• Title, Summary, Keyword: total amino acid

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Investigation on Korean Local Maize Lines VI. Use of a Korean Local Maize Line for Silage Production (재래종 옥수수 수집종에 대한 특성조사 제6보 청예를 위한 재래종 옥수수의 이용에 관한 연구)

  • Choe, B.H.;Park, J.S.;Kim, Y.R.;Chung, S.K.
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.251-256
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    • 1981
  • Silage yield and nutritional values of a locally collected Korean corn line with high tillering and earing characteristics were investigated at plant densities from 2778 to 8333 plants/ l0a. This line and a non-tillering and nonprolific corn as a check were grown at four plant densities and at three planting dates. The Korean local line abbreviated as MET had the highest dry matter per l0a. The highest dry matter of the MET line compared with the check hybrid was due to the highest dry leaf weight of the MET line. The highest dry leaf weight of the MET line was due to the increased number of tillers of the MET line. Other plant parts such as ear weight, kernel weight and cob weight of the MET line were lower than those of the check hybrid. The dry husk weight per l0a of the MET line was higher than that of the check hybrid, probably due to the increased number of ears in the MET line. The total embryo production per 10 a of the MET line was significantly higher than that of the check hybrid. The increased portion of embryo of the MET line is probably responsible for the higher TON values of the MET line. No interaction between variety x planting dates or planting density was found, indicating that the MET line and check hybrid were both the same in effects of planting dates and densities. Both line and hybrid showed the highest dry matter production when the planting density was high and planting dates was early. When silage was made from either MET line or check hybrid the nutritional values in terms of crude protein, crude fat, fiber, and ash contents of the MET line were similar to those of the check hybrid. But the TON of the MET line was higher than that of the check hybrid, while the OCP of the MET line lower than that of the check hybrid. Amino acid contents of the MET line were also comparable to those of the check hybrid, while lysine content of the MET line was 10% higher than that of the check hybrid.

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Isolation of Synthetic Detergent Decomposing Microorganisms in Wastewater and Synthetic Detergent Decomposition Characterization of the Microorganisms (폐하수중 합성세제분해균의 분리(分離) 및 합성세제 (ABS) 분해특성(分解特性))

  • Lee, Hong-Jae;Heo, Jong-Soo;Cho, Ju-Sik;Han, Mun-Gyu;Choi, Jeong-Ho;Lee, Chun-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.144-152
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    • 1993
  • A bacterium which degrades efficiently synthetic detergents was isolated from the polluted waters, activated sludge of wastewater treatment plants or polluted soil. This bacterium showed considerably higher growth rate in the agar plate containing $2,000{\mu}g/ml$ of synthetic detergents than any other isolated strains, was identified as a Pseudomonas fluorescens or strains similar to it. The strain was named as a Pseudomonas fluorescens S1. Optimum pH and temperature for the growth of the Pseudomonas fluorescens S1 were pH 7.0 and $30^{\circ}C$, respectively. The strain was resistant to streptomycin and gentamycin, but sensitive to kanamycin. The strain was greatly resistant to zinc chloride, lead nitrate and copper sulfate, but unable to grow in the presence of relatively low concentrations of mercury chloride and silver nitrate. This strain utilized benzene, catechol, cyclohexane and xylene as a sole carbon source. The strain was well grown in the medium containing ABS 10,000${\mu}g$/ml. Degradation of ABS was 55% and 60% at 20${\mu}g$/ml and 100${\mu}g$/ml of ABS, respectively. Benzene ring was degraded 45% in 100${\mu}g$/ml of ABS. During the incubation of the strain in the medium containing ABS 100${\mu}g$/ml and COD 10,000${\mu}g$/ml for 4 days, degradation of ABS and COD were reduced to 40${\mu}g$/ml and 3,200${\mu}g$/ml, respectively. Total amino acid content of the Pseudomonas fluorescens S1 grown with 1,000${\mu}g$/ml of ABS was 115mg/g cell, whereas its content was decreased in the bacterium grown without synthetic detergent by 9.4%.

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The Effects of Amino Acid Levels with Protein the Diet on Broiler Performance (사료의 단백질 수준에 따른 아미노산 첨가수준이 브로일러의 생산성에 미치는 영향)

