• Title, Summary, Keyword: tobacco smoking

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Trends in Second-Hand Tobacco Smoke Exposure Levels at Home among Viet Nam School Children Aged 13-15 and Associated Factors

  • Nguyen, Tuan Lam;Pham, Thi Quynh Nga;Hoang, Van Minh;Kim, Bao Giang;Phan, Thi Hai;Doan, Thu Huyen;Nguyen, Thuy Linh;Duong, Khanh Van;Luong, Ngoc Khue
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.sup1
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    • pp.43-47
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    • 2016
  • Second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure at home, especially among children, is a serious issue in Viet Nam. During the past decade, much effort has been taken for tobacco control in the country, including various prgorammes aiming to reduce SHS exposure among adults and children. This article analysed trends and factors associated with SHS exposure at home among school children aged 13-15 in Viet Nam, using the Global Youth Tobacco Surveys conducted in 2007 and 2014. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods with logistic regression were applied. Overall, there was a significant reduction in the level of exposure, from 58.5% (95%CI: 57.6-59.3) in 2007 to 47.1% (95%CI: 45.4-48.8) in 2014. Of the associated factors, having one or both parents smoking was significantly associated with the highest odds of SHS exposure at home (OR=5.0; 95%CI: 4.2-6.1). Conversely, having a mother with a college or higher education level was found to be a protective factor (OR=0.5; 95%CI: 0.3-0.8).

The Economic Losses of Smoking (흡연의 경제적 손실분석)

  • Park, Jong-Ku;Lee, Kyu-Sik
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.528-541
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    • 1989
  • The purpose of this study was to identify and measure the economic costs and benefits due to smoking in Korea. Cigarette smoking is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In addition to the health risks of smoking, there are important economic consequences. A complete assessment of the economics of smoking requires evaluation of various health, economic, and intangible parameters, including benefits as well as costs of both the production and consumption of tobacco. In this article we focus on costs resulting from the health effects of smoking (expenditures for medical care and the value of productive output lost to morbidity, and premature mortality among smokers), since economic benefits from tobacco industry is offset by expenditures for purchasing tobacco. Two distinct methodologies will be applied to measure the economic costs of smoking cigarette, the human capital and willingness-to-pay approaches. This article used the former method. In 1985, total economic losses due to smoking was estimated as 505.7 billion won, which was composed of morbidity losses 64.9 billion won mortality losses 429.1 billion won and indirect costs 11.7 billion won.

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The Influence of Anti-Tobacco Ads on College's Students' Perception (금연광고가 대학생들의 금연인식에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho, Kyoung-Won;Ryu, Ji-Hye;Kim, Eun-Suk;Kim, Su-Dong
    • The Korean Journal of Health Service Management
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.205-216
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    • 2013
  • In this paper, we investigated and analyzed influence of tobacco countermarketing advertisements on university students' attitudes about smoking. For the investigation and analysis, we made up a questionnaire twice before and after watching antitobacco advertisements using the same questionnaire. We analyzed message framing, message theme category, and main effects and interaction effects between smoking experiences in attitudes on smoking before(pre-watching attitudes on smoking) and after(post-watching attitudes on smoking) watching antitobacco advertisements by the questionnaire results. In the analysis results using ANOVA test by diverse factors, we verified that efficacy of advertisement messages in positive group of pre-watching attitudes on smoking are better than in negative group. We also verified that interaction effects between message framing and message theme category about changes of post-watching attitudes on smoking are more efficient for changes of smoking attitudes when message theme is negative message rather than positive message.

Factors Associated with the Continuous Abstinence Rate from Smoking on Smoking Cessation Program over 6 Months in College Students of Daejeon, Korea (대전 지역 대학생의 6개월 금연 성공 관련 요인)

