• Title, Summary, Keyword: tolaasin

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Facilitation of tolaasin-induced hemolysis by phospholipids composed of medium-chain fatty acids (중간크기 탄소사슬의 지방산으로 이루어진 인지질에 의한 tolaasin의 용혈활성 촉진)

  • Yun, Yeong-Bae;Kim, Min-Hee;Kim, Young-Kee
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.59 no.3
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    • pp.221-225
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    • 2016
  • Tolaasin is a pore-forming peptide toxin produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii and causes a brown blotch disease by disrupting membrane structures of cultivated mushrooms. The mechanism and characteristics of tolaasin pore formation are not known in detail; however, tolaasin pores have been demonstrated in the artificial lipid bilayer. Since the tolaasin pore appeared less frequently and unstable in lipid bilayer, a mismatch between the length of tolaasin pore and the thickness of lipid membrane had been suggested. Therefore, tolaasin-induced hemolyses were measured by the additions of phospholipids composed of various fatty acids with different carbon numbers. When phosphatidylethanolamines made with two decanoic acids (C10:0, 1,2-didecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine; DDPE), myristic acids (C14:0, 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine), and stearic acids (C18:0, 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine) were added to the buffer containing RBCs and tolaasin peptides, DDPE facilitated the tolaasin-induced hemolysis while the other two phospholipids showed no effects. At various concentrations of DDPE, the tolaasin-induced hemolysis was stimulated as a dose-dependent manner. The phospholipids composed of mediumchain fatty acids stabilize the tolaasin pore probably by binding between the pore structure and membrane phospholipids and making the membrane thickness thinner around the pore. These results showed that tolaasin molecules make more stable pores in the membrane made with phospholipids composed of medium length fatty acids, suggesting that the length of tolaasin pore is a little shorter than the thickness of RBC membrane.

pH-dependent Cytotoxicity of a Peptide Toxin, Tolaasin (펩티드 독소 Tolaasin에 의한 세포독성의 pH 의존성)

  • Kim, Sung-Tae;Choi, Tae-Keun;Kim, Young-Kee
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.257-261
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    • 2007
  • Tolaasin, a peptide toxin produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii, causes a serious disease on the cultivated mushrooms, known as brown blotch disease. Hemolysis using red blood cells was designed to measure the cytotoxicity of tolaasin molecules. Since tolaasin has two amine groups near the C-terminus, its membrane binding will be dependent on the ionic states of the amine groups. When the tolaasin peptide was titrated, its titration curve indicated the presence of titratable amine(s) at pH ranges from 7.0 to 9.6. When the pH-dependence of tolaasin-induced hemolysis was measured at various pHs, hemolysis was more efficient at alkaline pHs. In order to measure the membrane binding activity of tolaasin at different pHs, RBCs were incubated with tolaasin molecules for short time periods and washed out with fresh buffer. Because of the tolaasin binding during the preincubation period, fast hemolyses were observed at pH 8 or higher. These results imply that non-charged or less positively charged states of tolaasin molecules easily bind to membrane and show high hemolytic activity.

Purification of a Pore-forming Peptide Toxin, Tolaasin, Produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii 6264

  • Cho, Kwang-Hyun;Kim, Sung-Tae;Kim, Young-Kee
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.113-118
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    • 2007
  • Tolaasin, a pore-forming peptide toxin, is produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii and causes brown blotch disease of the cultivated mushrooms. P. tolaasii 6264 was isolated from the oyster mushroom damaged by the disease in Korean. In order to isolate tolaasin molecules, the supernatant of bacterial culture was harvested at the stationary phase of growth. Tolaasin was prepared by ammonium sulfate precipitation and three steps of chromatograpies, including a gel permeation and two ion exchange chromatographies. Specific hemolytic activity of tolaasin was increased from 1.7 to 162.0 HU $mg^{-1}$ protein, a 98-fold increase, and the purification yield was 16.3%. Tolaasin preparation obtained at each purification step was analyzed by HPLC and SDS-PAGE. Two major peptides were detected from all chromatographic preparations. Their molecular masses were analyzed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and they were identified as tolaasin I and tolaasin II. These results demonstrate that the method used in this study is simple, time-saving, and successful for the preparation of tolaasin.

