• Title, Summary, Keyword: toxicity

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Biological Evaluation for Characteristics of Leachate Toxicity from Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (생물학적 방법에 의한 도시생활폐기물 매립지의 침출수 독성특성 평가)

  • 황인영;류경무
    • Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology
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    • v.11 no.1_2
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    • pp.31-39
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    • 1996
  • Leachate from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill, effluent from leachate treatment plant, and ground water sample from a monitoring well near landfill site were tested for an acute toxicity. Microtox toxicity test was used for testing the acute toxicity of leachate and other samples. EC$_{50}$ values which a concentration of pollutant for reducing 50% light output from luminescent bacteria, Photobacterium phosphoreum were determined to assess the toxicity of pollutants as well as the relative toxicity. In addition, characteristics of leachate were studied and compared to those of phenol and pentachlorophenol (PCP) which are typical aquatic toxic pollutants. For leachate, EC$_{50}$ for 30 min incubation was 10.8%, while for phenol and PCP, 46 ppm and 1.2 ppm, respectively. the relative toxicity of treated leachate by in situ aeration with activated sludge was reduced to more than 75% of toxicity of the untreated leachate. Microtox toxicity test was failed to figure out EC$_{50}$ values for groundwater from a monitoring well since the relative toxicity of the unconcentrated sample was too low to estimate EC$_{50}$. Addition of activated carbon to leachate was reduced the relative toxicity. The reduction Pattern of the relative toxicity of leachate by mechanical aeration was similar to that of PCP, but different from that of phenol. These findings suggest that the toxicity of leachate may come from PCP-like toxic compounds rather than phenol-like one. In conclusion, the process of aeration with activated sludge might be very important to reduce the environmental toxicity of leachate. And Microtox test could be a reasonable bioassay for screening and monitoring the environmental toxicity of leachate from municipal solid waste landfill as well as for determining the reduction efficiency of the leachate toxicity by various treatment processes in leachate treatment plant.

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Hematological and serum biochemical studies in fresh water fish exposed to acute and chronic copper and mercury toxicity

  • H.A., Sawsan;H.M., Amira;M.B., Mostafa;AM.M., Nashaat
    • Journal of fish pathology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.25-39
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    • 2017
  • A total number of 668 apparently healthy fish were obtained from farm to study the effect of two heavy metals in a form of (Copper sulfate and Mercuric chloride) on some hematological and biochemical parameters of blood. The $LC_{50}$ /96 hr. of Cu and Hg were estimated and fish exposed to $\text\tiny{^1/_2}$ $LC_{50}$ for 7 days and for $1/_{10}$ $LC_{50}$ for 8 weeks from each product separately. Results showed decrease in RBCs count, PCV% and Hb in acute and chronic mercury while a significant increase was shown in acute and chronic copper toxicity, total leucocytic count showed decrease in acute mercury toxicity and increase in the chronic case, while in copper toxicity non-significant decrease in acute and significant decrease in chronic toxicity was noticed. Elevated serum urea and creatinine in both acute and chronic mercury and copper toxicity was detected. No changes in total bilirubin in the acute mercury and chronic copper toxicity while significant increase in chronic mercury and acute copper. Elevation of serum AST and ALT in some days of acute toxicity of mercury and copper while in chronic mercury toxicity a significant elevation of both serums AST and ALT were detected .while in chronic copper toxicity serum AST was fluctuated and ALT showed no significant changes. CK study revealed significant decrease in acute mercury with fluctuation in the chronic toxicity while in copper toxicity it showed fluctuation in acute and significant decrease in chronic toxicity. Glucose value decreased in acute and chronic mercury toxicity while in copper toxicity it showed significant increase in the acute and increase followed by significant decrease in the chronic copper toxicity.

