• Title, Summary, Keyword: trans-esterification

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Esterification Reaction of Animal Fat for Bio-diesel Production (바이오디젤 생산을 위한 동물성 오일의 에스테르화 반응)

  • Kim, Sung-Min;Kim, Deog-Keun;Lee, Jin-Suk;Park, Soon-Chul;Rhee, Young-Woo
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.102-110
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    • 2012
  • In this study, the production of bio-diesel from animal oil by esterification and trans-esterification was investigated. There were three different extraction methods for oil extraction from raw animal fat. Heterogeneous catalysts such as Amberlyst-15 and Amberlyst BD-20 and a homogeneous catalyst such as sulfuric acid were used for esterification. Among three catalysts, the removal efficiency of Free Fatty Acid (FFA) was the highest in sulfuric acid. Response surface method was carried out to find the optimal esterification condition of sulfuric acid and methanol. After the esterification under the optimal condition, this animal fat was used for the trans-esterification. Animal oil used for trans-esterification was below 1% of FFA content and 0.09% of water content. The catalysts for trans-esterification were KOH, NaOH and $NaOCH_3$. To investigate the effects of catalyst type and amount on trans-esterification, The amount of catalyst were changed with 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 wt%. The molar ratio of methanol/oil was changed with 4, 6, 9 and 12. The amount of catalyst was fixed to 0.8 wt%. The KOH catalyst showed the highest FAME conversion for trans- esterification, and the optimal methanol/oil weight ratio was 6. In the experiments of various catalysts and methanol molar ratios, the highest content of FAME is 96%. However, this FAME content was below Korean bio-diesel standard which is 96.5% of FAME content. After distillation, FAME content increased to 98%.

Bio-diesel of Vegetable Oils by Lipase Catalyzed Trans-esterification into Continuous Process (연속공정에서 리파제 촉매 전이에스테르화에 의한 식물유의 바이오디젤화)

  • Hyun, Young-Jin;Kim, Hae-Sung
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.106-115
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    • 2005
  • Bio-diesel as fatty acid methyl ester was derived from such oils as soybean, peanut and canola oil by lipase catalyzed continuous trans-esterification. So the activation of lipase(Novozym - 435) was kept to be up to 4:1, the limiting molar ratio of methanol to oil under one-step addition of methanol due to the miscibility of oil and methanol through the static mixer for 4hrs and the elimination of glycerol on the surface of lipase by 7wt% silica gel. Therefore the overall yield of fatty acid methyl ester from soybean oil appeared to be 98% at 50$^{\cdot}C$ of reaction temperature under two-steps addition of methanol with 2${\times}$2:1 of methanol to oil molar ratio at an interval of 5.5hrs, 7wt% of lipase, 24 number of mixer elements, 0.2ml/min of flow rate and 7wt% of silica gel.

Esterification and Trans-esterification Reaction of Fish Oil for Bio-diesel Production (바이오디젤 생산을 위한 어유의 에스테르화 및 전이에스테르화 반응)

  • Lee, Young-Jae;Kim, Deog-Keun;Lee, Jin-Suk;Park, Soon-Chul;Lee, Jin-Won
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.313-319
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    • 2013
  • To produce biodiesel efficiently from fish oil containing 4% free fatty acid, esterification and trans-esterification were carried out with Vietnam catfish oil, which was kindly provided from GS-bio company. Heterogeneous solid acid catalysts such as Amberlyst-15 and Amberlyst BD-20 and sulfuric acid as homogeneous acid catalyst were used for the esterification of free fatty acids in the fish oil. Sulfuric acid showed the highest removal efficiency of free fatty acid and the shortest reaction time among three acid catalysts. The base catalysts for trans-esterification such as KOH, $NaOCH_3$ and NaOH were compared with each other and KOH was determined to be the best transesterification catalyst. Some solid material, which assumed to be saponified product from glycerol and biodiesel, were observed to form in the fish oil biodiesel when using $NaOCH_3$ and NaOH as the transesterification catalyst. The initial acid value of fish oil was proven to have a negative effect on biodiesel conversion. Of the three catalysts, KOH catalyst transesterification was shown to have high content of FAME and the optimal ratio of methanol/oil ratio was identified to be 9:1.

