• Title, Summary, Keyword: transgenic rice

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Growth and Yield Response of Transgenic Rice Plants Expressing Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase Gene from Bacillus subtilis

  • Kuk, Yong-In;Chung, Jung-Sung;Sunyo Jung;Kyoungwhan Back;Kim, Han-Yong;Guh, Ja-Ock
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.326-333
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    • 2003
  • Transgenic rice plants expressing a Bacillus subtilis protoporphyrinogen oxidase (Protox), the last shared enzyme of the porphyrin pathway in the expressed cytoplasm or the plastids, were compared with non-trangenic rice plants in their growth characteristics such as tiller number, plant height, biomass, and yield. Transgenic rice plants of $\textrm{T}_3$ generation had 8 to 15 % and 25 to 43% increases in tiller number compared to non-transgenic rice plants at 4 and 8 weeks after transplanting(WAT); similar values were observed for $\textrm{T}_4$ generation at 4 and 8 WAT. However, the plant height in both $\textrm{T}_3$ and $\textrm{T}_4$ generations was similar between transgenic rice plants and non-transgenic rice plants at 4 and 8 WAT. Transgenic rice plants had 13 to 32% increase in above-ground biomass and 9 to 28% increase in grain yield compared to non-transgenic rice plants, demonstrating that biomass and yield correlate with each other. The increased grain yield of the transgenic rice plants was closely associated with the increased panicle number per plant. The percent of filled grain, thousand grains and spikelet number per panicle were similar between transgenic and non-transgenic rice plants. Generally, the growth and yield of transgenic generations ($\textrm{T}_2$, $\textrm{T}_3$, and $\textrm{T}_4$) and gene expressing sites (cytoplasm-expressed and plastid-targeted transgenic rice plants) were similar, although they slightly varied with generations as well as with gene expressing sites. The transgenic rice plants had promotive effects, indicating that regulation of the porphyrin pathway by expression of B. subtilis Protox in rice influences plant growth and yield.

Effects of Transgenic Rice on Life History Traits of Daphnia magna in Life Table Experiments

  • Nam, Sung-Jin;Yang, Dong-Woo;Kim, Chang-Gi;Park, Sang-Kyu
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.319-324
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    • 2007
  • To investigate the impacts of transgenic rice on freshwater organisms, we conducted two life table experiments using Daphnia magna for fifteen and twenty days, respectively. We examined life history traits such as population growth rates (r), reproductive rates ($R_0$), generation times, and survivorship. In the first experiment, we used non-drought-stressed transgenic and non-transgenic rice harvested in 2005. In the second study, we used non-transgenic and transgenic rice harvested in 2006 following drought stress. Each experiment involved three treatments in which D. magna neonates were fed with Selenastrum capricornutum (control treatment) and S. capricornutum with 5% aqueous extracts of non-transgenic rice (N-T) and transgenic rice (T). In the first experiment, D. magna showed reduced population growth rates and lowered fecundity in the N-T and T treatments. In the second experiment, D. magna receiving both transgenic and non-transgenic rice extracts showed very high mortality, low population growth rates and reproduction rates. We could not detect any significant negative effects of extracts from transgenic rice on D. magna life history traits at 95%.

Difference in Physiological Responses to Environmental Stress in Protox Inhibitor Herbicide-Resistant Transgenic Rice and Non-transgenic Rice (Protox 저해형 제초제 저항성 형질전환벼와 비형질전환벼의 환경스트레스에 대한 생리적 반응 차이)

