• Title, Summary, Keyword: troglitazone

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Identification of troglitazone responsive genes: induction of RTP801 during troglitazone-induced apoptosis in Hep 3B cells

  • Kim, Jin-Oh;Kim, Ji-Young;Kwack, Mi-Hee;Hong, Su-Hyung;Kim, Moon-Kyu;Kim, Jung-Chul;Sung, Young-Kwan
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.43 no.9
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    • pp.599-603
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    • 2010
  • Troglitazone is an anti-diabetic agent that improves hyperglycemia by reducing peripheral insulin resistance in type II diabetic patients. Troglitazone has been shown to cause growth inhibition of various normal and cancerous cells. However, the molecular mechanism by which troglitazone affects the growth of these cancer cells remains unclear. Here, we report that troglitazone treatment of Hep 3B human hepatocellular carcinoma cells resulted in dose-dependent growth inhibition. Analysis of cell cycle distribution by flow cytometry showed that the number of apoptotic cells was increased in a dose-dependent manner in response to troglitazone treatment. cDNA microarray analysis showed a number of differentially expressed genes in response to troglitazone. Among the upregulated genes, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1)-responsive RTP801 was induced in a dose-dependent manner. We also observed HIF-1 accumulation by immnocytochemistry after troglitazone treatment. These results strongly suggest that RTP801 might be involved in troglitazone-induced apoptosis in Hep 3B cells.

Troglitazone Regulates white Adipose Tissue Metabolism by Activating Genes Involved in Fatty Acid ${\beta}$-Oxidation in High Fat Diet-fed C57BL/6J Mice

  • Jeong, Sun-Hyo;Yoon, Mi-Chung
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.319-327
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    • 2006
  • This study aimed to determine whether troglitazone stimulates genes related to fatty acid ${\beta}$-oxidation, leading to modulation of white adipose tissue (WAT) metabolism in high fat diet-fed mice. Female C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into two groups (n=10/group). After they received either a high fat diet or the same high fat diet supplemented with troglitazone for 4 weeks, the effects of troglitazone on gene expression and physiology of WAT were measured using Northern, histological and serological analyses. Administration of troglitazone induced the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid ${\beta}$-oxidation in mesenteric WAT. Troglitazone also significantly increased uncoupling protein 2 mRNA levels. The changes in WAT gene expression were accompanied by reductions in circulating levels of free fatty acids and triglycerides as well as glucose and insulin. Histological studies showed that troglitazone treatment decreased the average size of adipocytes in mesenteric WAT. These results suggest that troglitazone-stimulated WAT expression of genes associated with fatty acid ${\beta}$-oxidation regulates WAT metabolism of high fat diet-fed mice, contributing to improvement of insulin sensitivity.

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Troglitazone Lowers Serum Triglycerides with Sexual Dimorphism in C57BL/6J Mice

  • Jeong Sun-Hyo;Yoon Mi-Chung
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.65-72
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    • 2006
  • Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are widely used antidiabetic drugs that activate the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ${\gamma}(PPAR{\gamma})$, and thereby improve the metabolic abnormalities linking hypertriglyceridemia to diabetes, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease. To determine whether the $PPAR{\gamma}$ ligand troglitazone regulates lipid metabolism with sexual dimorphism, we examined the effects of troglitazone on circulating lipids, body weight and the expression of hepatic genes responsible for lipid metabolism in both sexes of C57BL/6J mice. Compared to mice fed a low fat control diet, both sexes of mice fed a troglitazone-treated low fat diet for 14 weeks did not exhibit changes in body weight gain, serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels. However, serum triglycerides were significantly reduced in both sexes of mice, although these effects were more pronounced among males. Furthermore, troglitazone regulated the expression of hepatic genes critical for lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, the magnitudes of which were much higher in males compared to females, as evidenced by results for increased acyl-CoA oxidase and decreased apolipoprotein C-III mRMA levels. These results suggest that $PPAR{\gamma}$ activator troglitazone may exert sexually dimorphic control of serum triglycerides in part through the differential activation of $PPAR{\gamma}$ in liver between male and female mice.