Low-costBacksheet Materials with Excellent Resistance to Chemical Degradation for Photovoltaic Modules (태양전지모듈용 고내구성 저가형 백시트)

  • Pyo, Se Youn;Lee, Chang Hyun
    • Membrane Journal
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.287-294
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    • 2015
  • Photovoltaic (PV) modules are environmentally friendly energy-conversion devices to generate electricity via the photovoltaic effect of semiconductors on solar energy. One of key elements in PV modules is "Backsheet," a multi-layered film to protect the devices from a variety of chemicals including water vapor. A representative Backsheet is composed of polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). PVF is relatively expensive, while showing excellent resistance to chemical attacks. Thus, it is necessary to develop alternatives which can lower its high production cost and guarantee lifetime applicable to practical PV modules at the same time. In this study, PET films with certain levels of crystallinity were utilized instead of PVF. Since it is well known that PET is suffering from trans-esterification and hydrolysis under a wide pH range, it is needed to understand decomposition behavior of the PET films under PV operation conditions. To evaluate their chemical decomposition behavior within a short period of times, accelerated decomposition test protocol is developed. Moreover, electrochemical long-term performances of the PV module employing the PET-based Backsheet are investigated to prove the efficacy of the proposed concept.

Synthesis of Structured Lipids from Corn Oil and Conjugated Linoleic Acid with Immobilized Lipase-Catalyzed Reaction (옥수수유와 conjugated linoleic acid로부터 고정화 효소를 이용한 재구성지질의 합성)

  • Cho, Eun-Jin;Lee, Ki-Teak
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.797-802
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    • 2003
  • Structured lipids (SL) were synthesized by esterification of corn oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in a continuous packed-bed column reactor. The effects of flow rate, reaction temperature, and substrate molar ratios were studied. The reaction was catalyzed by TL IM (immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosa). Results of triacylglycerol (TAG) analysis by GC showed that the incorporated CLA isomers were mainly cis9, trans11- and trans 10, cis12-CLA. Slower flow rates yielded higher incorporation, and maximum incorporation of CLA was obtained with a molar ratio of 1:3 (corn oil: CLA) at a temperature of $55^{\circ}C$. The obtained SLs had iodine values ranging from 120 to 128. The SLs were composed of TAG $(98{\sim}99%)$, 1,2- and 1,3-diacylglycerol ($0.7{\sim}1.3%$), and a small amount of monoacylglycerol.

The Effect of Silane Compound on the Cure Reaction and Mechanical Properties of PEG, PCP Binder for Propellant (Silane화합물이 추진제용 PEG, PCP바인더의 경화 및 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • 홍명표
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 2000
  • The silane compounds as a coupling agent have been used in the propellant in order to enhance the mechanical property and lower the viscosity. They showed great effects in the PEG propellant. In PCP propellant, however, the silane compounds not only made a severe cure problem but also deteriorated the mechanical property. In this study, TESPN as a silane compound was applied in PEG and PCP binder for finding above factors. The main reason was that the main chains of PCP were broken due to the trans-esterification reaction of ester groups in PCP and alchol which was produced by reacting silane compounds and moisture in the solution of liquid binder.

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Rheological and Failure Properties of Polycarbonate/Poly(butylene terephthalate) Blends (폴리카보네이트/폴리(부틸렌 테레프탈레이트) 블렌드의 유변학적 및 파괴특성)

  • Nah, Chang-Woon;Huh, Mong-Young;Choi, Dae-Hwan;Kook, Jeong-Ho;Hwang, In-Ra;Jeong, Kwang-Un;Hong, Chang-Kook
    • Polymer(Korea)
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.399-403
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    • 2007
  • Trans-esterification behavior of polycarbonate/poly(butylene terephthalate) (PC/PBT) blends was investigated during the melt mixing process. Rheological and fracture behaviors, and fracture morphology were also investigated as a function of PC/PBT blend ratio. Based on FT-IR and $^1H-NMR$ results, a trans-esterification reaction was confirmed to occur between PC and PBT during the melt mixing process. The melt index(MI) decreased with increased PC content, indicating the higher flow resistance of PC. The storage and loss moduli were increased by increasing the PC loading, and the PC/PBT blends were rheologically incompatible based on the Cole-Cole plot. The tensile property increased linearly with the increased PC content. However, the impact strength increased until 50 wt% of PC loading, notably around $30{\sim}40wt%$, and then was levelled off at 50 wt%. Rough ridges were formed on the impact fracture surfaces above the 40 wt% of PC content, supporting the observed higher impact strength in this range.

