Objectives : This study compared Value added to personnel expenses between 12 private general hospitals and 12 regional public hospitals, based on location and size, to examine industry competitiveness in terms of management. Methods : From 2011 to 2015, the value added and value added to personnel expenses were calculated by year. and a SPSS statistical program was used to determine and influential factors between private general hospitals and regional public hospitals. Results : The total value added to personnel expenses was 26.85 percent lower than general hospitals compared to regional public hospitals. The product category most influenced by the value added to personnel expenses was Stationeries & expendables at general hospitals and Outsourcing at regional public hospitals. Conclusions : Regional public hospitals have relatively low value added to personnel expenses compared to the general hospitals. Therefore, it is necessary for hospital management to reexamine gross revenue relative to total manpower.
Since 1995 the Korean Ministry of Science and Technology has introduced and implemented a project based system (PBS) for awarding R&D funds. While capital investments for national laboratories such as buildings and research facilities are supported by the government, normal operating expenses including personnel expenses should be earned by national laboratories through open competition under PBS. The project budget includes both direct research costs and indirect costs. The purpose of this paper is to examine the components of indirect costs and to examine determinants of indirect costs of national laboratories in Korea. The indirect costs of nineteen national laboratories are examined. The direct personnel costs and indirect personnel costs out of total personnel costs are 72% and 28%, respectively. The average indirect cost rate is 74.1% of direct personnel costs. Major components of indirect costs are general operating costs, indirect personnel costs, taxes and dues, and expenses related to the usage of equipment. The significant determinants of indirect cost are indirect personnel ratio. the ratio of unique projects, the type of national laboratories (pure research laboratories or other), and asset activity ratio measured as research divided by total assets. The high indirect personnel ratio, the high ratio of unique projects, the laboratories classified as other, the low asset activity ratio are related to high indirect cost rates.
An analysis of the Nursing activities was carried out during the period of October 6 - 10, 1975 for five days, at postanesthetic room in Seoul National University Hospital. Continuous Time Study method was applied to this study by Observing and checking the activities performed by 8 nursing personnel at head nurse, staff nurse, and nurse aide level. Six nursing Students and 6 staff nurses observed and recorded all activities during the day and the evening for 5 days after certain process of training. Following results were obtained I 1. Percentages of nursing activity os were identified at each level of nursing personnel according to the skill Level 1) Thirty three point forty two Percent of the total head nurse's activities were spent by administrative activities, 21,33% by Clerical activities, 10.63% by Nursing activities, 6.54% by Messenger activities, 4.0% by Housekeeping activities, and 24. 08% by Unclassified activities, 2) Forty point forty two percent of the total staff nurses'activities were spent by Nursing activities, 12.7% by Administrative activities, 8.03% by Housekeeping activities, 3.08% by Clerical activities, 2.03% by Messenger activities, 0.08% by Dietary activities, and 34.19 o/e by Unclassified activities. 3) Thirty six point sixty three percent of the total nurse aide's activities were spent by Messenger activities, 14.4% by Housekeeping activities, 2.2% by Nursing activities, 1.0% by Clerical activities, 0.83% by Administrative activities, and 44.94% by Unclassified activities, 2. Percentages of nursing activities were identified at each level of nursing personnel according to area of activity. 1) Thirty three point ninety six percent of the total head nurse's activities were spent by Unit - Centered activities, 30.26% by Patient - Centered activities, 8.69 % by Personnel - Centered activities and 24.09 o/o by Other - Centered activities. 2) Fifty two point seventy four percent of the total staff nurses' activities were spent by Patient - Centered activities, 11.5 % by Unit -Centered activities, 1.68 % by Personnel -Centered activities and 34.02% by Other - Centered activities. 3) Forty nine point sixty seven Percent of the total Nurse aide's activities were spent by Unit -Centered activities, 5.13% by Patient -Centered activities, 0.27% by Personnel -Centered activities and 44.93%by Other -Centered activities. 3. Percentages of staff nurses' activities were identified at each skill Level according to their shifts. 1) Forty four point eighty one percent of the total day time activities were spent by Nursing activities, 13.62% by Administrative activities, 6.37% by Housekeeping activities, 2.08% by Clerical activities, 1.74 % by Messenger activities, 0.07% by Dietary activities and31.31 o/o by Unclassified activities. 2) Thirty three point eighty seven percent of the total evening time activities were spent by nursing activities, 10.51% by Housekeeping activities, 10.0% by Administrative activities, 4.58% by Clerical activities, 2.46% by Messenger activities, 0.09% by Dietary activities and 38.49% by Unclassified activities, 4. There was no great difference among activities of 5 days.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the internal factors that influence the performance of local government hospitals in Korea. There are 34 hospitals in korea as of 2008. Among these hospitals 5 are profit-making and the other loss-making in terms of profitability. Data was collected by Institute of local government hospital union. The major findings of this study was as follows : Firstly, 7 hospitals are high level, over than 100% of fixed ratio. But that result was better than the other study 5 years ago. Secondly, 29 hospitals are bellow 85% of bed occupancy rate. There are a number of hospitals didn't use the facilities and the personnel cost in total costs are high. And lastly, as a result of multiple regression analysis, the factors had on significant effect on normal profit to total assets are personnel cost(-), liability to total assets(-), average length of stay(-), outpatient visits to inpatient days(-). In conclusion, to improve the profitability of hospitals, the efforts to reduce personnel cost and to increase bed occupancy rate.