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Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor ${\gamma}$ Is Not Associated with Adipogenesis in Female Mice

  • Yoon, Mi-Chung;Jeong, Sun-Hyo
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.139-146
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    • 2008
  • The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ${\gamma}$ $(PPAR{\gamma})$ plays a central role in adipogenesis and lipid storage. The $(PPAR{\gamma})$ ligands, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), enhance in vitro adipogenesis in several cell types, but the role of the TZDs on in vivo adipogenesis is still poorly understood. To investigate how $PPAR{\gamma}$ ligand troglitazone regulates adipogenesis in female mice, we examined the effects of the troglitazone on adipose tissue mass, morphological changes of adipocytes, and the expression of $PPAR{\gamma}$ target and adipocyte-specific genes in low fat diet-fed female C57BL/6 mice. Administration of troglitazone for 13 weeks did not change body and total white adipose tissue weights compared with control mice. Troglitazone treatment also did not cause a significant decrease in the average size of adipocytes in parametrial adipose tissue although it is reported to increase the number of small adipocytes in male animals. Troglitazone did not affect the mRNA expression of $PPAR{\gamma}$ and its target genes as well as adipocyte-specific genes in parametrial adipose tissue. These results suggest that $PPAR{\gamma}$ does not seem to be associated with adipogenesis in females with functioning ovaries and that its inability to induce adipogenesis may be due to sex-related factors.

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Over-expression of PTEN Involved in Troglitazone-induced Apoptosis in Human Osteosarcoma Cells (사람골육종세포주의 트로글리타존 유도 세포사에서 PTEN의 역할)

  • Yoon, Sun-Jung;Zhou, Lu;Kim, Jung-Ryul
    • The Journal of the Korean bone and joint tumor society
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.23-29
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: We investigated the effects of phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 gene phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 gene (PTEN) expression on the cell proliferation and on the responsiveness of troglitazone in osteosarcoma cells. Materials and Methods: Western blotting alnalysis was performed to detect the expression of PTEN in U-2OS cells treated with troglitazone. WST (water-soluble tetrazolium) assay was used to evaluate cell proliferation. Flow cytometry was used to determine cell apoptosis. Further, transfection of wild-type PTEN plasmid DNA was used to upregulate PTEN expression. Results: Troglitazone treatment induced growth inhibition of U2-OS cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Troglitazone increased the expression of PTEN in a dose-dependent manner. PTEN upregulation induced by troglitazone treatment resulted in cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in U-2OS cells. PTEN over-expression by plasmid transfection enhanced these effects of troglitazone. Moreover, no changes were observed in the mutant type-PTEN group. Conclusion: Upregulation of PTEN is involved in the inhibition of cell growth and induction of cell apoptosis by troglitazone. Further, PTEN over-expression can cause cell growth inhibition in osteosarcoma cells and these cell growth inhibitions could be enhance by troglitazone treatment.

15-Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenase Is Associated with the Troglitazone-Induced Promotion of Adipocyte Differentiation in Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

  • Noh, Min-Soo;Lee, Soo-Hwan
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.16-23
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    • 2010
  • Adipocyte differentiation in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) is not as efficient as that in murine pre-adipocytes when induced by adipogenic agents including insulin, dexamethasone, and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IDX condition). Therefore, the promotion of adipocyte differentiation in hBM-MSCs has been used as a cell culture model to evaluate insulin sensitivity for anti-diabetic drugs. In hBM-MSCs, $PPAR{\gamma}$ agonists or sulfonylurea anti-diabetic drugs have been added to IDX conditions to promote adipocyte differentiation. Here we show that troglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ($PPAR{\gamma}$) agonist, significantly reduced the levels of anti-adipogenic $PGE_2$ in IDX-conditioned hBM-MSC culture supernatants when compared to $PGE_2$ levels in the absence of $PPAR{\gamma}$ agonist. However, there was no difference in the mRNA levels of cyclooxygenases (COXs) and the activities of COXs and prostaglandin synthases during adipocyte differentiation in hBM-MSCs with or without troglitazone. In hBM-MSCs, troglitazone significantly increased the mRNA level of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (HPGD) which can act to decrease $PGE_2$ levels in culture. These results suggest that the role of $PPAR{\gamma}$ activation in promoting adipocyte differentiation in hBM-MSCs is to reduce anti-adipogenic $PGE_2$ levels through the up-regulation of HPGD expression.

Two Synthetic Ligands for Peroxisome Proliferator- Activated Receptor $\gamma$

  • Kim, Min-A;Jeong, Sun-Hyo;Song, Yang-Heon;Kim, Dae-Il;Yoon, Mi-Chung
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.137-142
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    • 2004
  • The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor $\gamma$ (PPAR${\gamma}$) is the molecular target for a class of drugs, the antidiabetic thiazolidnediones (TZDs). The heterodimer of PPAR${\gamma}$ with retinoid X receptor (RXR) plays a central role in the regulation of adipogenesis and insulin sensitization. We synthesized two chemicals, DANA87 and DANA88, sharing structural characteristics with TZDs. Given this structural similarity, it was hypothesized that DANA87 and DANA88 may act as PPAR$\gamma$ ligands. In transient transfection assays, DANA87 and DANA88 caused slight increases in the endogenous expression of a luciferase reporter gene containing the PPAR responsive element in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. However, DANA87 and DANA88 significantly inhibited troglitazone-induced reporter gene activation when cells were treated with a combination of DANA87 or DANA 88 and troglitazone, one of the TZDs that activate PPAR$\gamma$. These results suggest that DANA87 and DANA88 are not only weak agonists of PPAR${\gamma}$ transactivation, but also competitively antagonize troglitazone-induced PPAR$\gamma$ reporter activity.

