• Title, Summary, Keyword: tobacco smoking

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Smoking Situation of Workers in the Field of Railroad Electricity and Vehicles, and Changes of their Smoking Behaviors due to Raise of Price of Tobacco (철도 전기 및 차량 분야 종사자들의 흡연실태 및 담배가격 인상에 따른 흡연행태 변화)

  • Lee, Hyun-Ju;Choi, Eun-Mi
    • The Journal of Korean Society for School & Community Health Education
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.31-44
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: This study was aimed at finding out the current smoking situation of workers in the field of railroad electricity and vehicles and changes of their smoking behaviors after the raise of price of tobacco in 2015. Methods: With a self-administered questionnaire conducted from February 9 to March 6 2015, one-way ANOVA and crosstabs(PASW Statistics Ver. 18.0) were conducted on the data of 626 people. Results: As the result, the smoking rate was 39.1% and 90.5% of the smoking experienced group showed some changes including cutting down on smoking due to raise of price of tobacco. Factors related to smoking included stress, the number of times of drinking, awareness of harmfulness of smoking, the number of days with hard exercise per week and the marital status. Conclusion: Therefore, it is assumed that there is necessity of top-down intervention using these factors to cut down the smoking rate.

Evaluation of Smoking Prevention Programme Targeted at Adolescents in Seoul Area (일지역 청소년을 위한 흡연예방사업 효과 평가)

  • Lee Chung Yul;Lee Kyung Hee;Bae Sun Hyoung;Seo Ku Min;Ham Ok Kyung
    • Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.74-79
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of smoking prevention programs offered to primary and secondary school students in Seoul, and to analyze factors related to smoking for these students. A quasi-experimental study design was employed and a total of 8,717 students for pre-test and 7,925 students for post-test were participated in the study. The smoking prevention programs included poster and slogan contests. smoking cessation workshop. distribution of smoking prevention pamphlets, reinforcement of smoking regulations, and operation of mobile smoking cessation booth. The results indicated that smoking prevalence decreased after the intervention. However. despite the reinforcement of the regulation related to sales of tobacco to adolescents. more than $50\%$ of the participants still purchased tobacco from stores, while $20.8\%$ obtained tobacco through their friends. Stress, juvenile delinquency, and pocket money were identified as significant factors associated with tobacco use for these students. In conclusion, smoking prevention programs with multiple intervention strategies were effective in decreasing the smoking prevalence among adolescents. Further study is recommended to conduct an experimental study using comparison group to control the effect of other social influences such as national smoking cessation campaigns.

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Burden of Smoked and Smokeless Tobacco Consumption in India - Results from the Global adult Tobacco Survey India (GATS-India)- 2009-2010

  • Bhawna, Gupta
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.3323-3329
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    • 2013
  • Background: The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was carried out for systematically monitoring tobacco use and for tracking key tobacco control indicators. Materials and Methods: A total of 70,802 households, including 42,647 in rural areas and 28,155 in urban areas, were covered with a three stage sampling design. Data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude and practices of tobacco consumption.Results: GATS-India highlighted that total tobacco use among its residents is overall 34.6%, varying for males (47.9%) and females (20.7%). The rural areas of the country exhibit comparatively higher prevalence rates (38.4%) in comparison to urban areas (25.3%). Overall, Khaini, a smokeless tobacco product (12.0%), is the most popular form of tobacco use among males and females, followed by bidi smoking (9.0%). Conclusion: Results of GATS data can be used as baseline for evaluation of new tobacco control approaches in India integrating culturally acceptable and cost effective measures.

Tobacco Chewing and Adult Mortality: a Case-control Analysis of 22,000 Cases and 429,000 Controls, Never Smoking Tobacco and Never Drinking Alcohol, in South India