Current Industrial and Technological Trends in Aerospace
The Policy Development Team of the Korea Aerospace Research Institute investigates the status of Korean space sector in 2007 including industry, research institutes and universities through the survey executed third time after first in 2005. In this paper the statistics of sales, budget, man power, export and import of 77 organizations is presented and the status of Korean space sector is analyzed. The total sales of space related industry in 2007 are 887.255 billion won which is increased by 26% relative to that of previous year. The total budget of research institutes and the total R&D fund of universities are 367.301 billion won and 8.441 billion won respectively. In 2007, total personnel of space sector is 2,705, as 1621 personnel in industry, 717 personnel in research institutes, 367 personnel in universities. The total number of personnel is increased by 14% in 2007 compared to the previous year.
Korean Medical Insurance Cooperation executed the physical checkup intended for all the members of public officials, school personnel in private schools, and the insured as a national-wide event in 1980. This is the result of a part of Taegu district and its contiguous country this hospital took charge of. Physical checkup method was divided into the first health examination and tile second health examination. The second health examination was executed for those who needed reexamination according to the result of the first health examination. After that, we passed judgement on the result finally. The total number of the first health examination was 10,779; 4,606 in public officials, 2,327 in police constables, 3,976 in school personnel in private schools. The classification of physical checkup is as follows; A group: normal groups B group: those who do not require immediate medical care but require preventive measures or who are doubtful of disease or who had undetermined diagnosis (attention) C group: those who require immediate medical care but who are able to be on duty (simple recuperation) D group: those who require immediate medical treatment and recuperation (suspension from office and recuperation) Total B group to the in the first health examination was 4.73%, that of total C,D groups 2.21%. That of total C,D groups to the total in the first health examination by occupation was 2.30% in public officials, 2.19% in police constables, 2.04% in school personnel. Consequently there was no different among occupations. Total C,D groups of hypertension to the total in the first health examination was 1.68% and hypertension was 76.05% to all disease. These rates mentioned to above were higher than any other rate in disease. Subsequently, being low, the rate of diabetes was 15.54%. From the view point of age, the higher rate appeared in men and women over 35 years old of B group and over 45 years old of C,D groups in three occupations in comparison with other ages and the older men were, the higher men who took a disease were.
The objective of this study is to analyze a current trend of and relating factors on profitability of the Korean Public Corporation Medical Centers(KPCMCs, hereinafter, hospitals) in Korea. There are 34 hospitals in Korea as of 2004. Among these hospitals some are red ink hospitals, others are black inks in terms of profitability. Data were collected by Korea Health Industry Development Institute(KHIDI) Statistics for Hospital Management 2000-2002 and Ministry of Health and Welfare(MOHW) financial data of public hospitals which was planned to coordinate public health care services roadmap in the long run. The samples are 32 hospitals. Profitability was measured in the aspect of profit rate with normal profit to total assets, and normal profit to gross revenues as dependent variables in respective. Independent variables were classified by general factors, i.e., location, intern/resident training, period of opening, number of beds, and managerial factors(current ratio, fixed ratio, liability to total assets, total assets turnover, personnel costs, materials cost, administrative cost), and finally factors related to patient treatment(average length of stay, bed occupancy rate, admission ratio of outpatients). The methods of analysis are correlation and multiple regression analysis. This study shows firstly, a lot of hospitals are optimal current ratio. Hospitals in upper 100% current ratio are 81.2%. And the personnel cost in total costs are high. Secondly, the trend of normal profit to gross revenues of hospitals are deteriorating gradually. And lastly, as a result of multiple regression analysis, the factors had on significant effect on normal profit to total assets are fixed ratio(+), liability to total assets(-), bed occupancy rate(+), admissions of outpatients(+), etc. And the factors had on significant effect on normal profit to gross revenues are current ration(+), fixed ratio(+), personnel cost(-), administrative expenses(-), admissions of outpatients(+), etc. In conclusion, to improve the profitability of hospitals, the efforts to reduce personnel cost and average length of stay might be needed. And also beds utilization rate need to be increased.
