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The Study of Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and SOD-mimic Compounds in Panax ginseng C.A.Meyer

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    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.188-193
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    • 1997
  • Panax ginseng C.A.Meyer,1 to 5 years old were electrophored and were stained for SOD activity. The result indicated a total of 13 distinct form of the enzyme and the pattern of achromatic bands were not different according to ages. Nine of the enzyme activities were eliminated with cyanide or peroxide treatment and were resistant to treatment of chloroform plus ethanol. It suggested that they may be cupro-zinc containing SOD, whereas four were cyanide or peroxide resistant and were eliminated with cholroform plus ethanol treatment. They may be manganese containing SOD. Ginseng roos. 1 to 5 years old were analyzed for their SOD measurement of SOD activities of all extracts, the significant difference of SOD activities were not shown according to ages. All ginseng extracts had the total SOD activities of all extracts, the significant difference of SOD activities were not shown according to ages. All ginseng extracts had the total SOD activities of about 700-800 unit/g of fresh weight. Therefore, the SOD activities from SOD-mimic compounds were higher than one from SOD. The ratio between the SOD activity from SOD-mimic compounds and one from true SOD was approximately 2:1 to 3:1.

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Superoxide Dismutase Isoenzyme Activities in Plasma and Tissues of Iraqi Patients with Breast Cancer

  • Hasan, Hathama Razooki;Mathkor, Thikra Hasan;Al-Habal, Mohammed Hasan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.2571-2576
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    • 2012
  • Breast cancer is the first of the most common ten cancers in Iraq. Its etiology is multifactorial, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation being suggested to play important roles in carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the oxidant-antioxidant status in breast cancer patients, by measuring SOD isoenzyme activities (total SOD, CuZn-SOD, Mn-SOD and EC-SOD) in plasma and breast tumors, and by estimating thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBRS) in tissue homogenates. General increase in total SOD activity was observed in plasma and tissue samples of breast tumors, greater in the malignant when compared to benign group (p<0.05). Mn-SOD showed a significant decrease in tissue malignant samples (p<0.05), and insignificant decrease in plasma malignant samples compared with control and benign samples. Plasma EC-SOD activity in both patient benign and malignant breast tumors demonstrated 3.5% and 22.8% increase, respectively. However, there was a decrease in tissue EC-SOD activity in malignant breast tumors when compared with benign. A similar tendency was noted for TBRS. We suggest that elevated total SOD might reflect a response to oxidative stress, and then may predict a state of excess reactive oxygen species in the carcinogenesis process. If there is proteolytic removal of the heparin binding domain, EC-SOD will lose its affinity for the extracellular matrix and diffuse out of the tissue. This will result in a decreased EC-SOD activity, thus leading to an increase in the steady-state concentration of $O^{2-}$ in this domain, and increase in EC-SOD activity in the extracellular fluid. This might explain the results recorded here concerning the decrease in tissue EC-SOD activity and increase in plasma of breast cancer patients.

Isoform-Specific Responses of Superoxide Dismutase to Oxidative Stresses and Hormones in Parquat-Tolerant Rehmannia glutinosa

  • Jamal, Arshad;Yoo, Nam-Hee;Yun, Song-Joong
    • Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.8-12
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    • 2007
  • All accessions of Rehmannia glutinosa show the unique characteristic of intrinsic tolerance to paraquat. The higher level of endogenous superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity and its increase upon paraquat treatment indicated the involvement of SOD in the tolerance mechanism to paraquat in R. glutinosa. In this study, we examined the isoform-specific response of SOD to oxidative stresses and hormones. Six SOD isoforms were found in the leaf, and they were identified as two MnSODs(named MnSOD I and MnSOD II, in order of increasing mobility), one FeSOD and three Cu/ZnSODs(named Cu/ZnSOD I, Cu/ZnSOD II, and Cu/ZnSOD III, in order of increasing mobility). MnSOD I, MnSOD II, FeSOD, Cu/ZnSOD I, Cu/ZnSOD II, and Cu/ZnSOD III, contributed to 4, 11, 7, 15, 30, and 32% of the total SOD activity, respectively. Total SOD activity levels in the leaf were increased by 4, 24, and 21% by paraquat, salicylic acid(SA), and yeast extract(YE), respectively, but little by ethephon. Six SOD isoforms responded differentially to these stresses and hormones. The activities of all the isoforms were increased by YE and SA except that of MnSOD I which was decreased by SA. The activities of MnSOD I, FeSOD, and CuZnSOD I were increased by paraquat. These results suggest that amelioration of oxidative stresses by SOD is fine-tuned by the differential expression of isoforms in R. glutinosa.