  • Gajalakshmi, Vendhan;Kanimozhi, Vendhan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.1201-1206
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    • 2015
  • Background: Tobacco is consumed in both smoking and smokeless forms in India. About 35-40% of tobacco consumption in India is in the latter. The study objective was to describe the association between chewing tobacco and adult mortality. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was conducted in urban (Chennai city) and rural (Villupuram district) areas in Tamil Nadu state in South India. Interviewed in 1998-2000 about 80,000 families (48,000 urban and 32,000 rural) with members who had died during 1995-1998. These were the cases and their probable underlying cause of death was arrived at by verbal autopsy. Controls were 600,000 (500,000 urban, 100,000 rural) individuals from a survey conducted during 1998-2001 in the same two study areas from where cases were included. Results: Mortality analyses were restricted to non-smoking non-drinkers aged 35-69. The age, sex, education and study area adjusted mortality odds ratio was 30% higher (RR:1.3, 95%CI:1.2-1.4) in ever tobacco chewers compared to never chewers and was significant for deaths from respiratory diseases combined (RR:1.5, 95%CI:1.4-1.7), respiratory tuberculosis (RR:1.7, 95%CI:1.5-1.9), cancers all sites combined (RR:1.5, 95%CI:1.4-1.7) and stroke (RR:1.4, 95%CI:1.2-1.6). Of the cancers, the adjusted mortality odds ratio was significant for upper aero-digestive, stomach and cervical cancers. Chewing tobacco caused 7.1% of deaths from all medical causes. Conclusions: The present study is the first large study in India analysing non-smoking non-drinkers. Statistically significant excess risks were found among ever tobacco chewers for respiratory diseases combined, respiratory tuberculosis, stroke and cancer (all sites combined) compared to never tobacco chewers.

Methodology for the Global Youth Tobacco Use Survey (GYST), Vietnam, 2014

  • Kim, Bao Giang;Hoang, Van Minh;Phan, Thi Hai;Doan, Thu Huyen;Luong, Ngoc Khue;Nguyen, Thuy Linh;Nguyen, Tuan Lam;Pham, Thi Quynh Nga;Luu, Ngoc Hoat
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.sup1
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    • pp.11-15
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    • 2016
  • Viet Nam is a country with the highest rate of adult male smokers in the world. In 2010, the percentage of adult male smokers was 47.4%. Each year in Viet Nam, there are 40,000 lives lost from tobacco-related diseases. The Global Tobacco Youth Survey is an international standardized survey that has been conducted in more than 140 countries. To provide evidence for tobacco control, Viet Nam already conducted two rounds of GYTS in 2003 and 2007. The GYTS in 2014 is the survey's third iteration. This paper aims to document key methodological details and socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents included in the 2014 GYTS in Viet Nam. This survey followed international protocol and was conducted in 13 provinces representative of 6 geographical regions. A total of 3,430 school children, aged 13 to 15 years used a standardized answer sheet to answer 76 questions about seven tobacco-related topics, including prevalence of tobacco use, environmental tobacco smoke, access and availability, media and advertisement, cessation, knowledge and attitudes, tobacco-related school curriculum. This GYTS provides valid and reliable data for monitoring tobacco use among youth in Vietnam and is recommended to be regularly repeated.

Uninary Nicotine and Cotinine Levels in Smokers and Nonsmokers Related to Smoking Habit in Korea

  • Hwang, Keon-Joong;Rhee, Moon-Soo;Ra, Do-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.71-76
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    • 2001
  • This study was conducted to determine the urinary nicotine and cotinine concentration in 126 smokers and 143 nonsmokers. While urine samples were being collected, personal characteristics related to smoking habit such as sex, age, number of years since a person has been a smoker, average number of cigarettes consumed per day, and number of smokers in the family were surveyed. Urinary nicotine and cotinine concentration were analyzed by GC/NPD. The smokers smoked an average 17.0 cigarettes per day and the average concentration of nicotine and cotinine was 3.88 $\mu\textrm{g}$/ml and 3.64 $\mu\textrm{g}$/ml, respectively. The average number of smokers in the family was 0.72 persons and the average concentration of nicotine and cotinine were 0.11 $\mu\textrm{g}$/ml and 0.02 $\mu\textrm{g}$/ml in the urine of non-smokers, respectively. The concentration of nicotine and cotnine in smoker\`s urine was dependent on the number of cigarettes smoked per day(p<0.01). The number of years since a person had been a smoker, and the number of smokers in the family were not associated with the concentration of nicotine and cotinine. Also there was no significant effects of passive smoking on the family of smokers by the level of nicotine and cotinine concentration. We describe the relationship between smoking habit as assessed by urinary nicotine and cotinine excretion. This study provides an evidence for the assessment of active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke.

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Dokha: An Emerging Public Health Issue as a Form of Tobacco Smoking in the Middle East

  • John, Lisha Jenny;Muttappallymyalil, Jayakumary
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.7065-7067
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    • 2013
  • Background: Tobacco use is one of the leading causes of preventable death across the world today and the smoking rates among men in the Arab world are amongst the highest in the world. Smoking of dokha, a traditional Arab tobacco is common in some of the Middle East countries such as the United Arab Emirates and Iran. This review focuses on the prevalence, pattern and health effects of dokha use in the Middle East. For this purpose an electronic search was performed in the following databases and websites: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Proquest and Google scholar up to December 2012. The search strategy was based on Internet search for the synonyms of dohka or midwakh. From the results of the review it emerged that younger people are the most common users of dokha. Hence effective outreach health education programs, targeting adolescents, especially school students before they take up the habit of smoking, may thus curb the emergence of the problem.

