• Title, Summary, Keyword: total amino acid

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Physio-chemical studies on the after-ripening of hot pepper fruits -(Part 4) Changes in amino acids, organic acids and sugars- (신미종(辛味種)고추의 추숙(追熟)에 관(關)한 생리화학적(生理化學的) 연구(硏究) -제4보(第4報) Amino acids.유기산(有機酸).당(糖)의 변화-)

  • Lee, Sung-Woo
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.43-50
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    • 1971
  • Measuring the changes of free amino acids, organic acids, free sugars, for after-ripening of the peel of hot pepper, the writer has obtained the following results; 1. Glutamine, asparagine, and glutamic acid as free amino acid of hot pepper are rich, while the total amount of free amino acids is greatly decreased through after-ripening. 2. The major organic acids of hot pepper is malic acid and citric acid, and their total amount comes to 80% of the total acid through the whole after-ripening period. Malic acid, however, is greatly decreased while citric acid is increased through after-ripening. And in the course of after-ripening the total amount of acid is decreasing, particularly with a sharp decrease in the post-cli. stage. 3. As free sugar in hot pepper, glucose is the major one, fructose, galactose and sucrose are identified, and existence of raffinose is presumed. Through after-ripening the total amount of free sugar is decreased about 25% in the post-cli. stage, and reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars also are decreased.

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Changes in the Compositions of Amino Acids in the Rice Seedlings under Low Temperature (저온처리한 벼 유식물의 아미노산 조성의 변화)

  • 문병용
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.235-245
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    • 1989
  • The contents and the compositions of total free amino acids were investigated in the rice(Oryza sativa L. cv. Chuncheong) seedlings under low temperatures. Activities of some enzymes associated with the markedly changed amino acid content were also investigaetd. Under low temperature, the contents of soluble protein and the total free amino acids increased, while the content of total nitrogen decreased. Although asparagine+glycine were the most abundant amino acid speceis in the rice seedlings at the control temeprature, low temperature treatment for 3days brought about the decrease in their amount to about 60% level of the control plants. On the other hand, alanine showed the highest increase in the content among all the free amino acids, though glutamine, proline, asprtic acid, valine and tyrosine also increased after low temperature treatment. To eludicate the decrease of asparagine+glycine level under low temperature, the activities of asparagine aminotransferase and asparaginase which metabolize asparagine were investigated in the rice seedlings under low temperature. The activity of asparaginase increased markedly, while that of asparagine aminotransferase decreased under low temperatures. Therefore, it was suggested that asparaginase metabolizes asparagine predominatly in the rice seedlings under low temperatures.

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A Study on the Compositions of the Total Amino Acids and Free Amino Acids in Parts of Omija (Schizandra Chinensis Baillon) (오미자의 부위별 총 아미노산과 유리 아미노산 조성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Joung-Sook;Lee, Sung-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.181-184
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    • 1989
  • The compositions of total and free amino acids in parts of Omija were investigated. The most abundant amino acids in fruits, endocarps, and seeds were arginine (50.80%), lysine (14.37%), glutamic acid (14.22%), respectively. Since the amino acid scores of fruits, endocarps, and seeds were 9.4, 11.9, and 16.7, respectively, the limiting amino acid of each part were S-compound amino acids. In the composition of free amino acids, contents of lysine were highest one such as 51.78, 57.00 and 32.88% in fruits, endocarps and seeds, respectively. The contents of histidine from free amino acids were 23.62% in fruits, 22.37% in endocarps, and 26.41% in seeds.

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Chemical Characteristics of Normal and Inferior Parts in Korean Red Ginseng (정상홍삼과 불량홍삼의 화학적 특성)

  • 김천석;이종원;도재호
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.89-93
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    • 2001
  • This study was carried out to investigate a point of difference in chemical characteristics between normal and inferior Korean red ginseng (Naeback red ginseng=red ginseng with white part of clear boundary in phloem and/or xylem of ginseng body, saengnaeback red ginseng=red ginseng with white part of indistinct boundary). content of total sugar as chemical components of naeback and saengnaeback part from Korean red ginseng were less than that of normal part, and content of reducing sugar in normal and saengnaebakc part showed higher than that of naeback part. But differences in content of total phenolic compounds was not found. The content of crude saponin in normal part was highest, amounts of ginsneoside were about same. The content of constituent amino acid in normal part was about 2 times as compared with those in naeback and saengnaeback part in red ginseng. Among the various amino acids, the contents of arginine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, leucine and alanine of normal and naeback part were higher than others, but in saengnaeback proline, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, threonin and glycine etc. were higher. In the total amount of free amino acids, those in normal, naeback and saengnaeback part were about the same one another, and arginine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid were major free amino acids.