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Ubiquitination of p53 is Involved in Troglitazone Induced Apoptosis in Cervical Cancer Cells

  • Chen, Hui-Min;Zhang, Ding-Guo;Wu, Jin-Xiz;Pei, Dong-Sheng;Zheng, Jun-Nian
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.2313-2318
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    • 2014
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-${\gamma}$), a ligand-dependent nuclear transcription factor, has been found to widely exist in tumor tissues and plays an important role in affecting tumor cell growth. In this study, we investigated the effect of PPAR-${\gamma}$ on aspects of the cervical cancer malignant phenotype, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis. Cell growth assay, Western blotting, Annexin V and flow cytometry analysis consistently showed that treatment with troglitazone (TGZ, a PPAR-${\gamma}$ agonist) led to dose-dependent inhibition of cervical cancer cell growth through apoptosis, whereas T0070907 (another PPAR-${\gamma}$ antagonist) had no effect on Hela cell proliferation and apoptosis. Furthermore, we also detected the protein expression of p53, p21 and Mdm2 to explain the underlying mechanism of PPAR-${\gamma}$ on cellular apoptosis. Our work, finally, demonstrated the existence of the TGZ-PPAR-${\gamma}$-p53 signaling pathway to be a critical regulator of cell apoptosis. These results suggested that PPAR-${\gamma}$ may be a potential therapeutic target for cervical cancer.

Cellular Effects of Troglitazone on YD15 Tongue Carcinoma Cells

  • Loan, Ta Thi;Yoo, Hoon
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.113-118
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    • 2016
  • An FDA approved drug for the treatment of type II diabetes, Troglitazone (TRO), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist, is withdrawn due to severe idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity. In the search for new applications of TRO, we investigated the cellular effects of TRO on YD15 tongue carcinoma cells. TRO suppressed the growth of YD15 cells in the MTT assay. The inhibition of cell growth was accompanied by the induction of cell cycle arrest at $G_0/G_1$ and apoptosis, which are confirmed by flow cytometry and western blotting. TRO also suppressed the expression of cell cycle proteins such as cyclin D1, cdk2, cdk4, cyclin B1, cdk1(or cdc2), cyclin E1 and cyclin A. The inhibition of cell cycle proteins was coincident with the up-regulation of $p21^{CIP1/WAF1}$ and $p27^{KIP1}$. In addition, TRO induces the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-7, as well as the cleavage of PARP. Further, TRO suppressed the expressions of Bcl-2 without affecting the expressions of Bad and Bax. Overall, our data supports that TRO induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis on YD15 cells.

The Effect of Troglitazone on Thermal Sensitivity in Uterine Cervix Cancer Cells (자궁 경부암 세포에서 Troglitazone이 온열감수성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Ji-Hye;Kim, Won-Dong;Yu, Jae-Ran;Park, Woo-Yoon
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.91-98
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: Troglitazone (TRO), a PPAR-$\gamma$ agonist, can reduce heat shock protein (HSP) 70 and increase the antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, which might affect thermal sensitivity. Here, we investigated whether TRO modifies thermal sensitivity in uterine cervical cancer cells, which is most commonly treated by hyperthermia (HT). Materials and Methods: HeLa cells were treated with $5{\mu}M$ TRO for 24 hours before HT at $42^{\circ}C$ for 1 hour. Cell survival was analyzed by clonogenic assay. The expression of HSPs was analyzed by Western blot. SOD and catalase activity was measured and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and dihydroethidium. Results: The decreased cell survival by HT was increased by preincubation with TRO before HT. Expression of HSP 70 was increased by HT however, it was not decreased by preincubation with TRO before HT. The decreased Bcl-2 expression by HT was increased by preincubation with TRO. SOD and catalase activity was increased by 1.2 and 1.3 times,respectively with TRO. Increased ROS by HT was decreased by preincubation with TRO. Conclusion: TRO decreases thermal sensitivity through increased SOD and catalase activity, as well as scavenging ROS in HeLa cells.