  • Seo, Eun-Seon;Kim, Chul-Woung;Lee, Seung Eun;Im, Hyo-Bin;Lee, Sang-Yi;Kang, Jung-Hee
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.247-257
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    • 2020
  • Despite the various smoking cessation programs that are available for college students, students have lower rates of quitting smoking than do other age groups. This study identifies the variables associated with continuous abstinence from smoking among college students. This study used the data from the National Tobacco Control Center and 781 college students who participated in the program conducted by the Daejeon Tobacco Control Center from June, 2015 to December, 2016. The results showed that the expiration CO level and the frequency of attending smoking cessation counseling were the significant variables related to the continuous abstinence rate at 4, 12, and 24 weeks. Students who had a low expiration CO level (?10 ppm) had a higher abstinence rate than did the students who had a high expiration CO level (≥10ppm), and the OR was 2.53 at 4-week, 2.33 at 12-week, and 2.13 at 24-week. The ORs for the 4-week, 12-week, and 24-week abstinence rates with one additional counseling session were 12.39, 13.13, and 12.21, respectively. This study suggests the need to increase the number of smoking cessation counseling sessions for effective smoking cessation intervention among college students.

Tobacco (Kretek) Smoking, Betel Quid Chewing and Risk of Oral Cancer in a Selected Jakarta Population

  • Amtha, Rahmi;Razak, Ishak Abduk;Basuki, Bastaman;Roeslan, Boedi Oetomo;Gautama, Walta;Puwanto, Denny Joko;Ghani, Wan Maria Nabillah;Zain, Rosnah Binti
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.20
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    • pp.8673-8678
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: This study aimed to determine the association between tobacco consumption (kretek) and betel quid chewing with oral cancer risk. Materials and Methods: A total of 81 cases of oral cancers were matched with 162 controls in this hospital-based study. Information on sociodemographic characteristics and details of risk habits (duration, frequency and type of tobacco consumption and betel quid chewing) were collected. Association between smoking and betel quid chewing with oral cancer were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Results: Slightly more than half of the cases (55.6%) were smokers where 88.9% of them smoked kretek. After adjusting for confounders, smokers have two fold increased risk, while the risk for kretek consumers and those smoking for more than 10 years was increased to almost three-fold. Prevalence of betel quid chewing among cases and controls was low (7.4% and 1.9% respectively). Chewing of at least one quid per day, and quid combination of betel leaf, areca nut, lime and tobacco conferred a 5-6 fold increased risk. Conclusions: Smoking is positively associated with oral cancer risk. A similar direct association was also seen among betel quid chewers.

Assessment of Perception of Medical Students in Regard to Links between Tobacco or Alcohol Use and Cancer

  • Alshammari, Fawaz Dabea;Khalifa, Amany M;Kosba, Ayman Ahmed;Khalil, Nuhar A;Ali, Safia M;Hassouna, Mona M;Elawad, Gamal Mohamed;Ginaw, Ibrahim Abdelmajeed;Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.7
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    • pp.2697-2700
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    • 2015
  • Background: The aim of this study was to assess cancer awareness among medical students in Saudi Arabia toward tobacco and alcohol use as risk factors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey from October to December 2014, covering 1200 medical students, was performed. Results: Of the total, 975 (81.25%) responded. The male to female ratio was 1.00:7.125. 96/975 (9.8%) had smoked tobacco in their lifetime, and 51/975 (5.23%) were alcoholic beverage consumers. On asking them whether tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption can cause cancer, only 4/975 (0.4%) and 14/975 (1.43%) answered no for smoking and alcohol, respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of smoking and alcohol use is very low among medical students, which might be due to high female contribution besides social stigma. The prevalence of second-hand smoke (SHS) was found to be very high in Hail region.

A Survey on Frequencies of Smoking Cessation Intervention for Patients Among Clinical Nurses (입원환자를 대상으로 한 간호사들의 금연 중재에 대한 실태 조사연구)

  • Shin, Sung-Rae;Oh, Pok-Ja
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.144-150
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to 1) find out the characteristic of smoke related characteristics of nurses. 2) find out the frequency of Smoking cessation intervention delivered by nurses. 3) compare the differences in mean scores of smoking cessation interventions by general characteristics. Method: The survey questionnaire was mailed out to nurses who were working at the randomly selected hospitals throughout the country from November 28, 2003 to February 15, 2004. Result: $0.6\%$ of nurses were current smokers $40.7\%$ of nurses have attended smoking cessation education. Nurses who were older, had masters degree, had oncology experience, higher position, participated in smoking cessation education, and had smoking related disease among family members were variables related to higher frequencies in delivering tobacco interventions. Conclusion: Although nurses are in an important position in delivering tobacco interventions and provide resources, their participation in consistent delivery of an intervention is less than desirable. To help nurses to participate in the assessment of tobacco use and interventions for cessation, the development of educational program is necessary.

