• Title, Summary, Keyword: transaction costs

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OPTIMAL PORTFOLIO SELECTION WITH TRANSACTION COSTS WHEN AN ILLIQUID ASSET PAYS CASH DIVIDENDS

  • Jang, Bong-Gyu
    • Journal of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.139-150
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    • 2007
  • We investigate an optimal portfolio selection problem with transaction costs when an illiquid asset pays cash dividends and there are constraints on the illiquid asset holding. We provide closed form solutions for the problem, and by using these solutions we illustrate interesting features of optimal policies.

Understanding the Drivers for Migration to Innovation Ecosystem : The Influence of Standard on the Evolutionary Change of Capability Distribution and Transaction Costs (혁신 생태계 변화의 동인에 대한 이론과 사례 연구 : 표준이 역량분포와 거래비용의 진화적 변화에 미치는 영향 분석을 중심으로)

  • Kim, Min-Sik;Kim, Eonsoo
    • Journal of Information Technology Services
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.1-21
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    • 2013
  • This study attempts to explain the mechanism behind the migration from vertically integrated value chain architecture to an innovation ecosystem consisting of horizontally separated layers in value chain. We first present a comprehensive framework based on the theoretical analysis of the drivers for migration to an innovation ecosystem, which are standard (institution), capability distribution, and transaction costs. The theoretical framework suggests that the migration to an innovation ecosystem is explained by the influence of standard on the evolutionary change of capability distribution and transaction costs. In particular, when the new de-jure standard competes with the de-facto standard, the new de-jure standard has the greatest impact on the distribution capabilities and the transaction costs. Based on this theoretical framework, we analyze the latest SDN (Software Defined Networking) case of the network industry. SDN standard has transformed the industry from a vertically integrated value chain architecture to a horizontally separated one with its influence on the distribution capabilities and the transaction costs in the industry.

SIMULATIONS IN OPTION PRICING MODELS APPLIED TO KOSPI200

  • Lee, Jon-U;Kim, Se-Ki
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.13-22
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    • 2003
  • Simulations on the nonlinear partial differential equation derived from Black-Scholes equation with transaction costs are performed. These numerical experiments using finite element methods are applied to KOSPI200 in 2002 and the option prices obtained with transaction costs are closer to the real prices in market than the prices used in Korea Stock Exchange.

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The study on the effects of the Asset Specificity to the Global e-Trade Performance (자산특유성이 전자무역 활용성과에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Ho-Hyung;Kim, Hag-Min
    • International Commerce and Information Review
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.25-45
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    • 2010
  • The objective of this paper is to review the mechanics of how global e-trade practices can affect a firm's performance. It is well known that the introduction of global e-trade systems can save transaction costs at the macro level. However this study is extended at micro level by determining whether global trade transaction costs influence positively or negatively in exporting firms performances at firm level. A theoretical framework is suggested for determining the usage and performance of global e-trade with the global e-trade barriers. An empirical analysis of South Korean exporting firms has been undertaken. This paper concludes that the global e-trade has yet to overcome the barriers resulting from the transaction costs and asset specificity. In this regard, appropriate action like intensive education and training program should be implemented in order to make South Korea's global e-trade more matured.

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VALUATION AND HEDGING OF OPTIONS WITH GENERAL PAYOFF UNDER TRANSACTIONS COSTS

  • Choi, Hyeong-In;Heath, David;Ku, Hye-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.513-533
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    • 2004
  • We present the pricing and hedging method for options with general payoffs in the presence of transaction costs. The convexity of the payoff function-gamma of the options- is an important issue under transaction costs. When the payoff function is convex, Leland-style pricing and hedging method still works. However, if the payoff function is of general form, additional assumptions on the size of transaction costs or of the hedging interval are needed. We do not assume that the payoff is convex as in Leland 〔11〕 and the value of the Leland number is less (bigger) than 1 as in Hoggard et al. 〔10〕, Avellaneda and Paras 〔1〕. We focus on generally recognized asymmetry between the option sellers and buyers. We decompose an option with general payoff into difference of two options each of which has a convex payoff. This method is consistent with a scheme of separating out the seller's and buyer's position of an option. In this paper, we first present a simple linear valuation method of general payoff options, and also propose in the last section more efficient hedging scheme which costs less to hedge options.