  • Yun, Young-Beom;Kwon, Oh-Do;Shin, Dong-Young;Hyun, Kyu-Hwan;Lee, Do-Jin;Jung, Ha-Il;Kuk, Yong-In
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.35-43
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    • 2012
  • The objective of this research was to confirm the difference in physiological responses to environmental stresses such as chilling, high temperature, NaCl, and chemical stress (paraquat) in Protox inhibitor resistant-transgenic rice (MX, PX, and AP37) and its non-transgenic counterpart (WT). Transgenic and non-transgenic rice plants were exposed to a chilling temperature of $5^{\circ}C$ for 1 day or a high temperature of $45^{\circ}C$ for 4 days and allowed to recover at $25^{\circ}C$ for 6 days after the chilling treatment or 8 days after the high temperature treatment. Leaf injury, shoot fresh weight, porphyrin biosynthesis substances, and chlorophyll content were investigated in transgenic and non-transgenic rice at 6 days after 0.5% and 1% NaCl treatments or at 5 days after 0~300 ${\mu}M$ paraquat treatments. No significant difference in leaf injury and shoot fresh weight were observed between transgenic and non-transgenic rice during chilling and recovery. Plant height and shoot fresh weight were also similar between transgenic and non-transgenic rice during the high temperature and recovery period (0~5 days). However, plant height and shoot fresh weight in transgenic rice line MX and PX were lower than in non-transgenic rice at 6 days for recovery. Leaf injury, chlorophyll, and Mg-Proto IX ME contents had no significant difference between transgenic rice and non-transgenic rice after NaCl treatment, but Proto IX content for AP37 and shoot fresh weight for PX and AP37 in 0.5% NaCl treatment were significantly reduced compared with non-transgenic rice. There was no difference in leaf injury and shoot fresh weight when comparing transgenic rice and non-transgenic rice after paraquat treatment. Although transgenic rice and non-transgenic rice showed a little difference at a particular measurement period in certain environmental stresses, there was generally no difference in physiological responses between transgenic rice and non-transgenic rice.

Phenotype Comparison between Herbicide Tolerant Transgenic Rice and Weedy Rice (제초제 내성 형질전환 벼와 잡초성 벼의 표현형질 비교)

  • Go, Eun Mi;An, Joo Hee;Nam, Ki Jung;Nam, Kyong-Hee;Park, Kee Woong;Back, Kyoungwhan;Kim, Chang-Gi
    • Weed & Turfgrass Science
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.15-22
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    • 2013
  • The phenotypic traits of herbicide-tolerant transgenic rice were compared with those of wild type (Dongjin) as well as two accessions (Hwaseong-aengmi 1 and Gwangyang-aengmi 12) of weedy rice. This study was conducted to investigate whether unintentional alterations in phenotypic characteristics occurred in the transgenic rice and whether the altered traits were similar to those in the two weedy rices. All qualitative traits studied were similar in the transgenic or wild-type rice. On the other hand, awn presence, flag leaf attitude and grain color differed considerably between herbicide-tolerant transgenic rice and weedy rice. As for quantitative traits, plant height, the number of tillers per plant and shoot dry weight were significantly greater for weedy rice than transgenic or wild-type rice. Grain weight per plant and 1000-grain weight of transgenic (or wild-type) rice were significantly greater than those of weedy rice. Transgenic rice shattered less than the other rices. Amylose and protein contents in embryos of transgenic rice were significantly different from those of weedy rice. The potential for weediness of the transgenic rice may be assessed using phenotype comparison between transgenic and weedy rice as shown in this study.

Fitness cost and competitive ability of transgenic herbicide-tolerant rice expressing a protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene

  • Chun, Young Jin;Kim, Dae In;Park, Kee Woong;Jeong, Soon-Chun;Park, Sangkyu;Back, Kyoungwhan;Kim, Chang-Gi
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.39-47
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    • 2013
  • The expression of transgenic traits in genetically modified crops is sometimes associated with decreases in crop performance or fitness. These decreases in performance or fitness of transgenic plants in unfavourable conditions may provide valuable information about the ecological consequences of transgene escape. In a glasshouse trial, we tested the cost associated with resistance to herbicides by comparing the growth, yield, and competitive ability of transgenic rice with its parental non-transgenic line. This new line was developed for constitutive overexpression of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) to increase resistance to herbicides. We evaluated nine agronomic traits of transgenic and non-transgenic rice grown in a replacement series design over four densities. Competitive ability was also assessed between transgenic and non-transgenic plants by analyzing their relative yields based on biomass and seed weight data. Our results indicated that non-transgenic plants showed greater performance than did the transgenic plants when those genotypes were grown in mixtures. The non-transgenic rice plants exhibited superior competitive ability at certain combinations of planting densities and genotype proportions. These results suggest that PPO-herbicide resistance incurs some costs in plant performance and competitive ability.