Environmental tobacco smoke and children's health

  • Hwang, Sang-Hyun;Hwang, Jong-Hee;Moon, Jin-Soo;Lee, Do-Hoon
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.55 no.2
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    • pp.35-41
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    • 2012
  • Passive exposure to tobacco smoke significantly contributes to morbidity and mortality in children. Children, in particular, seem to be the most susceptible population to the harmful effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Paternal smoking inside the home leads to significant maternal and fetal exposure to ETS and may subsequently affect fetal health. ETS has been associated with adverse effects on pediatric health, including preterm birth, intrauterine growth retardation, perinatal mortality, respiratory illness, neurobehavioral problems, and decreased performance in school. A valid estimation of the risks associated with tobacco exposure depends on accurate measurement. Nicotine and its major metabolite, cotinine, are commonly used as smoking biomarkers, and their levels can be determined in various biological specimens such as blood, saliva, and urine. Recently, hair analysis was found to be a convenient, noninvasive technique for detecting the presence of nicotine exposure. Because nicotine/cotinine accumulates in hair during hair growth, it is a unique measure of longterm, cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke. Although smoking ban policies result in considerable reductions in ETS exposure, children are still exposed significantly to tobacco smoke not only in their homes but also in schools, restaurants, child-care settings, cars, buses, and other public places. Therefore, more effective strategies and public policies to protect preschool children from ETS should be consolidated.

Genetic Polymorphism of Glutathione S-transferases M1 and T1, Tobacco Habits and Risk of Stomach Cancer in Mizoram, India

  • Malakar, Mridul;Devi, K. Rekha;Phukan, Rup Kumar;Kaur, Tanvir;Deka, Manab;Puia, Lalhriat;Barua, Debajit;Mahanta, Jagadish;Narain, Kanwar
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.4725-4732
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    • 2012
  • Aim: The incidence of stomach cancer in Mizoram is highest in India. We have conducted a population based matched case-control study to identify environmental and genetic risk factors in this geographical area. Methods: A total of 102 histologically confirmed stomach cancer cases and 204 matched healthy population controls were recruited. GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes were determined by PCR and H. pylori infections were determined by ELISA. Results: Tobacco-smoking was found to be an important risk factor for high incidence of stomach cancer in Mizoram. Meiziol (local cigarette) smoking was a more important risk factor than other tobacco related habits. Cigarette, tuibur (tobacco smoke infused water) and betel nut consumption synergistically increased the risk of stomach cancer. Polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes were not found to be directly associated with stomach cancer in Mizoram. However, they appeared to be effect modifiers. Persons habituated with tobacco smoking and/or tuibur habit had increased risk of stomach cancer if they carried the GSTM1 null genotype and GSTT1 non-null genotype. Conclusion: Tobacco smoking, especially meiziol is the important risk factor for stomach cancer in Mizoram. GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes modify the effect of tobacco habits. This study is a first step in understanding the epidemiology of stomach cancer in Mizoram, India.

Smoking Related DNA Damage in Human Lymphocytes Assessed by the Comet Assay (단세포전기영동법으로 평가한 흡연자의 백혈구 DNA손상)

  • 선수진;정해원;한정호
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.83-89
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    • 2002
  • The single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay is one of the useful tools for the study of genetic damage in humans exposed to environmental mutagens and carcinogens. This study was undertaken to evaluate the status of DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes depending on their sex, age, smoking habits, and other factors in normal healthy Korean population. The 99 volunteers included in the study and out of these, 36 volunteers were smoker and 63 volunteers were non-smoker aged between 20-59 years. All individual answered a questionnaire that assessed their general information including smoking habits and the extent of the environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, and blood samples were obtained. There was a statistically significant difference in the extent of DNA damage between smoker and non-smoker (p<0.001). A significant difference was also observed between male and female (p<0.001) and amongst the different group of age (p<0.005), however, correlation analysis showed that only smoking habit was a significant factor for DNA damage. No significant effect of smoking duration, number of cigarettes smoking a day, SPY (smoke pack years) in smokers and environmental tobacco smoke exposure in non-smokers on the status of DNA damage was observed.

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