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Effect of Bottom Sediments on Oxygen Demand of Overlying Water in Onshore of Lake (팔당호 수변부 퇴적물이 수층의 산소소모에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Yang-Mi;Song, Hong-Gyu
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.23-30
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    • 2000
  • n situ sediment oxygen demand (SOD), which takes place with the uptake of dissolved oxygen for biological metabolism and chemical oxidation in sediments, ranged from 1.57 to $12.55\;mg\;O_2\;m^{-2}\;h^{-1}$ in onshore of Lake Paldang from April to November 1999. SOD was influenced by the amount of organics and oxygen diffusion. Comparing the oxygen demands partitioning between overlying water and sediment during initial phase, SOD accounted for $63.8{\sim}94%$ of total oxygen demand in Lake Paldang. The chemical SOD and nitrogenous oxygen demand ranged $1.2{\sim}18.3%$ and $8.3{\sim}51.7%$ of total SOD, respectively. This result indicated that SOD in Lake Paldang occurred mainly by aerobic respiration and nitrification. Although the flow velocity could increase SOD within a certain limit, the effect of sediment depth on SOD was dependent on physicochemical properties of the sediment. This study showed that SOD can represent a significant portion of the total oxygen up-take in Lake Paldang. Therefore, the assessment of SOD might be necessary for the control of water quality.

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Assessment of Antioxidative Capacity in Relation to Seed Trails of Rice Varieties

  • Song, Hong-Keun;Ahn, Joung-Kuk;Kim, Kwang-Ho;Lee, Sun-Joo;Baek, Jin-Yeong;Chung, Ill-Min
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.544-553
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    • 2006
  • In order to assess antioxidant capacity in relation to seed traits of rice (Oryza sativa L.), ninety-six varieties were examined for antioxidative activity of brown rice grain using superoxide dismutase (SOD), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assays. Overall, average total activities measured by the three methods were of very wide range between 64% and 13%. Significant differences were noted depending on the variety and evaluation method. Rice varieties with foreign origin, middle maturity, colored hulls, and colorless awn exhibited statistically significant higher total activity. As for the measurements, total activity was significantly correlated with SOD (r=0.29***), DPPH (r=0.80***) and TBA (r=0.76***). Between the three activities, SOD was not positively correlated with DPPH (r=0.15*), while TBA was significantly correlated with DPPH value (r=0.51***). DPPH (55.20%) and TBA (50.36%) were significantly higher in foreign rice, while SOD activity (44.29%) was significantly higher in domestic rice. However, an average total activity was significantly higher in foreign rice (47.31%) than in domestic rice (35.92%). SOD, DPPH and TBA activities of middle maturity in maturity time were the highest total activity (44.96%) and significantly differed from the other two groups. Total activity was significantly higher in rice with a colorless awn (42.18%) than with a colored awn (35.87%).

Characterization of Antioxident Enzymes in the Lung of Rat Exposed to Cigarette Smoke (흡연한 흰쥐 폐조직 항산화효소들의 특성)

  • 이영구;손형옥;임흥빈;이동욱;박준영
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.3-14
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    • 1993
  • Oxidants in environment or cigarette smoke are known to be implicated in the oxidative damages of pulmonary system. Such cellular damages are prevented by the presence of adequate levels of antioxidants in the tissue. In the present study, we investigated the influences of smoking duration and concentration of smoke on lung antioxidant defense in rats. Subchronic exposure of rats to smoke generated from 6 cigarettes per day for 90 days caused the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) to increase. However, glutathione peroxidase (GP-Xase) was not significantly changed. Total sulfhydryl compounds (Total-SH) in the lung homogenates from the rats inhaled with cigarette smoke for 15 days was decreased by 44% , thereafter it was returned to the level of normal rats. On the contrary, when rats were daily exposed to a different concentration of smoke generated from 1 to 20 cigarettes per day for 15 days, the activity of catalase was increased gradually with dose, but total SOD activity was increased only in the rats of low dose groups less than 5 cigarettes. Three types of SOD (one Cu, Zn-SOD with pI 4.9, and two Zn-SOD with pI 4.7 and 7.9)were detected in the lung homogenates and Zn-SOD with pI 4.7 was the major and cigarette-smoke inducible form. These results indicate that the protection of lung against oxidants from cigarette smoke seems to be accomplished by the induction of catalase and SOD, especially a cyanide resistant Zn-SOD with pI 4.f, following the consumption of antioxidants such as GSH in the beginning of inhalation period.

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In vivo Antioxidant Effects of Aralia elata Seemann Ethanol Extract Administered with Benzo($\alpha$) pyrene

