

  • Yu, Yeon-Sil;Bae, Se-Yeon;Kim, Hye-Min;Kim, Ye-Jin;Chu, Nag-Bum;Chu, Nag-Kyun;Kang, Jae-Seung;Lee, Wang-Jae
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.210-215
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    • 2011
  • It is already known that high concentration of vitamin C induces apoptosis on tumor cells. However, there is no report regarding the function of vitamin C on the modulation of immune susceptibility of cancer. Therefore, we investigated whether vitamin C can modulate immune susceptibility of tumor cells, especially on the induction of Fas-mediated apoptosis. First, the optimal concentration of vitamin C, which cannot induce damages on tumor cells for 36 hrs. We found that 2 mM of vitamin C did not show harmful effect. In addition, the optimal concentration of agonistic anti-Fas Abs for 18 hrs was examined. As a result, 400 ng/ml of agonistic anti-Fas Abs did not induce apoptosis on tumor cells. Next, we tried to find the effect of 2 mM of vitamin C on the modulation of the susceptibility to agonistic anti-Fas Abs. When tumor cells were cultured with 400 ng/ml of agonistic anti-Fas Abs for 18 hrs, after pre-treatment with 2 mM of vitamin C for 24 hrs, viability of cells was decreased. Interestingly, we found that the expression of Fas (CD95) and MHC class I was increased by the treatment of vitamin C. Taken together, vitamin C increases the susceptibility of tumor cells to anti-Fas Abs and the expression of Fas (CD95) and MHC class I on tumor cells.

Maturation and migration of dendritic cells upon stimulation with heat-killed tumor cells

  • Kim, Hyo-Jeong;Yoon, Taek-Joon;Lee, Sung-Won;Yun, Dae-Sun;Kim, Ji-Yeon;Shin, Kwang-Soon;Park, Se-Ho;Hong, Seok-Mann
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.215-223
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    • 2012
  • Recently it has been reported that immunization with heat-killed tumor cells (HK vaccine) induces anti-tumor immune responses in mice. To investigate how HKvaccine elicits anti-tumor specific adaptive immunity, we examined the effect of HK vaccination on innate immune cells such as dendritic cells (DCs), which are essential for the generation of adaptive immunity. Upon stimulation with HK vaccine, DCs matured to promote not only the upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules but also secretion of cytokine IL12. Furthermore, HK vaccine-treated DCs migrated more efficiently to draining lymph nodes compared with untreated ones. Taken together, HK vaccine can be useful as an adjuvant to activate DCs for anti-tumor immune responses.

Development of Genetically Modified Tumor Cell Containing Co-stimulatory Molecule

  • Kim, Hong Sung
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.398-406
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    • 2019
  • Cancer immunotherapy using gene-modified tumor cells is safe and customized cancer treatment method. In this study, we made gene-modified tumor cells by transferring costimulatory molecules, 4-1BBL and OX40L, into tumor cells using lentivirus vector, and identified anti-cancer effect of gene-modified tumor cells in CT26 mouse colorectal tumor model. We construct pLVX-puro-4-1BBL, -OX40L vector for lentivirus production and optimized the transfection efficiency and transduction efficiency. The transfection efficiency is maximal at DNA:cationic polymer = 1:0.5 and DNA 2 ㎍ for lentivirus production. Then, the lentiviral including 4-1BBL and OX40L was used to deliver CT26 mouse tumor cells to establish optimal delivery conditions according to the amount of virus. The transduction efficiency is maximal at 500 μL volume of lentiviral stock without change in cell shape or growth rate. CT26-4-1BBL, CT26-OX40L significantly inhibited the tumor growth compare with CT26-WT or CT26-β-gal cell line. These data showed the possibility the use of genetically modified tumor cells with costimulatory molecule as cancer immunotherapy agent.