The Journal of the Korean Society of School Health
Purpose: To describe the prevalence, epidemiological characteristics, and related factors of diabetes mellitus in school personnel. Method：5,384 school personnel (2,638 males 2,746 females) received physical examinations at the Seoul School Health Center in 2002. Using the American Diabetes Association criteria, and fasting blood sugar(FBS) was classified as normal at 110>=FBS, borderline 111-125, and the diabetes group 126<=FBS. Related factors of each group were evaluated by gender. Results： In the diabetes group, there were 4.74% males and 0.8% females, and the borderline group was 6.37% males and 2.22% females. The older age group gad a higher distribution in both males and females in the diabetes group. In the diabetes group, the mean and abnormal rate of BMI, systolic hypertension, diastolic hypertension, total cholesterol, GOT, GPT, and GTP were higher than in the normal group. In life style factor, the diabetes group gad a higher distribution of meat eating and smoking more than 20 years than the normal group. The effect of FBS on BMI, BP(blood pressure), total cholesterol, GOT, GPT, and GTP were investigated after controlling for confounding variables. In the borderline and diabetes group, the mean of BMI, BP, total cholesterol, GOT, GPT, and GTP was higher in dose-response effect. In the logistic multiple regression, the related factors of the diabetes group were hypertension and abnormal GTP in males, and abnormal total cholesterol and GTP in females. In the borderline group, the related factors were meat eating, hypertension, and high GOT in males and the older age group, and hypertension, total cholesterol, and abnormal GTP in females. Conclusions: It is possible to manage all related factors of diabetes mellitus except for age. An appropriate program for health promotion is necessary.
Objectives: This study investigated the financial performance of Korean Medicine hospitals in Korea in order to understand the current status of hospital management and improve its efficiency. Methods: Financial statements of 24 medical corporations, 19 juridical foundations and 18 school hospitals from 2016 to 2018 were obtained from the secondary data published by the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, the National Tax Service and the Korea Advancing Schools Foundation. Financial performance was measured on 6 dimensions: liquidity, profitability, activity, growth, cost and productivity (investment efficiency) by analyzing 8 financial indicators: Liability to Total Assets, Net Profit to Patient Service Revenues, Total Assets Turnover, Growth Rate of Patient Service Revenues, Operating Expenses to Patient Service Revenues, Value Added to Patient Service Revenues, Value Added to Total Assets, and Value Added to Personnel Expenses. Results: Korean Medicine hospitals showed lower Liability to Total Assets, Liquidity and Value Added to Total Assets than Western Medicine hospitals did. They also showed higher Value Added to Patient Service Revenues and Value Added to Personnel Expenses than Western Medicine hospitals did. They also showed higher Value Added to Patient Service Revenues and Value Added to Personnel Expenses than those of Western Medicine hospitals do. The net profit decreased significantly (-50.8%) in 2018 whereas Patient Service Revenues increased (6.9%) for the same period due to Operating Expenses increase and Non-Operating loss. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the Korean Medicine hospital sector in Korea needs to improve liquidity and financial structure and to enhance profitability by reducing Personnel Expenses and generating Non-operating revenues in order to improve its investment efficiency and competitiveness.
The Journal of the Korean Society of School Health
Purpose ： To describe epidemiological characteristics and related factors in school personnel with hypertension. Method ： 5,384 school personnel (2,638 males and 2,746 females) received physical examination at the Seoul School Health Center in 2002. blood pressure(BP) was classified by JNC 7th report. Normal BP is systolic BP <120 and diastolic BP<80, prehypertension BP is 120-139 or 80-89mmHg, stage 1 hypertension BP is 140-159 or 90-99, and stage 2 hypertension >=160 or >=100 mmHg. each group was evaluated by gender. We used multiple regression and logistic regression. Results ： Normotension was 20.13% in males and 48.65% in female, prehypertension 43.4% in males and 38.06% in females, stage 1 hypertension 26.38% in males and 10.99% in females, stage2 hypertension 9.59% in males and 3.2% in females. the older age group had higher distribution of stage 1 hypertension and stage 2 hypertension. The means and abnormal rates of BMI, blood sugar, total cholesterol, GOT, GPT, and GTP was higher when their blood pressure was higher. However, an alcohol habit among lifestyle factors had an inverse effect. Higher Bp was correlated to a higher BMI, FBS, and cholesterol-like dose response. In stage 1 hypertension, the related factors of hypertension for males were BMI, amount of cigarettes smoked, exercise, blood sugar, total cholesterol, and GTP. In stage 1 hypertension, age, BMI, exercise, blood sugar, total cholesterol were related factors in female. In stage 2 hypertension, age and smoking were related factors in male, and age, BMI, and cholesterol in female. Conclusions ： It is possible to intervene in all related factors of hypertension except age through life-style modification and appropriate medical management. Active health promotion is needed in School personnel.
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