Synthesis of New Anthracycline Derivatives Including Butyric or Retinoic Acid Moiety.

  • Rho, Young S.;Kim, Wan Jung;Park, Si Ho;Yu, Dong Jin;Gang, Heun Su;Jeong, Sun Ryang
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.581-586
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    • 2001
  • The potential anticancer agents, new anthracycline analogues (2-9) have been synthesized from the glycosides daunomycin (1a) and doxorubicin (1b). Compounds 2 and 6 were prepared by nucleophilic displacement esterification of a 14-bromodauomycin(1c) with sodium or potassium salts of butyric and all trans retinoic acid, respectively. Compounds 3 and 7 were obtained from daunomycin (1a) by direct amidation with a butyric and all trans retinoic acid in the presence of EDCI and PP, respectively. Compounds 4 and 8 were obtained from doxorubicin (1b) by reaction with the corresponding acids in the same manner. Compounds 5 and 9 were prepared from doxorubicin (1b) by acylation with two equivalents of the corresponding acids under the same reaction conditions.

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Production of Lard Based Biodiesel Using Ultrasound Assisted Trans-Esterification (초음파가 도입된 전이에스테르화 반응을 이용한 돈지원료 바이오디젤의 제조)

  • Cho, Hae-Jin;Lee, Seung-Bum;Lee, Jae-Dong
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.155-160
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    • 2011
  • An animal fat is an attractive biodiesel energy source for its high stability against oxidation and low incomplete combustion ratio due to the high heating value and cetane value. However, it requires a refinery process because of the high content of saturated acid and impurity which increas the boiling point. In this study, the optimum biodiesel synthetic process of lard is suggested. Indeed, we demonstrate new biodiesel production processes to alter conventional process of heating and mixing by applying ultrasonic energy. While the optimum reaction temperature and mole ratio of methanol and lard, when using conventional mixing and heating process, were $55^{\circ}C$ and 12, respectively, the reaction time were reduced to 30 minutes by applying ultrasonic irradiation power of 500 W. The new process applying ultrasonic irradiation yielded synthetic biodiesel properties as followings: 3.34 cP of the viscosity, 37.0 MJ/kg of the caloric value and below 0.25 mgKOH/g of the acidic value, which satisfy biodiesel quality criteria.

Sequence Structure and Thermal Property of Poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT)/p-Acetoxybenzoic Acid (ABA) Copolymers Obtained Through Melt Trans-esterification Reaction (용융 에스테르 교환반응에 의해 제조된 폴리부틸렌테레프탈레이트/파라아세톡시벤조산 공중합체의 서열구조와 열적 성질)

  • 김도경;박수영;박종래
    • Polymer(Korea)
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.58-64
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    • 2000
  • Poly(butylene terephthalate-co-oxybenzoate) (PBOT ) was synthesized by melt trans-esterification of poly(butylene terephthalate)(PBT) and p-acetoxybensoic acid (ABA) at 250, 260, and 27$0^{\circ}C$ with the compositions of PBT/ABA of 4/6, 5/5, 6/4. The sequence analysis of PBOT with a $^1$H FT-NMR indicated that the number of consecutive oxybenzoate units ranges from 1.2 to 1.5, which is larger than that of the corresponding poly(ethylene terephthalate)(PET)/ABA (PEOT) obtained at the same reaction conditions as the PBOT. The difference in the block length influenced the thermal degradation behavior: Polyoxybezoate (POB), PBT and PEOT showed one-step degradation whereas PBOT exhibited two-step degradation. The results suggested that PBOT consisted of three phases of PBT-rich phase, random phase of PBT and ABA, and ABA-rich phase.

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