• Title, Summary, Keyword: traffic emissions

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Estimating Carbon Emissions due to Freeway Incidents by Using Macroscopic Traffic Flow Models (거시적 교통류모형을 이용한 고속도로 돌발상황에 따른 탄소배출량 산정연구)

  • Son, Young Tae;Han, Kyu Jong
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.119-129
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    • 2016
  • PURPOSES : The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology for estimating additional carbon emissions due to freeway incidents. METHODS : As our country grows, our highway policy has mainly neglected the environmental and social sectors. However, with the formation of a national green growth keynote and an increase in the number of people interested in environmental and social issues, problems related to social issues, such as traffic accidents and congestion, and environmental issues, such as the impact of air pollution caused by exhaust gases that are emitted from highway vehicles, are beginning to be discussed. Accordingly, studies have been conducted on a variety of environmental aspects in the field of road transport, and for the quantitative calculation of greenhouse gas emissions, using various methods. However, in order to observe the effects of carbon emissions, microscopic simulations must use many difficult variables such as cost, analysis time, and ease of analysis process. In this study, additional greenhouse gas emissions that occur because of highway traffic accidents were classified by type (incident handling time, number of lanes blocked, freeway level of service), and the annual additional emissions based on incidents were calculated. According to the results, congestion length and emissions tend to increase with an increase in incident clearance time, number of occupied lanes, and worsening level of service. Using this data, we analyzed accident data on the Gyeong-bu Expressway (Yang-Jae IC - Osan IC) for a year. RESULTS : Additional greenhouse gas emissions that occur because of highway traffic accidents were classified by type (incident handling time, number of lanes blocked, freeway level of service) and annual additional emissions caused by accidents were calculated. CONCLUSIONS : In this study, a methodology for estimating carbon emissions due to freeway incidents was developed that incorporates macroscopic flow models. The results of the study are organized in the form of a look-Up table that calculates carbon emissions rather easily.

A Methodology for CO2 Emissions Estimation with Through-Traffic (통과교통량을 고려한 이산화탄소 배출량 추정 방안 연구)

  • Kim, Tea Gyun;Hong, Ki Man;Baek, Ba Ruem;Woo, Wang Hee;Hong, Young Suk;Cho, Joong Rae
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.303-314
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    • 2014
  • This study develops a $CO_2$ emissions estimation method, which considers different O/D travel patterns and through traffic volumes, in different regions for $CO_2$ emissions management in the field of transportation. In the research, O/D and network data provided by the Korea Transport Database (KTDB) Center are used as basic data. The results show that the total emission was similar to the Metropolitan's total emission which was estimated by KTDB (2009). With the analysis focusing on Gyeonggi-do, the results show that $CO_2$ emission from through traffic volumes was greater than $CO_2$ emissions of the Intra-Regional in southern regions; By contrast, $CO_2$ emissions of the Intra-Regional was greater than that from through traffic volumes in northern regions. Therefore, the $CO_2$ emissions management needs to be segregated into local government and nation with each travel pattern.

Vehicles' CO2 Emissions by Intersection Types (교차로 형태에 따른 차량 당 탄소가스 배출량 비교)

  • Kim, Da-Ye;Oh, Heung-Un
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.123-133
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    • 2013
  • PURPOSES : The present paper is to compare vehicles' $CO_2$ emissions in roundabouts and signalized intersections. METHODS : The present paper uses the SIDRA software with variables of traffic and road conditions. RESULTS : The results of the study are as follows : First, when entering traffic volumes are more than 1600pcph, vehicle's $CO_2$ emissions in roundabouts are lower than those of signalized intersections regardless of the left turn ratio. Second, When entering traffic volumes are more than 2800pcph, vehicles's $CO_2$ emissions in 2-lane approaches are lower than those of 1-lane approaches in signalized intersection. Third, when entering traffic volumes are more than 1600pcph, vehicle's $CO_2$ emissions of CASE B are lowest. (CASE B is the condition with one exclusive left-turn lane and one exclusive straight lane and one shared straight lane with right-turn.) Also, CASE A is the condition that vehicle's $CO_2$ emissions in roundabouts are lower than those of signalized intersections between 1600pcph and 3600pcph. (CASE A is the condition with one exclusive left-turn lane and one shared straight lane with right-turn.) But, when entering traffic volumes are more than 4000pcph, vehicle's $CO_2$ emissions in signalized intersections is lower than those of roundabouts. CONCLUSIONS : It may be concluded that vehicle's $CO_2$ emissions on roundabouts are much lower than those of signalized intersections, especially, when entering traffics volumes are between 1600pcph and 3600pcph in 1-lane or 2-lane approaches.