Inhibitory Effects of Dunning Rat Prostate Tumor Fluid on Proliferation of the Metastatic MAT-LyLu Cell Line

  • Bugan, Ilknur;Altun, Seyhan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.831-836
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    • 2015
  • Tumor fluid accumulation occurs in both human cancer and experimental tumor models. Solid tumors show a tendency to tumor fluid accumulation because of their anatomical and physiological features and this may be influenced by molecular factors. Fluid accumulation in the peri-tumor area also occurs in the Dunning model of rat prostate cancer as the tumor grows. In this study, the effects of tumor fluids that were obtained from Dunning prostate tumor-bearing Copenhagen rats on the strongly metastatic MAT-LyLu cell line were investigatedby examining the cell's migration and tumor fluid's toxicity and the kinetic parameters such as cell proliferation, mitotic index, and labelling index. In this research, tumor fluids were obtained from rats injected with $2{\times}10^5$ MAT-LyLu cells and treated with saline solution, and 200 nM tetrodotoxin (TTX), highly specific sodium channel blocker was used. Sterilized tumor fluids were added to medium of MAT-LyLu cells with the proportion of 20% in vitro. Consequently, it was demonstrated that Dunning rat prostate tumor fluid significantly inhibited proliferation (up to 50%), mitotic index, and labeling index of MAT-LyLu cells (up to 75%) (p<0.05) but stimulated the motility of the cells in vitro.

COX-2 increase tumor-associated angiogenesis and tumor growth by eNOS-dependent pathway (eNOS 의존적 pathway를 통한 COX-2의 tumor 성장 증가와 tumor 혈관신생 증가)

  • Sohn, Eun-Hwa;Nam, Seung-Koong
    • Proceedings of the KAIS Fall Conference
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    • pp.1068-1071
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    • 2011
  • Cyclooxygenases (COX)-2 has been highly expressed in a variety of tumor cells and involved inflammatory process, tumor-associated angiogenesis, and vascular functions but the underlying mechanism is not clearly elucidated. We here investigated the molecular mechanism by which COX-2 regulates tumor-associated angiogenesis. In vivo, we injected B16-F1 cells overexpressed with COX-2 or mock in wild type or eNOS-deficient mice. Tumor cells overexpressed with COX-2 increase tumor-associated angiogenesis and tumor growth compared with control cells and that the effect of COX-2 was lower in eNOS-deficient mice than wild type mice. These results may contribute to further understanding of the regulation of angiogenesis by COX during tumor metastasis and inflammation.

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Macrophages Promote Coal Tar Pitch Extract-induced Tumorigenesis of BEAS-2B Cells and Tumor Metastasis in Nude Mice Mediated by AP-1

  • Zhang, Peng;Jin, Yue-Fei;Zhang, Qiao;Wu, Yi-Ming;Wu, Wei-Dong;Yao, Wu;Wu, Yong-Jun;Li, Zhi-Tao;Zhao, Yong;Liu, Yu;Feng, Fei-Fei
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.12
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    • pp.4871-4876
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    • 2014
  • Background: We sought to evaluate the role of tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) on the promotion of coal tar pitch extract (CTPE)-induced tumorigenesis of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and tumor metastasis in nude mice, and related mechanisms. Materials and Methods: BEAS-2B cells were first treated with 2.4 mg/mL CTPE for 72 hours. After removal of CTPE, the cells were continuously cultured and passaged using trypsin-EDTA. THP-1 cells were used as macrophage-like cells. BEAS-2B cells under different conditions (n=6/group) were injected into the back necks of nude mice, and alterations of tumor xenograft growth, indicative of tumorigenicity, and tumor metastasis were determined. Pathological changes (tumor nests and microvascular lesions) of HE-stained tumor tissues were also evaluated. The expression of AP-1(c-Jun) in xenografts and metastatic tumors was determined using immunohistochemistry. Results: Tumor size and weight in nude mice transplanted with the mixture of CTPE-induced passage 30 BEAS-2B and THP-1 cells (2:1) were increased compared to those from the CTPE-treated BEAS-2B cells at passage 30 alone at different observation time points. Tumor metastasis to lymph nodes and liver was only detected after transplantation of a mixture the two kinds of cells. The numbers of tumor nests and microvascular lesions, and the expression levels of AP-1 (c-Jun) in tumors from the mixture of two kinds of cells were increased apparently in contrast to those in tumor from the CTPE-treated BEAS-2B cells of passage 30 alone. In addition, there was positive correlation between AP-1 (c-Jun) expression level and the number of microvascular lesions, or between AP-1 (c-Jun) expression level and tumor metastasis in these two groups. Conclusions: TAMs not only facilitate tumorigenesis transformation of CTPE-induced BEAS-2B cells, but also promote tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis in nude mice in vivo, which may be mediated by AP-1.