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Study of Synthesis and Biological Function on Aminophosphonic Acids (Aminophosphonic Acids 화합물의 생물학적 기능연구)

  • Kim, Sook-He
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.39-46
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    • 1971
  • Since ${\beta}-aminoethylphosphonic$ acid was discovered in the living organism, the biosynthesis and biological function of aminophosphonic acids have been extensively studied. The purpose of this project consists in the two parts: 1)the preparation of DL-1-amino-2-phenylethylphosphonic acid (Phenylalanine aminophosphonic acid) and DL-1-amino-3-methylbutyl-phosphonic acid (Isoleucine aminophosphonic acid) by the method of Chamber and Isbell. 2) the study of metabolism and biological functions of those synthetic materials by the animal experiment (white rats) The importance of this project proved to be the first experience fed by animals for the elucidation of biochemical and metabolic functions in the animal body. The following organic synthesis of DL-1-amino-3-methylbutylphosphonic acid and DL-1-amino-2-phenylethylphosphonic acid are studied. 1)Synthesis of DL-1-amino-3-methylbutylphosphonic acid a) Synthesis of Iso-butylbromide b) Synthesis of Ethyl iso-butylmalonate c) Synthesis of Iso-caproic acid d) Synthesis of $Ethyl-{\alpha}-bromo$ iso-caproate e) Synthesis of $Triethyl-{\alpha}-phosphono$ iso-caproate f) Synthesis of DL-1-amino-3-methylbutylphosphonic acid 2)Synthesis of DL-1-amino-2-phenylethylphosphonic acid a) Synthesis of Diethyl phosphite b) Synthesis of Ethylchloro acetate c) Synthesis of Triethyl phospho acetate d) Synthesis of Triethyl benzyl phospho acetate e) Synthesis of DL-1-amino-2-phenylethylphosphonic acid The synthetic compounds; DL-1-amino-3-methylbutylphosphonic acid and DL-1-amino-2-phenyl ethylphosphonic acid which are essential amino acid (isoleucine, phenylalanine)analogue are supplemented to the animal diet at the level of 0.2% and 0.4% for isoleucine analogue and 0.35% and 0.7% for phenylalanine analogue. The plain isoleucine and phenylalanine at the same level in the diet are fercilitated as comparable groups in this study. Two sets of experience including 100 male rats were carried out for seven weeks each total 14 weeks. During this period, urine samples, and each big organs were collected for the analysis of total nitrogen, phosphorus, and glycogen contents in the individual samples by Micro Kjeldahl Fisk & Subbarow and Nelson Somogye, method. 1) The result of the project a) The yield of DL-1-amino-3-methylbutylphosphonic acid and DL-1-amino-2-phenylethylphosphonic acid showed low tendency at the level of 12.5% and 20% Melting point of those two compounds were very high and the ${\alpha}-amino$ group in the synthetic compounds showed positive reaction with ninhydrin in the violet color. b) Ail the experimental groups included in this study revealed statistically no significant difference in the organ weight, total body nitrogen retention and urinary phosphorus excretion This means isoleucine aminophosphonic acid and Phenylalanine aminophosphonic acid were utilized in the body as much as the plain amino acids, isoleucine and phenylalanine did. c) The glycogen contents in the liver of the phenylalaine aminophosphonic acid gruop showed higher statistically significant(p<0.05) in the comparision with the group of the Phenylalanine and the Standard-2. It was noteworthy that the higher glycogen content in the liver might indicate the significance in the incorporation of phenylalanine aminophosphonic acid into the intermediate of tricarboxylic acid cycle as activated state.