STUDY ON THE DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF THIMEROSAL

  • Kwack, Seung-Jun;Rhee, Gyu-Seek;Kim, Soon-Sun;Kim, So-Hee;Sohn, Kyung-Hee;Chae, Soo-Young;Park, Yo-Woo;Park, Kui-Lea
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Toxicology Conference
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    • pp.71-72
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    • 2002
  • Thimerosal is a mercury-containing compound used in trace amounts to prevent bacteria and other organisms from contaminating vaccines, especially in opened multi-dose vials. The toxicity of mercury is well known and those most at risk are occurred in unborn and newborn babies.(omitted)

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Toxicity of Pufferfish in Korea -1. Anatomical Distribution of Toxicity of pufferfish Takifugu obscurus(Hwang-bok)- (한국산 복어의 독성 -1. 황복의 부위별 독성-)

  • JEON Joong-Kyun;YOO Jae-Myoung
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.137-140
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    • 1995
  • The pufferfish Takifugu obscurus (hwang-bok) was examined for toxicity. Forty-six specimens, which had Gaught at the Imjin River in 1992 and 1993, Korea, were collected and assayed for anatomical distribution of toxicity by the mouse assay method. Ovary and liver showed very strong toxicity, testis, intestine, gall bladder and spleen did moderate toxicity, muscles and skin did weak toxicity, and blood was non-toxic. The results of this study were different from those of Tani, who had examined the toxicity in 19 species of pufferfish, in terms of toxicity in testis, muscle, and skin. The toxicity of testis and muscle had been known to be non-toxic or weakly toxic previously, however, they were known to have weak or moderate toxicity. Therefore, careful attention should be taken to prevent food poisoning by pufferfish ingestion.

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Oral Toxicity Study and Skin Sensitization Test of a Cricket

  • Ryu, Hyeon Yeol;Lee, Somin;Ahn, Kyu Sup;Kim, Hye Jin;Lee, Sang Sik;Ko, Hyuk Ju;Lee, Jin Kyu;Cho, Myung-Haing;Ahn, Mi Young;Kim, Eun Mi;Lim, Jeong Ho;Song, Kyung Seuk
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.159-173
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    • 2016
  • Crickets have been attracting considerable interest in the field of nutrition and toxicology due to the global exhaustion of food resulting from a growing population. The cricket is normally eaten in several countries after roasting, similar to the grasshopper; however, safety evaluation data on cricket powder is limited. Here, we performed general toxicity studies of cricket powder including a single, 2-week repeated dose range evaluation test, a 13-week repeated oral dose toxicity test in Sprague-Dawley rats, a single oral dose toxicity test in Beagle dogs, and a skin sensitization test in guinea pigs following the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development test guidelines 406 and 408 in addition to Good Laboratory Practice. To investigate the NOAEL and target organs of cricket powder, Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to 4 groups: vehicle control, 1,250 mg/kg, 2,500 mg/kg, 5,000 mg/kg dose test groups and cricket powder was administered over 13 weeks after single dose and dose range finding studies in rats based on the results of the single oral administration toxicity study in rats and Beagle dogs. The results of the study showed that the NOAEL of cricket powder was over 5,000 mg/kg for both sexes of rats without adverse effects in a 13-week repeated oral toxicity study and there was no skin hypersensitivity reaction. Therefore, our results reveal that crickets can be widely used as a new substitute food or nutrient resource.

Characteristics of Toxicity Occurring in Outpatients at Korean Medical Clinics in Korean (한방의료기관이용환자의 부작용 및 독성발생의 특성 - 2011년 한방의료이용실태조사(보건복지부)를 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Ki-Bum;Park, Yeongchul;Lee, Sundong
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.135-150
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    • 2016
  • Research Methods: This research analyzed the data on those aged 20 and older from the Report on Korean Medicine Usage Research, which was conducted in 2011. The definitions of toxicity were defined by the presence of toxicity listed in the survey. The questions used in analysis were sex, age, household income, health insurance, medical fees, satisfaction rates on treatments, as well as the types of diseases and the presence of toxicity from treatments. The analysis was done through frequency analysis using SAS 9.2 and Fisher's Exact Test. Results: Toxicity occurred in 2.1% patients out of the 3518 studied. The types of toxicity were skin problems, such as hives and pruritus (34.7%), gastrointestinal problems (20.8%), neurological diseases (4.2%), liver(1.4%), kidney toxicity(1.4%), and others (22.2%). There were no differences in toxicity by sex, age, household income and the types of health insurances. However, toxicity were positively correlated with the increase in standard of education (p=0.0124). In addition, as treatment costs increased (p<0.0001) and satisfaction rates decreased, toxicity increased (p<0.0001). Toxicity increased in patients with low back pain (p=0.0429), hwabyung (p=0.0392), lumbar sprain (p=0.0004), correction body type (p=0.0118), growth (p=0.0045), and from motor accidents (p=0.0448). In logistic regression analysis, Toxicity were positively correlated with medical fees, and cancer treatment and negatively correlated with satisfaction rate on treatments. Conclusion: The toxicity that occurred in outpatients who used Korean medical clinics mostly happened in skin, digestive organs, nerves, livers, and kidneys toxicity. The occurrences differed by the Educational lengths, expensive costs of treatments, low satisfaction rates of the treatments, and cancer.