A Review of Emissions Studies for Transportation Engineering (교통환경분야의 국내외 연구동향 및 시사점 (차량배출량 관련 연구를 중심으로))

  • Gang, Jong-Ho;Lee, Cheong-Won
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.7-18
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    • 2007
  • There are few studies on air pollution due to vehicle emissions in spite of the importance of this field. Therefore, this study describes trends and suggests implications through analysis relating to existing emissions research. This study has been divided into three areas. The first part is about estimating vehicle emissions. In this part, the authors analyze limits in ways of calculating emissions in the existing macroscopic view and then suggest the development of a model for calculating emissions considering velocity and acceleration. These variables are a function of traffic and individual driving behavior in the microscopic view. The second part is about management techniques for reducing vehicle emissions. The traffic management techniques for reducing vehicle emissions should conform to regional characteristics. The final part is about traffic operation for reducing vehicle emissions. The authors suggest the development of a micro-simulator and then the development of strategies for traffic operation. It is necessary to design better models estimating emissions and then, using real time data, to make a monitoring system simulating emission rates. This study serves as a literature review to make a foundation for further research about emissions research for transportation engineering.

A Study on the Strategy and the Evaluation of Traffic Operation Considering the Environmental Justice in Emission (환경정의를 고려한 교통운영 전략 및 평가에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Jun-Hwan;Kim, Won-Ho;Nam, Du-Hui;Lee, Yeong-In
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.7-17
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    • 2007
  • This study suggests ways to utilize the concept of environmental justice in order to improve the environment through strategies related to emissions. In Particular, this study explores ways to ameliorate the environment and traffic in consideration of environmental justice instead of simply aiming to reduce emissions. Real-time traffic information was gathered using ITS, it was input into a simulation model. and the level of present exhaust fume emissions was found. At the same time, based on current traffic situations, diverse strategies for reducing emissions were evaluated and appropriate executable alternative measures for ensuring environmental justice were provided.

Development of Greenhouse Gas Estimation Method for a Local Government Level Using Traffic Demand Model

  • Maurillo, Pennie Rose Anne R.;Jung, Hyeon-Ji;Lee, Seon-Ha;Ha, Dong-Ik
    • The Journal of The Korea Institute of Intelligent Transport Systems
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.114-128
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    • 2013
  • Greenhouse gas emissions have been an important issue in different countries because of their effects on global warming. The government has to organize greenhouse gas reduction measures suitable to regional characteristics by establishing annual implementation plans and comprehensive policies based on the UNFCCC. The transportation sector is one of the major contributors of air pollution; hence increasing need to estimate current and future traffic emissions precisely. Under these circumstances, a number of emission models have been developed recently. However, current methods of estimation cannot carry out effective analyses because it does not reflect vehicle movement characteristics. This study aims to present a new method for calculating road traffic emissions in Goyang city. A travel demand model is utilized to carry out GHG emission estimates according the traffic data (fleet composition, vehicle kilometers travelled, traffic intensity, road type, emission factors and speed). This study evaluates two approaches to estimate the road traffic emissions in Goyang City: Pollution-Emis and the Handbook of Emission Factors for Road Transport (HBEFA v.3.1) which is representative of the "average speed" and the "traffic situation" model types. The evaluation of results shows that the proposed emission estimation method may be a good practice if vigilant implementation of model inputs is observed.

Characteristics of the Emissions and Concentrations of Air Pollutants with Change in Traffic Volume during the Beach Opening Period in Busan (부산지역 해수욕장 개장시 교통량 변화에 따른 대기오염물질 배출량 및 농도 특성 분석)

  • Seo, Woo-Mi;Shon, Zang-Ho;Song, Sang-Keun
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.21 no.9
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    • pp.1149-1162
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    • 2012
  • The impact of a considerable increase in traffic volume on the emission and concentrations of air pollutants was investigated at three beaches (Haeundae (HB), Gwanganri (GB), and Songjeong (SB)) in Busan during beach opening period (BOP) in 2011. During the BOP, passenger car was the major vehicle type, followed by taxi, and van. CO was the major contributor of total air pollutant emissions followed by NOx, VOC, and $PM_{10}$. For the temporal variation of the emission of air pollutants during the BOP, it was generally the highest in the afternoon followed by the evening and morning, except for SB. For the spatial variation of their emission, it was the highest at GB followed by SB and HB. The emissions of air pollutants during the BOP were generally higher than those during the Non-BOP, except for HB. In contrast, the significant impact of the traffic volume increase on the concentrations of air pollutants at monitoring sites near the three beaches during the BOP were not found compared to the Non-BOP due to the significant distances between monitoring sites of air pollutants and monitoring sites of traffic volume at the beaches.