Inhibitory Effect of $Zn^{+2}$ on Tolaasin-induced Hemolysis ($Zn^{+2}$에 의한 Tolaasin의 용혈활성 저해효과)

  • Cho, Kwang-Hyun;Kim, Sung-Tae;Kim, Young-Kee
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.281-286
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    • 2006
  • Tolaasin, a pore-forming toxin, is a 1,985 Da peptide produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii and causes a brown blotch disease on cultivated mushrooms. Tolaasin forms pores on the plasma membrane of various cells including fungi, bacteria, plant as well as erythrocytes, and destroys cell structure. $Zn^{+2}$ has been known to block the tolaasin activity by an unknown mechanism. Thus, we investigated the inhibitory effects of $Zn^{+2}$ on the tolaasin-induced hemolysis to understand the molecular mechanism of tolaasin-induced pore formation. $Zn^{+2}$ and $Cd^{+2}$ inhibited the tolaasin-induced hemolysis in a dose-dependent manner and their Ki values were 170 ${\mu}M$ and 20 mM, respectively. The effect of $Zn^{+2}$ was reversible since the subsequent addition of EDTA chelates $Zn^{+2}$ and removes the inhibitory effect of $Zn^{+2}$. When an osmotic protectant, PEG 2000, was added, the tolaasin-induced hemolysis was not observed. After the removal of osmotic protectant by centrifugation, resuspended erythrocytes with fresh medium were immediately hemolyzed, while the addition of $Zn^{+2}$ prevented from hemolysis, implying that tolaasin-induced pores on the membrane were already formed in the medium containing osmotic protectant. These results suggest that $Zn^{+2}$ inhibits the activity of tolaasin pores and it has minor effects on the membrane binding of tolaasin and the formation of pore.

Hemolytic Properties of Tolaasin Causing the Brown Blotch Disease on Oyster Mushroom (느타리버섯 갈반병 원인독소 Tolaasin의 용혈특성)

  • Cho, Kwang-Hyun;Park, Kyoung-Sun;Kim, Young-Kee
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.190-195
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    • 2000
  • Tolaasin is a peptide toxin produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii and causes a brown blotch disease forming brown, slightly sunken spots and blotches on the cultivated mushrooms. It is a lipodepsipeptide consisting of 18 amino acids and its molecular mass is 1,985 Da. It forms a pore in plasma membranes, resulting in the disruption of membranes of fungal, bacterial, plant, and animal cells as well as mushroom tissue. In order to measure the toxicity of tolaasin, erythrocytes of blood were used to evaluate the tolaasin-induced hemolysis. Hemolytic activity of tolaasin was measured by observing the absorbance change either at 420 nm, representing the release of hemoglobins from red blood cells(RBCs), or at 600 nm, representing the density of residual cells. The hemolytic activity of culture-extract of P. tolaasii increased at early-stationary phase of growth and was maximal at late stationary phase. The hemolytic activity of tolaasin appeared high in the RBCs of dog and rat. The RBCs of rabbit and hen were less susceptible to tolaasin. The effects of various cations were also measured. $Cd^{2+}$ and $La^{3+}$. as well as $Zn^{2+}$ appeared inhibitory to the tolaasin-induced hemolysis. The effects of various anions on tolaasin-induced hemolysis were measured and carbonate showed the greatest inhibition to the hemolysis. However, phosphate stimulated the tolaasin-induced hemolysis and no effects were observed by chloride and nitrate.

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Effects of Various An ions on the Tolaasin-induced Hemolysis

  • Cho, Hyun-Sook;Cho, Kwang-Hyun;Kim, Young-Kee
    • Proceedings of the Korean Biophysical Society Conference
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    • pp.47-47
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    • 1999
  • Tolaasin is a bacterial paptide toxin which is produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii. It forms pores in the cellular membranes, causing the brown blotch disease on the cultivated oyster mushroom. Previously, we showed that tolaasin-induced pore formation required the multimerization of tolaasin molecules. In order to measure the ionic effect on the tolaasin multimerization, the time course of tolaasin-induced hemolysis was measured in the presence of various cations and anions.(omitted)