Screening of toxic potential of graphene family nanomaterials using in vitro and alternative in vivo toxicity testing systems

  • Chatterjee, Nivedita;Yang, Ji Su;Park, Kwangsik;Oh, Seung Min;Park, Jeonggue;Choi, Jinhee
    • Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology
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    • v.30
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    • pp.7.1-7.7
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    • 2015
  • Objectives The widely promising applications of graphene nanomaterials raise considerable concerns regarding their environmental and human health risk assessment. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the toxicity profiling of graphene family nanano-materials (GFNs) in alternative in vitro and in vivo toxicity testing models. Methods The GFNs used in this study are graphene nanoplatelets ([GNPs]-pristine, carboxylate [COOH] and amide [$NH_2$]) and graphene oxides (single layer [SLGO] and few layers [FLGO]). The human bronchial epithelial cells (Beas2B cells) as in vitro system and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as in vivo system were used to profile the toxicity response of GFNs. Cytotoxicity assays, colony formation assay for cellular toxicity and reproduction potentiality in C. elegans were used as end points to evaluate the GFNs' toxicity. Results In general, GNPs exhibited higher toxicity than GOs in Beas2B cells, and among the GNPs the order of toxicity was pristine > $NH_2$ > COOH. Although the order of toxicity of the GNPs was maintained in C. elegans reproductive toxicity, but GOs were found to be more toxic in the worms than GNPs. In both systems, SLGO exhibited profoundly greater dose dependency than FLGO. The possible reason of their differential toxicity lay in their distinctive physicochemical characteristics and agglomeration behavior in the exposure media. Conclusions The present study revealed that the toxicity of GFNs is dependent on the graphene nanomaterial's physical forms, surface functionalizations, number of layers, dose, time of exposure and obviously, on the alternative model systems used for toxicity assessment.

GSTT1 null and MPO -463G>A Polymorphisms and Carboplatin Toxicity in an Indian Population

  • Bag, Arundhati;Pant, Nirdosh Kumar;Jeena, Lalit Mohan;Bag, Niladri;Jyala, Narayan Singh
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.8
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    • pp.4739-4742
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    • 2013
  • Carboplatin, a second generation platinum drug, is widely used to treat different types of cancers. However, myelosuppression remains a major consideration in its use. Genetic polymorphisms of enzymes involved in drug disposition can influence therapeutic outcome. The homozygous null deletion of phase II metabolic gene GSTT1 that abolishes its xenobiotic- detoxifying ability may be associated with carboplatin toxicity. Further, since carboplatin generates oxidative stress, polymorphisms of oxidative stress genes that regulate the cellular level of free radicals may have important roles in generating drug- related adverse effects. We here investigated the null polymorphism of GSTT1, and the -463G>A promoter polymorphism of oxidative stress gene myeloperoxidase (MPO) for carboplatin toxicity in a population of northern India. Cancer patients who were treated with carboplatin, and developed toxicity was considered. The study group comprised of 10 patients who developed therapy- related adverse effects. Peripheral blood was taken from patients for DNA isolation. GSTT1 null genotype was determined by conducting duplex PCR and MPO-463 G>A was determined by PCR followed by RFLP. Hematologic toxicity was experienced by 5 patients, 2 of them had grade 3 and 4 toxicity and 3 others had grade 2 toxicity. They also had gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Remaining 5 individuals developed GI toxicity but no hematological toxicity. While GG homozygous of MPO was present in majority of patients having hematologic toxicity (in 4 out of 5 individuals), one A allele (AG genotype) was present in 4 patients who did not have any hematological toxicity. Thus variant A allele of MPO -463G>A may be related to lower hematological toxicity. These preliminary data, however, are required to be confirmed in larger studies along with other relevant polymorphisms.