  • 정방균;곽종형
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.43-55
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    • 1991
  • This experiment was conducted to study the sparing effects of animal proteins on weight gain, nutrients utilizability and economic analysis of broiler. Experiment diet contained different ratio of animal and plant protein and were supplemented different levels of methionine and lysine for the respective protein levels. A total of 264 broiler chicks were fed four diets of control, $T_1$, $T_2$ and $T_3$ for 42 days from April 7, 1990 to May 19, 1990. Dietary protein levels of control, $T_1$, $T_2$ and $T_3$ for starter and finisher were 20~18, 18~16, 18~16 and 22~20%, respectively. Methionine and lysine levels of control, $T_1$, $T_2$ and $T_3$ were 0.4~1.1, 0.44~1.21, 0.48~1.32 and 0.48~1.32% for starter diet, respectively, and were 0.32~0.90. 0.35~0.99, 0.38~1.08 and 0.38~1.08% for finisher diet, respectively. The results obtained were summarized as follows. 1. The birds fed control diet gained most for overall period. $T_3$ treatment which was high in protein, methionine and lysine levels gained most for finisher period. 2 The birds fed control diet consumed most feed, and the birds fed T$_3$ diet consumed least feed. for overall period. Feed conversion during 1~4 weeks was better in $T_1$ (1.51) and $T_2$ (1.53) than in control (1.61) and $T_3$ (1.63) . During 4~6weeks, feed conversion was better in $T_3$ (1.37) and control(1.58) than T, (2.05) and T, (2.16) (P<0.01) 3. Dry matter, crude fiber and NFE utilizability were increased for 1~4 weeks and decreased for 4~6 weeks as methionine and lysine levels increased and crude protein utilizability tended to be increased as protein levels increased. 4. Abdominal fat content was lowest in bird fed control diet and was high in birds fed low protein diet Carcass percentage was highest at control and the abdominal fat content was higher in bird fed lower protein diet than bird fed other protein diets(P<0.05). 5. Feed cost per kg weight gain was lowest at $T_3$ which contained more soybean oil meal than other feeds and next was control. According to the results of this experiment, it was revealed that optimum protein, methionine and lysine levels for starter and finisher broiler diet were 20~18, 0.4~0.32 and 1.1~0.9%, respectively.

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Effects of Supplementation of Rice Bran and Roasted Soybean in the Diet on Physico-chemical and Sensory Characteristics of M. longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo Steers (사료 내 생 미강과 볶은 대두의 첨가가 거세한우 등심의 이화학적 특성과 관능적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Sung-Il;Jung, Keun-Ki;Kim, Duck-Young;Kim, Jin-Yeoul;Choi, Chang-Bon
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.451-459
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    • 2011
  • We investigated melting points and sensory characteristics by adding rice bran and roasted soybean to the finishing diet of Hanwoo steers. Thirty-six Hanwoo steers (average age, 20.92 mon-old; average weight, 599.89 kg) were assigned to either Control, Treatment 1 (rice bran) or Treatment 2 (roasted soybean) groups (12 steers/group), considering body weight and age. Supplementation levels of rice bran and roasted soybean were determined to meet total 5% crude fat in the concentrates, and the experimental animals were fed for 314 d until they reached 31.2 mon old. No significant differences were found in the moisture and crude fat content among groups. Melting points of lipid extracted from M. longissimus dorsi, subcutaneous fat, and perirenal fats were 25.83-26.17, 17.26-18.53 and $32.40-33.15^{\circ}C$, respectively, resulting in remarkable differences depending on fat depots. Contents of free amino acids in M. longissimus dorsi related to sweet taste were 39.48 mg/100 g for Treatment 1, which was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those for Control (32.24 mg/100 g), whereas those related to bitter taste were 25.93 mg/100 g for Treatment 2, which was the lowest (p<0.05) among the groups. Fatty acid composition, such as $C_{14:0}$, $C_{16:0}$, $C_{16:1}$, $C_{18:0}$, and $C_{18:1}$, in M. longissimus dorsi was not different among the groups. Results of a panel test on M. longissimus dorsi showed that Treatment 1 scored the highest (p<0.05) in juiciness, and both Treatments 1 and 2 scored higher (p< 0.05) in overall palatability than the Control group. $C_{18:1}$ showed a positive (+) relationship with tenderness (r = 0.650; p<0.05), and $C_{18:0}$ with flavor (0.698; p<0.05). The results suggest that rice bran and roasted soybean are beneficial for improving M. longissimus dorsi sensory characteristics, whereas no significant differences were found in the physico-chemical characteristics among the groups.