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In Silico Study of the Ion Channel Formed by Tolaasin I Produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii

  • Jo, Geun-Hyeong;Hwang, Do-Seok;Lee, Sun-Hee;Woo, Yoon-Kyung;Hyun, Ji-Ye;Yong, Yeon-Joong;Kang, Kyung-Rai;Kim, Dong-Woon;Lim, Yoong-Ho
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.21 no.10
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    • pp.1097-1100
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    • 2011
  • A toxin produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii, tolaasin, causes brown blotch disease in mushrooms. Tolaasin forms pores on the cellular membrane and destroys cell structure. Inhibiting the ability of tolaasin to form ion channels may be an effective method to protect against attack by tolaasin. However, it is first necessary to elucidate the three-dimensional structure of the ion channels formed by tolaasin. In this study, the structure of the tolaasin ion channel was determined in silico based on data obtained from nuclear magnetic resonance experiments.

Tolaasin Forms Various Types of Ion Channels in Lipid Bilayer

  • Cho, Kwang-Hyun;Kim, Young-Kee
    • Proceedings of the Korean Biophysical Society Conference
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    • pp.34-34
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    • 1998
  • Tolaasin is a channel forming bacterial toxin produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii and causes a brown blotch disease on cultivated oyster mushrooms. When tolaasin molecules form channels in the membranes of mushroom cells, they destroy cellular membrane structure, known as 'colloid osmotic lysis'. In order to understand the molecular mechanisms forming membrane channels by tolaasin molecules, we have investigated the electrophysiological characteristics of tolaasin-induced channels in lipid bilayer.(omitted)

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Mechanism of $Zn^{2+}$ Inhibition on Tolaasin Channel Activity

  • Cho, Kwang-Hyun;Kim, Sook-Jin;Kim, Young-Kee
    • Proceedings of the Korean Biophysical Society Conference
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    • pp.40-40
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    • 2001
  • Tolaasin is a 1.9 kDa peptide produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii and causes a brown blotch disease on cultivated oyster mushrooms. These molecules form channels in the plasma membranes of various cells including red blood cells and destroy cellular structure, known as 'colloid osmotic lysis'. In order to understand the molecular mechanism of tolaasin-mediated channel formation, the effect of Zn$^{2+}$ was investigated on hemolysis and channel formation since Zn$^{2+}$ has been known to block the tolaasin activity.(omitted)ted)

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Inhibitory Effect of Ni2+ on the Tolaasin-induced Hemolysis (톨라신의 용혈활성에 대한 Ni2+의 저해효과)

  • Choi, Tae-Keun;Wang, Hee-Sung;Kim, Young-Kee
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.28-32
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    • 2009
  • The bacterial toxin, tolaasin, causes brown blotch disease on the cultivated mushrooms by collapsing fungal and fruiting body structure of mushroom. Cytotoxicity of tolaasin was evaluated by measuring hemolytic activity because tolaasins form membrane pores on the red blood cells and destroy cell structure. While we investigated the inhibitions of hemolytic activity of tolaasin by $Zn^{2+}$ and $Cd^{2+}$, we found that $Ni^{2+}$ is another antagonist to block the toxicity of tolaasin. $Ni^{2+}$ inhibited the tolaasin-induced hemolysis in a dose-dependent manner and its Ki value was $\sim10$ mM, implying that the inhibitory effect of $Ni^{2+}$ is stronger than that of $Cd^{2+}$. The hemolytic activity was completely inhibited by $Ni^{2+}$ at the concentration higher than 50 mM. The effect of $Ni^{2+}$ was reversible since it was removed by the addition of EDTA. When the tolaasin-induced hemolysis was suppressed by the addition of 20 mM $Ni^{2+}$, the subsequent addition of EDIA immediately initiated the hemolysis. Although the mechanism of $Ni^{2+}$ -induced inhibition on tolaasin toxicity is not known, $Ni^{2+}$ could inhibit any of fallowing processes of tolaasin action, membrane binding, molecular multimerization, pore formation, and massive ion transport through the membrane pore. Our results indicate that $Ni^{2+}$ inhibits the pore activity of tolaasin, the last step of the toxic process.