The Function of ArgE Gene in Transgenic Rice Plants

  • Guo, Jia;Seong, Eun-Soo;Cho, Joon-Hyeong;Wang, Myeong-Hyeon
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.524-529
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    • 2007
  • We carried out to study the function of ArgE in transgenic rice plants, which were confirmed by PCR analysis and hygromycin selection. Transgenic rice plants were with selectable marker gene(HPT) inserted in genome of the rice. Southern analysis with hpt probe confirmed by two restriction enzymes that copy numbers of the selectable gene was introduced into the plant genome. We displayed that the relationship between drought stress and ArgE gene with the overexpressing rice plants. From this result, we observed that the degree of leaves damage has no difference in control and transgenic lines. The total RNAs were extracted from 6 weeks-seedling in normal condition in order to examine their expression levels with ArgE-overexpressed transgenic rice. In particular, expression patterns of genes encoding enzymes involved in abiotic stress, including drought and salt stresses. OsGF14a and OsSalt were investigated by reverse transcription-PCR(RT-PCR). Expression levels of the OsSalt gene decreased significantly in transgenic rice plants compared to control plant. However, ion leakage measurement did not demonstrate any leaves damage change between control and ArgE transgenic plants exposure to mannitol treatment. These results suggest that expression of the ArgE is not involved in tolerance for drought stress in rice but may playa role of signaling networks for salt-induced genes.

Investigation of Possible Horizontal Gene Transfer from Transgenic Rice to Soil Microorganisms in Paddy Rice Field

  • Kim, Sung-Eun;Moon, Jae-Sun;Kim, Jung-Kyu;Choi, Won-Sik;Lee, Sang-Han;Kim, Sung-Uk
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.187-192
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    • 2010
  • In order to monitor the possibility of horizontal gene transfer between transgenic rice and microorganisms in a paddy rice field, the gene flow from a bifunctional fusion (TPSP) rice containing trehalose-6-phosphate synthase and phosphatase to microorganisms in soils was investigated. The soil samples collected from the paddy rice field during June 2004 to March 2006 were investigated by multiplex PCR, Southern hybridization, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). The TPSP gene from soil genomic DNAs was not detected by PCR. Soil genomic DNAs did not show homologies on the Southern blotting data, indicating that gene transfer did not occur during the last two years in the paddy rice field. In addition, the AFLP band patterns produced by soil genomic DNAs from both transgenic and non-transgenic rice fields appeared similar to each other when analyzed by the NTSYSpc program. Thus, these data suggest that transgenic rice does not give a significant impact on the communities of soil microorganisms, although long-term observation may be needed.

Levels of Resistance and Fitness in Glufosinate-ammonium-Resistant Transgenic Rice Plants (Glufosinate-ammonium 저항성 형질전환벼의 저항성 수준과 적응성에 관한 연구)

  • Yun, Young Beom;Kuk, Yong In
    • Weed & Turfgrass Science
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    • v.1 no.4
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    • pp.50-56
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    • 2012
  • The objectives of this research were to quantify resistance levels of transgenic rice expressing the bar gene to glutamine synthetase (GS)-inhibiting, and methionine sulfoximine and photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicide, paraquat, and compare the ammonium accumulation, chilling injury, and yield between transgenic and non-transgenic rice. The transgenic rice lines were 45-96-fold more resistant to glufosinate-ammonium than non-transgenic rice. The transgenic rice lines were also 18-fold more resistant to methionine sulfoximine, but was not resistant to paraquat, which has different target site. Glufosinate-ammonium increased the ammonium accumulation in leaves of non-transgenic rice plants, but had minimal or no effect on leaves of transgenic lines. The transgenic lines except for 258, 411, 607 and 608 were more susceptible during chilling and recovery than non-transgenic rice plants. The yield of transgenic lines 142, 144, 258 and 608 was similar or higher than that of non-transgenic rice in pot conditions.