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THE TASTE COMPOUNDS OF BROILED DRIED SEA MUSSELS (배건담치의 정미성분에 관한 연구)

  • RYU Byeong-Ho;LEE Eung-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.65-83
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    • 1978
  • This study was attempted to evaluate the taste of broiled-dried sea mussel which is a traditional dried Sea food in Korea. The contents of such compounds as free amino acids, nucleotides and their related compounds, TMAO, betaine, and nonvolatile organic acids were analysed. From the results of analysis of nucleotides, the contents of AMP and ADP in broiled-dried Mytilus coruscus and Mytilus edulis appeared higher than other nucleotides and tended to increase slightly after cooking, drying, and storage which might be due to both their stability and the addition of degradation of nucleic acids during cooking. In the free amino acid composition of fresh samples abundant amino were taurine, glycine, serine, glutamic acid, alanine, arginine, threonine, tyrosine, lysine and valine in order. Such amino acids as histidine, leucine, methionine and isoleucine were poor and both proline and phenylalanine were merely trace. The free amino acid composition in the extract of Mytilus corucus and Mytilus edulis after broil-drying was not changed. These amino acids, taurine, glycine, feline, glutamic acid, alanine and arginine were abundant in dried samples as well as in the fresh. The total free amino acid was greatly reduced after cooking and drying ranging from $76.3\%$ to $79.7\%$ loss to that of tile fresh. The content of betaine shelved the same tendency as in total free amino acid while TMA slightly increased relating to TMAO decrease during broil-frying. Such nonvolatile organic acids as succinic, lactic, malic and fumaric acid were abundant in both fresh and broiled-dried samples whereas oxalic and pyruvic acid were poor. It is found that the taste compounds of broiled-dried Mytilus coruscus and Mytilus edulis were composed of amino acids as glycine, serine, alanine, glutamic acid, arginine, and betaine, TMAO, ADP, AMP, and organic acids such as succinic acid, lactic acid, malic acid and fumaric acid. No significant differences in the taste compounds between male and female as well as between Mytilus coruscus and Mytilus edulis was not observed.

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Changes of Components Affecting Organoleptic Quality during the Ripening of Korean Traditional Soy Sauce -Amino Nitrogen, Amino Acids, and Color (한국 전통 간장의 숙성중 관능적 품질에 미치는 성분의 변화 -아미노산성질소, 아미노산 및 색도를 중심으로)

  • 김종규
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.22-28
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    • 2004
  • This study was performed to investigate the changes of amino nitrogen, total amino acids, free amino acids, and color of Korean traditional soy sauce (kan-jang) during the ripening and storage for 12 months and the characteristics of the changes. All of the preparation methods for soy sauce followed the recommendations of the Korea Food Research Institute. The components of soy sauce were analyzed at 0,6, and 12 months. The contents of amino nitrogen of soy sauce were significantly higher than that of soybeans or meju (soybean cakes) at the initial stage of storage (p<0.05), and decreased during the storage. The content of total amino acids of soybean sauce was significantly lower than that of soybeans, and the content of free amino acids was higher than that of soybeans (p<0.05). The contents of total and free amino acids decreased in soy sauce after 12 months of storage (p<0.05). The composition of total and free amino acids and their ratios of soy sauce were changed during the storage. The ratios of free to total amino acids of soybeans, meju, and soy sauce were 0.8%, 17.3%, and 53.1-59.8%, respectively. Glutamic acid, which represents the savory taste, was detected the most abundantly in soy sauce during the storage. The ratios of free to total amino acids of glutamic acid were 42.9-59.5% in soy sauce. Lightness of Hunter color of soy sauce decreased over time (p<0.05). This study indicates that the ratios of free to total amino acids of soy sauce were much higher than those of soybeans, although its contents of total amino acids were much lower than those of soybeans. This study also indicates that this comes from the preparation and fermentation of meju. It was suspected that the organoleptic characteristics of soy sauce derived from the amino nitrogen, amino acids, and color might be inferior over 1 year of storage time. However, more detailed research should be conducted to interpretate this characteristics more accurately.