The Antioxidant Effect of Hot Water Extract from the Dried Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) with Pressurized Roasting (가압볶음 무말랭이 열수 추출물의 항산화 효과)

  • Song, Yeong-Bok;Choi, Jeong-Sun;Lee, Ji-Eun;Noh, Jeong-Sook;Kim, Mi-Jeong;Cho, Eun-Ju;Song, Yeong-Ok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.8
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    • pp.1179-1186
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    • 2010
  • The antiradical property of hot water extract from dried radish (DR) or dried radish roasted with pressure (DRRP) was investigated in vitro and in LLC-PK1 cell system. The contents of total free amino acid and reducing sugar in DR were decreased by 72.86% and 3.17%, respectively, after pressurized roasting. In vitro test, $IC_{50}$ for DR and DRRP for DPPH radical scavenging activity were 646.70 and $135.45\;{\mu}g/mL$, 896.10 and $566.98\;{\mu}g/mL$ for superoxide anion radical, and 722.26 and $531.84\;{\mu}g/mL$ for hydroxy radical, respectively. The radical scavenging effects of DRRP was significantly greater than those for DR (p<0.001). These radical scavenging effects of DR and DRRP were confirmed in LLC-$PK_1$ at which oxidative stresses were induced by superoxide, nitric oxide and peroxynitrite generated in the treatment of pyrogallol, SNP, and SIN-1, respectively. Cell viability was increased in the presence of DR or DRRP, dose dependently (p<0.05), and TBARS formation was decreased. The protective effects of DRRP against oxidative damage in LLC-$PK_1$ were greater than those of DR at the same concentration tested (p<0.05). This superior antiradical activity of DRRP might be due to the products produced during the pressurized roasting in addition to the antioxidative compounds originally present in the radish. 5-hydroxyl methyl furfural (5-HMF) known as an intermediate product of the maillard reaction was detected in DRRP (0.57 mg/g), but not from DR. In conclusion, daily consumption of DRRP may prevent oxidative damage by retarding oxidative stress.

Effects of Dietary Ginger and Scutellaria Dry Powder on Antioxidant Capacity and IgG Concentration in Colostrum and Plasma of Sows (모돈에 대한 생강 및 황금 분말 급여가 초유와 혈청의 항산화력과 IgG 농도에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Sung-Dae;Jung, Hyun-Jung;Kim, In-Cheul;Park, Jun-Cheol;Kim, Sang-Bum;Cho, Sung-Back;Song, Young-Min
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.52 no.5
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    • pp.399-406
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    • 2010
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary ginger and Scutellaria on antioxidant capacity and IgG concentration in plasma and colostrum of sows. Twenty-four sows (Landrace $\times$ Yorkshire) in parity 2 were assigned to 3 treatment groups (8 sows per treatment) from 30 day before farrowing up to weaning on day 21 after farrowing. The treatment diets included 1) CON (Basal diet), 2) GDP (0.3% ginger dry powder was used as the replacement of wheat in basal diet) and 3) SDP (0.3% Scutellaria dry powder was used as the replacement of wheat in basal diet). No differences were found in antioxidant capacity and IgG concentration in plasma of sows among all the three treatments. Antioxidant capacity in colostrum was not affected by replacement of ginger and Scutellaria dry powder. IgG and protein concentration in colostrum was significantly higher (P<0.05) in GDP than that in CON and SDP. However, fat and lactose concentration were not affected by treatments. The total amino acid concentration in colostrum was significantly higher (P<0.05) in GDP than that in CON and SDP. Plasma antioxidant capacity was not affected by treatments in piglet on 0 day and 21 day, but tended to increase by supplementation of ginger. On 0 day, plasma IgG in piglet was not detected by replacement of ginger and Scutellaria dry powder. However, plasma IgG concentration in piglets on 21 day was significantly higher (P<0.05) in GDP than that in CON and SDP. These results indicate that colostrum IgG concentration in sows and plasma IgG concentration in piglets were improved by feeding ginger dry powder 30 days before farrowing in comparison to basal diet.

Nutritional and Organoleptic Evaluations of the By-products from Chlorella vulgaris after Lipid Extraction (Chlorella vulgaris의 지질 추출 후 부산물의 영양학적 및 관능적 평가)

  • Oh, Sung-Ho;Choi, Woon-Yong;Seo, Yong-Chang;Kim, Ga-Bin;Lee, Shin-Young;Jeong, Kyung-Hwan;Kang, Do-Hyung;Lee, Hyeon-Yong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.920-926
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    • 2010
  • Marine alga, Chlorella vulgaris, was extracted by chloroform-methanol (2:1, v/v) solvents for lipid extraction at $35^{\circ}C$ for five hours (HCM-35) and its process was compared with conventional lipid extraction condition such as chloroform-methanol (2:1, v/v) at $65^{\circ}C$ for one hour (CM-65). This low temperature extraction process showed that 80% of total lipid was extracted and its residues contained relatively unchanged amounts of intact proteins and other minerals as well as amino acid profiles. Interestingly enough, the weight fraction of carbohydrate in the residues slightly increased due to less denaturation at low process temperature. The biological activities of the residues such as cytotoxicity and immune cell growth activation were not much changed after being extracted. The sensory evaluation were found to be very favorable for being used as a food additive and/or food supplement. This result could also help to maintain the economic feasibility of utilizing marine resources in food and other relevant industries.