Physiological Evaluation of Transgenic Rice Developed for Drought Tolerance

  • Ghimiren Sita Ram;Park Sang-Kyu;Kang Dong-Jin;Lee In-Jung;Shin Dong-Hyun;Kim Sung-Uk;Kim Kil-Ung
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.133-137
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    • 2006
  • Evaluation of physiological performance of trehalose-producing transgenic rice line was conducted to investigate drought tolerance at early growth stage. Under artificially induced drought condition of 8% polyethylene glycol 6000, this transgenic rice line had leaf photosynthetic rate of 11.08 uml CO$_2$ $m^{-2}s^{-1}$, leaf transpiration rate of 8.38 mmol $H_2O$ $m^{-2}s^{-1}$ and leaf water potential of -1.12 MPa after 96 hours of treatment. Nakdongbyeo, the parent of this tyansgenic rice line, had photosynthetic rate of 15.42 $\mu$mol CO$_2$ $m^{-2}s^{-1}$, leaf transpiration rate of 8,04 mmol $H_2O$ $m^{-2}s^{-1}$ and leaf water potential of -0.88 MPa. The other variety used in this experiment for comparison, IR 72, showed higher values than both tyansgenic rice line and variety Nakdonbyeo on all three parameters; leaf photosynthetic rate of 20.61 $\mu$mol CO$_2$ $m^{-2}s^{-1}$, leaf transpiration rate of 12.88 mmol $H_2O$ $m^{-2}s^{-1}$, and leaf water potential of -0.82 MPa. So this transgenic rice line did not show superior performance in leaf transpiration rate, leaf photosynthetic rate and leaf water potential compared to variety Nakdongbyeo. This result along with visual observation on leaf rolling and drying during the experimental period indicated poor physiological performance of this transgenic rice line. Further studies on metabolic status of stress-induced trehalose, along with study on physiological response of this transgenic rice line during drought stress would shed more light on overall physiological performance of this transgenic rice line.

Differences in Rice Quality and Physiochemical Component between Protox Inhibitor-Herbicide Resistant Transgenic Rice and Its Non-transgenic Counterpart (Protox 저해형 제초제 저항성 형질환벼와 비형질전환벼의 미질 및 이화학적 성분 차이)

  • Jung, Ha-Il;Yun, Young-Beom;Kwon, Oh-Do;Lee, Do-Jin;Back, Kyoung-Whan;Kuk, Yong-In
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.25-34
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    • 2012
  • Characteristics related to grain quality and physiochemical components such as mineral, total amino acid, free amino acid, and free sugar composition were investigated in Protox inhibitor resistanttransgenic rice (MX, PX, and AP37) and its nontransgenic counterpart (WT). Head rice, palatability, protein, and whiteness (except for MX and AP37) of milled transgenic rice were high or similar to those of the non-transgenic counterpart. Immature rice, unfilled grain, and cracked kernels (PX and AP37) of milled transgenic rice were lower than those of its non-transgenic counterpart. However, there were no significant differences in damaged grain between the transgenic rice lines and its counterpart. Potassium content in PX and copper contents in PX and AP37 were only low compared with their non-transgenic counterparts, but other mineral contents in transgenic rice lines were high or showed no significant differences compared with non-transgenic counterparts. Contents of most total amino acid composition in transgenic rice lines were high or similar to those in non-transgenic counterparts, but the content of isoleucine in AP37 was only low compared with its non-transgenic counterpart. On the other hand, free amino acid, leucine and tyrosine in PX and AP37, and total free amino acid in PX were low compared with their non-transgenic counterparts. However, the content of free amino acid in other kinds in transgenic rice lines were similar to those in their non-transgenic counterparts. Contents of sucrose in MX and PX were low compared with non-transgenic counterpars, but contents of fructose, glucose, and maltose in transgenic rice lines were high or similar compared with their non-transgenic counterparts. This results indicated that Protox genes had no negative affect on the nutritional composition of rice.