A Study on the Effect of Experience-specificity and Uncertainty on Choice in Experiential Products -From Transaction Cost Perspective- (경험재 거래의 경험특유성, 불확실성이 선택에 주는 영향에 관한 연구 -거래비용적 관점에서-)

  • Jeong, Yun-Hee;Park, JI-Yeon
    • Journal of Convergence for Information Technology
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.152-159
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of transaction characteristics on transaction cost and choice intention by applying transaction cost theory to experiential product. Experience-specificity, transaction uncertainty, and personal uncertainty are proposed to reflect the characteristics of experiential products, and the effects of these variables on transaction costs and transaction costs are assumed to have an influence on the choice intention. The results of this study are summarized as follows. First, experience-specificity(site, physical equipment, knowledge skill, temporal), transactional uncertainty(product-, process-), personal uncertainty (preference-, and situation-) have a significant positive effect on transaction cost. Second, transaction costs (search, comparison, examination, negotiation, payment, delivery) have a significant negative effect on the choice intention of the experiential product. The results of this study show that the increase of transaction costs can reduce the choice of experiential products and the strategic consideration of experience specificity, transaction uncertainty and individual uncertainty are required to reduce transaction costs. In addition, experiential products lacked access from a transactional and cost-based point of view, and this study contributes theoretically by compensating for the lack.

HEDGING OPTION PORTFOLIOS WITH TRANSACTION COSTS AND BANDWIDTH

  • KIM, SEKI
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.77-84
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    • 2000
  • Black-Scholes equation arising from option pricing in the presence of cost in trading the underlying asset is derived. The transaction cost is chosen precisely and generalized to reflect the trade in the real world. Furthermore the concept of the bandwidth is introduced to obtain the better rehedging. The model with bandwidth derived in this paper can be used to calculate the more accurate option price numerically even if it is nonlinear and more complicated than the models shown before.

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Transaction Costs in an Emission Trading Scheme: Application of a Simple Autonomous Trading Agent Model

  • Lee, Kangil;Han, Taek-Whan;Cho, Yongsung
    • Environmental and Resource Economics Review
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.27-67
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    • 2012
  • This paper analyzed the effect of transaction costs on the prices and trading volumes at the initial stage of emission markets and also examined how the size of the effect differs depending on the characteristics of the transactions. We built trading protocols modeling a recursive process to search the trading partner and make transactions with several behavioral assumptions considering the situations of early markets. The simulations results show that adding transaction costs resulted in reduction of trading volumes. Furthermore, the speed of reduction in trading volume to the increase of transaction costs is higher when there is scale economy. With a certain level of scale economy, the trading volumes abruptly fall down to almost zero as the transaction cost gets over a certain level. This suggests the possibility of a failed market. Since the scale economy is thought to be significant in the early stage of emission trading market, it is desirable to design a trading system that maximizes trading volumes and minimizes unit transaction costs at the outset. One of the alternatives to meet these conditions is to establish a centralized exchange and take measures to increase trading volumes.