Evaluation of On-Road NOx Emission from a Light Duty Diesel Vehicle using a Portable Emissions Measurement System (이동식 배출가스 측정장비를 이용한 소형 경유 자동차의 실도로 질소산화물 배출특성 분석)

  • Lee, Tae-Woo;Lee, Jong-Tae;Kim, Jeong-Soo
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.94-104
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this research is to quantify the compliance of on-road emission from a light duty diesel vehicle, based on a comparison to emission regulation standard. $NO_x$, CO and THC emissions were measured using a portable device on a selected real-world driving route with a length of approximately 22 km. On-road measurements were repeated by 10 times on a same route to reflect variability in traffic conditions. A test route was divided into 22 road links with length of 1 km to analyze emission results with higher spatial resolution. The average emissions of $NO_x$, CO and THC over total travel distance, which is approximately 220 km, were quantified to be in compliance with emission regulation standards. Under higher spatial resolution, $NO_x$ concentration exceeded a standard in 92 links out of 220 links. The extended time in stop period and the stop-and-go driving cycle were identified as two important reasons for increased $NO_x$ emissions in observed cases. Heavy traffics showed higher $NO_x$ emissions than free flow. These results indicate that the real-world vehicle emissions might exceed the compliance level associate with traffic conditions. Another interesting observation of this research is that the on-road emission characteristics can be independent to the average speed of road links with higher spatial resolution. Variability in on-road emission might not be fully described by solely relying on an average speed, because variability in traffic conditions and road conditions can influence on real-world vehicle emissions.

Development of Quantitative Analysis Methodology on Environmental Effect through Adaptation of Advanced Safety Vehicle (첨단차량 도입 시를 고려한 환경적 효과의 정량적 분석 방법론 개발)

  • Choi, Ji-Eun;Bae, Sang-Hoon
    • The Journal of The Korea Institute of Intelligent Transport Systems
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.94-104
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    • 2010
  • The capacity of highway is restricted and traffic congestion is caused by increasing traffic demand. Also, greenhouse gases are increased by traffic congestion. CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) is an idea of interest to reduce greenhouse gases. However, CDM's cases applied in traffic field are rare. Thus, it is necessary that methodology to reduce greenhouse gas should be developed and applied to CDM. A methodology for identifying greenhouse gas emissions was developed in this paper. This methodology was developed on the basis of baseline methodology registered at UN. Travel time and speed in the conventional traffic condition and in the automated traffic condition are compared by BPR function. The calculated speed applied to emission factor equation and then $CO_2$ emissions was calculated. A simulation was executed to evaluate the validity of the developed methodology. In the result, advanced vehicle's $CO_2$ emissions are more than conventional vehicle's $CO_2$ emissions in the stable flow condition. However, advanced vehicle's $CO_2$ emissions are less than conventional vehicle's $CO_2$ emissions in the unstable flow condition. It is assure that capacity of highway is enhanced and efficiency of highway is improved by adopting advanced safety vehicle in the smart road.

Estimation of Link-Based Traffic-Related Air Pollutant Emissions and the Exposure Intensity on Pedestrian Near Busy Streets (유동인구 밀집지역 인근의 도로구간별 배출량 산정 및 보행자 노출 강도 평가)

  • Lee, Sangeun;Shin, Myunghwan;Lee, Seokjoo;Hong, Dahee;Jang, Dongik;Keel, Jihoon;Jung, Taekho;Lee, Taewoo;Hong, Youdeog
    • Journal of ILASS-Korea
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.81-89
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    • 2018
  • The objective of this study is to estimate the level of exposure of traffic-related air pollutants (TRAPs) on the pedestrians in Seoul area. The road network's link-based pollutant emission was calculated by using a set of mobile source emission factor package and associated activity information. The population information, which is the number of pedestrian, was analyzed in conjunction with the link-based traffic emissions in order to quantify exposure level by selected 23 spots. We proposed the Exposure Intensity, which is defined by the amount of traffic emission and the population, to quantify the probability of exposure of pedestrian. Link-based traffic NOx and PM emissions vary by up to four times depending on the location of each spot. The Hot-spots is estimated to be around 1.8 times higher Exposure Intensity than the average of the 23 selected spots. The information of Exposure Intensity of each spot allows us to develop localized policies for air quality and health. Even in the same area, the Exposure Intensity over time also shows a large fluctuation, which gives suggestions for establishing site-specific counter-measures.