Taste Components and Sensory Characteristics of Long-term Mature Korean Soy Sauce (장기 숙성된 한식간장의 맛성분 및 관능적 특성)

  • Jang, Hyeock-soon;Lee, Nan-Hee;Choi, Ung-Kyu
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.349-354
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    • 2019
  • In this study, 30 kinds of long-term and mature Korean soy sauce were collected and classified by the fermentation period, and the components related to taste and sensory characteristics were analyzed. A total of 4 kinds of organic acids were detected. The total organic acid content was in the range of 97.2~341.6 mg%, but did not show the tendency to increase or decrease in proportion to the aging period. The total free amino acid content was within the range of 3,001.0~3,834.7 mg% and showed a tendency to increase in proportion to the ripening period of the soy sauce. The contents of aspartic acid and glutamic acid subsequently increased in the long-term matured soy sauce. The ratio of essential amino acid to total amino acid was 31.6~35.7%, and the ratio of glutamic acid to total amino acid was 19.6~23.9%, respectively. The panel of 20~29-year-old indicated that the longer the aging period of soy sauce, the lower the preference while the panel of 30 or more years indicated that the longer the aging period of soy sauce, the higher the preference. This study was the first to investigate the quality of long-term matured soy sauce in more than one year.

Studies on the Constituents of Higher Fungi of Korea (XX)

  • Lee, Man-Hyong;Choi, Eung-Chil;Kim, Byong-Kak
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.133-144
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    • 1979
  • To investigate constituents of Strobilomyces floccopus (Fr.) Karst. and Coprinus comatus (Fr.) S. F. Gray, free and total amino acids of the two mushrooms were quantitatively analyzed by G. L. C. and an amino acid analyzer. Free amino acids were extracted from both mushrooms with ethanol. Fourtenn free amino acids were detected from the ethanol extract of S. floccopus and fifteen free amino acids from C. comatus by G. L. C. And the dry carphopores of both mushrooms were hydrolyzed with hydrochloric acid and then the total protein amino acids were analyzed by A. A. A. Seventeen total amino acids were detected from each acid-hydrolysate of S. floccopus and C. comatus. Lipids were extracted from the carpophores of S. floccopus and saponified with alcoholic potassium hydroxide. The isolated sterols were subjected to G. L. C. and two sterols were detected. The isolated free fatty acids were methylated with diazomethane and subjected to column chromatography and G. L. C. Eleven saturated and nine unsaturated free fatty acids were detected from the carpophores of S. floccopus. The presence of these nutrient components shows that the two mushrooms can be utilized as edible ones.

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Studies on the Compositions of Mineral Components, Total Amino Acid, Free Amino Acid and Fatty Acid of Zizyphus jujuba Seed (대추씨(Zizyphus jujuba Seed)의 무기질, 구성 총 아미노산, 유리 아미노산 및 지질 구성 지방산조성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Han-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.25-31
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    • 2005
  • Chemical components of the physiological activity substance in Zizyphus jujuba seed were analyzed for the use as an functional processed products. The proximate compositions of Zizyphus jujuba seed were carbohydrate 89.40%, moisture 8.23%, crude protein 1.22%, crude fat 0.65% and crude ash 0.50%, respectively. the richest mineral contained in Zizyphus jujuba seed was Mg(198.3mg/100g), followed by Mn(113.0mg/100g), K(100.2mg/100g), Ca(25.3mg/100g), P(25.6mg/100g_, Fe(23.5mg/100g), Zn(18.7mg/100g), Cu(7.4mg/100g) and Na(5.3mg/100g). Total amino acid contents of Zizyphys jujuba seed were 1103.12mg/100g, and the major amino acids were proline(235.17mg%), aspartic acid(175.941mg%), gltamic acid(101.46mg%), leucine(50.27mg%), serine(47.71mg%), aspartic acid(47.27mg%), glycine(41.60mg%) and lysine (33.78mg%), respectively. The amount of free amino acids in the protein of Zizyphus jujuba seed were 178.62 mg/100g, and the major free amino acids were proline(121.30mg%), alanine(6.01mg%), valine(2.63mg%) and arginine(2.04mg%), respectively. The compositions of major total fatty acid in the lipid Zizyphus jujuba seed were C18:2(n5c) 28.72%, C18:1(n9t) 23.76%, C18:1(n9c) 13.45%, C16:0 13.45% and C20:5(n3) 1.77% in order, respectively.

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