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A Study on the Determinants of Global Sourcing Strategies in Korean Apparel Industry (한국의류산업의 범세계적 조달전략 결정요인에 관한 연구)

  • 김용주
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.42-53
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    • 1999
  • Global sourcing strategy is the one that apparel firms adopt in order to improve efficiency. Souring statesgies are not limited to the decision of sourcing country or vertical integration of sewing process Sourcing strategies include all the ecision of marketing process from the acquisition of fabric to distribution of products. The present study aims to analyze the soucing strategies of Korea apparel industry in global perspectives by applying transaction cost approach and aims to provide the implications for the future. The results are as follows ; (1) sourcing strategies in the dimension of domestic versus offshore soucing are determined by the experience in foreign business and the degree of fashionability of the product. (2) Firms tend to increase affshore soucing as they accumulate the experience in foreign business because they can decrease transaction costs as the perceived risks decrease (3) Also firms tend to source their products in foreign countries when the products are more fashionable. Brand loyalty of the product is a additional factor that increases the proportion of domestic sourcing. (4) Degree of vertical integration of sourcing is determined by the fashionability brand loyalty and the experience in foreign business. That is firms decrease the transaction costs by avoiding the investment to short life fashion products. However firms increase the control over the high reputation product by in house production. As the apparel firms tend to more marketing oriented and the national boundaries of business envrionment becomes permeable more efficient global sourcing strategies should be stablished, Besides the production costs nonproduction costs should be equallly considered in order to analyze the total costs.

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A Conceptual Review of the Transaction Costs within a Distribution Channel (유통경로내의 거래비용에 대한 개념적 고찰)

  • Kwon, Young-Sik;Mun, Jang-Sil
    • Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.29-41
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    • 2012
  • This paper undertakes a conceptual review of transaction cost to broaden the understanding of the transaction cost analysis (TCA) approach. More than 40 years have passed since Coase's fundamental insight that transaction, coordination, and contracting costs must be considered explicitly in explaining the extent of vertical integration. Coase (1937) forced economists to identify previously neglected constraints on the trading process to foster efficient intrafirm, rather than interfirm, transactions. The transaction cost approach to economic organization study regards transactions as the basic units of analysis and holds that understanding transaction cost economy is central to organizational study. The approach applies to determining efficient boundaries, as between firms and markets, and to internal transaction organization, including employment relations design. TCA, developed principally by Oliver Williamson (1975,1979,1981a) blends institutional economics, organizational theory, and contract law. Further progress in transaction costs research awaits the identification of critical dimensions in which transaction costs differ and an examination of the economizing properties of alternative institutional modes for organizing transactions. The crucial investment distinction is: To what degree are transaction-specific (non-marketable) expenses incurred? Unspecialized items pose few hazards, since buyers can turn toalternative sources, and suppliers can sell output intended for one order to other buyers. Non-marketability problems arise when specific parties' identities have important cost-bearing consequences. Transactions of this kind are labeled idiosyncratic. The summarized results of the review are as follows. First, firms' distribution decisions often prompt examination of the make-or-buy question: Should a marketing activity be performed within the organization by company employees or contracted to an external agent? Second, manufacturers introducing an industrial product to a foreign market face a difficult decision. Should the product be marketed primarily by captive agents (the company sales force and distribution division) or independent intermediaries (outside sales agents and distribution)? Third, the authors develop a theoretical extension to the basic transaction cost model by combining insights from various theories with the TCA approach. Fourth, other such extensions are likely required for the general model to be applied to different channel situations. It is naive to assume the basic model appliesacross markedly different channel contexts without modifications and extensions. Although this study contributes to scholastic research, it is limited by several factors. First, the theoretical perspective of TCA has attracted considerable recent interest in the area of marketing channels. The analysis aims to match the properties of efficient governance structures with the attributes of the transaction. Second, empirical evidence about TCA's basic propositions is sketchy. Apart from Anderson's (1985) study of the vertical integration of the selling function and John's (1984) study of opportunism by franchised dealers, virtually no marketing studies involving the constructs implicated in the analysis have been reported. We hope, therefore, that further research will clarify distinctions between the different aspects of specific assets. Another important line of future research is the integration of efficiency-oriented TCA with organizational approaches that emphasize specific assets' conceptual definition and industry structure. Finally, research of transaction costs, uncertainty, opportunism, and switching costs is critical to future study.

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