Preparation and Quality Characteristics of Seasoned and Dried Fish Slice Products Using Rainbow Trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) (송어 육포의 제조와 품질 특성)

  • Heu, Min-Soo;Kim, Hyung-Jun;Ham, Joon-Sik;Park, Shin-Ho;Kim, Hye-Suk;Kang, Kyung-Tae;Jee, Seung-Joon;Lee, Jae-Hyoung;Kim, Jin-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.348-356
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    • 2008
  • For the effective use of rainbow trout, the seasoned and dried rainbow trout slice (SR) was prepared and its characterization was compared with the commercial skipjack tuna (CSS) and pork products (CSP) by determining chemical components and sensory evaluation. The moisture content of SR, 20.5%, was lower, and the lipid content of SR, 7.5%, was higher than those of commercial products, CSS and CSP. The protein content of SR (41.4%) was higher than that of CSS (28.6%), but lower than that of CSP (50.1%). The water activity of SR was 0.654, which was lower than those of CSS and CSP, 0.724 and 0.771, respectively. According to the results, the color of SR was lower in lightness and redness and higher in browning index and ${\Delta}$E value than that of commercial products. The texture of SR was harder than that of CSS, but softer than that of CSP. According to the result of taste value, the taste of SR was stronger than that of CSP, while weaker than that of CSS. The mineral (Ca, P, and Fe), total amino acid contents, and the n-3/n-6 of SR showed significant levels in nutrition and health functional senses.

Quality Evaluation of Domestic and Foreign Extruded Pellets and Moist Pellet Based on Biochemical Analyses for Juvenile Olive Flounder, Parazichthys Olivaceus (시판용 넙치(치어)사료의 성분 비교분석을 통한 품질평가)

  • 최세민;한경민;왕소길;이승형;배승철
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.144-150
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    • 2004
  • This experiment was conducted to evaluate the parameters such as nutrient requirements, POY, AnV, Totox, VBN, total plate count, dietary fatty acids and amino acids composition, that are not included in the registered standard composition items required by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, of a moist pellet (MP), three domestic extruded pellets (DEP-1, DEP-2, DEP-3), and two foreign extruded pellets (FEP-1, FEP-2) that are utilized by domestic flounder farms at present. The crude protein was added in excess of the dietary protein requirement in 6 kinds of feeds. When considering the proper PH ratio, it is obvious that protein was added in excess, especially in MP and FEP-2. Crude fat was also added in excess, especially in FEP-1. MP contained a higher dietary phosphorus content than formulated feeds, surpassing the dietary phosphorus requirement and greatly increasing the possibility for causing water pollution. The oxidation of fatty acid and decomposition of protein in MP were higher than in formulated feeds, and may also cause problems on fish farms. Also, it is difficult to store and manage MP, Among the fatty acids, EPA and DHA contents in MP were higher than those in formulated feeds. It is necessary to conduct further studies of EPA and DHA contents in formulated feeds. Lysine content in MP and FEP-2 could meet the dietary lysine requirement of flounder, however, the possibility of insufficient lysine content in the other formulated feeds was high and we considered that extra supplementation was necessary. Therefore, it is necessary to set up quality control standards according to fish species and sizes while considering the specific character of aquatic formulated feeds to restore the confidence of feed companies and aquaculturists to these feeds. This may be an opportunity to make an earlier change from MP to formulated feeds.

Molecular Cloning and mRNA Expression of the Bovine Peroxisome Proliperator Receptor Gamma(PPARγ) (한우 PPARγ 유전자의 동정과 mRNA의 발현)

  • Jeoung, Y.H.;Lee, S.M.;Park, H.Y.;Yoon, D.H.;Choi, J.G.;Moon, S.J.;Kang, M.J.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.23-30
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    • 2004
  • The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor $\gamma$(PPAR$\gamma$), a member of the steroid/thyroid nuclear hormone receptor suferfamily of ligand-activated transcription factor, is an important regulator of adipocyte gene expression and differentiation. In this studies, we report the identification, characterization, and expression of a Hanwoo PPAR$\gamma$ gene. The PPAR$\gamma$ cDNA sequence of the Hanwoo show strong conservation with the corresponding sequences reported in other species except of three amino acid sequences. The distribution of PPAR$\gamma$ mRNA in various tissues of Korean cattle aged 12 months were investigated using Northern Blot analysis. The highest expression was detected in adipose tissue, more lower expression was detected in colon, small intestine, kidney, lung, while expression was not detected in brain, heart. PPAR$\gamma$ expression was higher in adipose tissue of Korean cattle when aged 30 months than aged 12 months. These results indicated PPAR$\gamma$, regulator adipocyte gene expression and differentiation, related on adipose differentiation in Korean native cattle(HANWOO).