  • Nam, Sang-Myung;Chung, Cha-Kwon
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.52-56
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    • 1999
  • This study has examined the effects of Aralia elata Seemann ethanol extract on antioxidant enzyme systems inrats along with benzo($\alpha$) pyrene(B(a)P) administration . The ethanol extract of Aralia elata Seemann (50mg/kg body wt.) was fed to rats for 4 weeks by stomach tubing. The extract administration increased antioxidant activities of glutathione sulfur transferase(GST) comparing to the control. also total superoxide dismutase(SOD) and Cu, Zn-SOD activities were stimulated. Catalase activities were increased by 50% with the extract feeding compared to the control . Combined administration of B($\alpha$)P and the extract increased GST activity in B($\alpha$) P group. Although total SOD acitivity was decreased , Cu, Zn-SOD was greately increased from 0.10unit to 0.18 unit and catalase activity also was increased compared to the group of B($\alpha$) P. GST activity in CLE group was 1.32 unit, increased by 33% comparing to the group CL of 0.99unit. Cu, Zn-SOD and catalase activities in thegroup fed high fat and ethanol extracts were increased by 25% and 39%, respectivley comparing to the group of high fat. In addition , total SOD was decreased but, Cu, Zn-SOD acitivity was increased from 0.09 unit to 0.18unit. Catalase activity was 76.05 unit in the group of B($\alpha$) P and extract comparing to 65.26 units in B($\alpha$)P group. Serum $\alpha$-tocopherol of rat was markedly increased by theextract. Administration of B9$\alpha$)P reduced $\alpha$-tocopherol levels in the serum, on the other hand, lard in the diet increased $\alpha$-tocopherol levels in the serum. The above results indicate that Aralia bud exerts antioxidant functions in vivo against B($\alpha$)P. Further research may be necessary for the identification fo the biologically active material.

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Production of Superoxide Dismutase by Deinococcus radiophilus

  • Yun, Young-Sun;Lee, Young-Nam
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.282-287
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    • 2003
  • The production of superoxide dismutase (SOD) varied in Deinococcus radiophilus, the UV resistant bacterium, depending upon different phases of growth, UV irradiation, and superoxide treatment. A gradual increase in total SOD activity occurred up to the stationary phases. The electrophoretic resolution of the SOD in cell extracts of D. radiophilus at each growth phase revealed the occurrence of MnSOD throughout the growth phases. The SOD profiles of D. radiophilus at the exponential phase received oxidative stress by the potassium superoxide treatment or UV irradiation also revealed the occurrence of a single SOD. However, these treatments caused an increase in SOD activity. The data strongly suggest that D. radiophilus has only one species of SOD as a constitutive enzyme, which seems to be a membrane-associated protein.

Changes of Vitamin C and Superoxide Dismutase(SOD)-like Activity of Persimmon Leaf Tea by Processing Method and Extraction Condition (감잎의 처리방법과 추출조건에 따른 감잎차의 Vitamin C와 Superoxide Dismutase(SOD) 유사활성의 변화)

  • Park, Yun-Joo;Kang, Myung-Hee;Kim, Jong-Ik;Park, Ock-Jin;Lee, Mee-Sook;Jang, Hae-Dong
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.281-285
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    • 1995
  • The persimmon leaf tea was produced from persimmon leaves by three different methods (conventional, steamed, fermented) and the changes of total vitamin C and superoxide dismutase(SOD)-like activity were investigated. The amount of total vitamin C was the highest in fermented persimmon leaf tea which was 47% of total vitamin C of raw persimmon leaves. The SOD-like activity of conventional and fermented persimmon leaf teas were a little higher than that of steamed. The total vitamin C of steamed persimmon leaf tea was decreased slowly as the extraction time was increased. That of fermented persimmon leaf tea was increased generally at $60^{\circ}C\;and\;70^{\circ}C$, and increased until 5min and then decreased at $80^{\circ}C\;and\;90^{\circ}C$, The optimum extraction condition of total vitamin C in fermented persimmon leaf tea was 3min and 5min at $80^{\circ}C\;and\;90^{\circ}C$, 5min and 10min at $60^{\circ}C$. The total vitamin C of conventional persimmon leaf tea was so little that could not be measured by DNP method. The SOD-like activity of conventional and steamed persimmon leaf teas were increased and that of fermented showed the trend of increasing-decreasing-increasing. Fermented persimmon leaf tea had higher SOD-like activity than conventional and steamed at all tested conditions, and the optimum extraction condition of SOD-like activity was 3min and 10min at $80^{\circ}C\;and\;90^{\circ}C$.

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Change in Quality Properties of Extracts from Roasted Pleurotus eryngii by Microwave-Assisted Extraction Condition (마이크로웨이브 추출조건에 따른 볶음 새송이버섯의 품질 특성 변화)

  • Yoon, Sung-Ran;Lee, Myung-Hee;Kim, Hyun-Ku;Lee, Gee-Dong
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.732-739
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    • 2006
  • This study was performed to investigate the changes in quality properties of extract from roasted Pleurotus eryngii by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). MAE was carried out under different conditions including ethanol concentration, extraction time and microwave power. Total phenolics compound contents, electron donating ability (EDA) and nitrite-scavenging ability at pH 1.2 were high at 50% ethanol concentration. Superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity was high at 75% ethanol concentration. Soluble solid and total phenolics compound content decreased as extending extraction time up to 7 min. EDA decreased as increased extraction time. SOD-like activity and nitrite-scavenging ability were not significantly different. The highest soluble solid content, total phenolics compound content and EDA were obtained at 100 W extraction of microwave power. SOD-like activity was high at 25 W. But microwave power did not significantly affect the nitrite-scavenging ability.