Effects of Tobacco Smoking on the Dorsum of the Tongue and Buccal Epithelium

  • Al Shammari, Abdullah Faraj;AL Ibrahim, Ibrahim Khalil;Alaauldeen, Amjad Ibrahim;Merza, Randa Fouad;Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.10
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    • pp.4713-4718
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    • 2016
  • Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of tobacco smoking on the dorsum of the tongue and buccal epithelium. Methodology: This case control cross-sectional study was conducted with 174 smoking and non-smoking volunteers living in the city of Hail, Northern KSA. Cytological Materials were obtained from buccal mucosa and dorsum of the tongue, and assessed using cytopathological methods. Results: In buccal smears, cytological atypia was observed in 17 out of 101 (16.8%) smoker cases but only 3/73(4.1%) of the controls. For cytological atypia in buccal and tongue smears, the adjusted odd ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) were found to be 4.7 (1.3-16.8), P < 0.016)) and 4.3 (0.93- 20.2), P <0.06)), respectively, in the two sites. Conclusion: Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for occurrence of cytological atypia, which might subsequently develop into oral precancerous and cancerous lesions. Oral exfoliative cytology is an easy and cheap non-invasive procedure which appears highly suitable for screening populations at risk of developing oral cancer.

Evaluation of Tobacco Control Policy in Korea: Development and Application of the Korean Tobacco Index for Policy Monitoring and Evaluation (한국 담배규제 정책의 평가: 담배규제정책 전문가 의견 조사를 토대로)

  • Hwang, Ji-Eun;Oh, Yu-Mi
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.342-348
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    • 2014
  • Background: Due to lack of regular and systematic evaluation tool, Korea's tobacco control policy has not been examined its overall process of implementation including efficiency and adequacy of the policies. This study developed policy monitoring and evaluation model to assess policy implementation and effectiveness of tobacco control in Korea. Methods: Based on World Health Organization operational manual for assessment, MPOWER (monitor tobacco use and prevention policies, protect from tobacco smoke, offer help to quit tobacco use, warn about the dangers of tobacco, enforce bans on tobacco advertising promotion and sponsorship, and raise taxes on tobacco) related policies were reviewed by rating policy efforts, programme management, people (human resources and their development), provision of organization, provision of fund and partnerships (range, 0 to 5). Results: As a result of the experts' assessment, overall Korean tobacco control policies scored 2.61 points, which is poor. In relation to each 'MPOWER' policies, 'W' scored the highest points (2.93), followed by 'O' (2.91), 'M' (2.87), 'P' (2.86), and 'E' (2.23). 'R' scored the lowest points of 1.87, meaning government efforts in tobacco price policy is insufficient. Conclusion: This study concludes that Korean tobacco control policy should strengthen tax and price measures, while programme infrastructure, people, and funds for policy enforcement should be secured. Furthermore, rather than focusing on one specific measure, a balanced approach reflecting various aspects of tobacco controls should be considered in order to decrease smoking rates and prevent smoking initiation.

Systematic Review on International Practices in Controlling Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking

  • Tee, Guat Hiong;Hairi, Noran N;Nordin, Fauziah;Choo, Wan Yuen;Chan, Ying Ying;Kaur, Gurpreet;Veerasingam, Pathma Devi;Bulgiba, Awang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.3659-3665
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    • 2015
  • Background: Waterpipe tobacco smoking has becoming popular especially among young people worldwide. Smokers are attracted by its sweeter, smoother smoke, social ambience and the misconception of reduced harm. The objective of this study was to systematically review the effects of waterpipe tobacco policies and practices in reducing its prevalence. Materials and Methods: A systematic review was conducted electronically using the PubMed, OVID, Science Direct, Proquest and Embase databases. All possible studies from 1980 to 2013 were initially screened based on titles and abstracts. The selected articles were subjected to data extraction and quality rating. Results: Three studies met the inclusion criteria and were eligible for this review. Almost all of the waterpipe tobacco products and its accessories did not comply with the regulations on health warning labelling practices as stipulated under Article 11 of WHO FCTC. In addition, the grisly new warning labels for cigarettes introduced by Food and Drug Administration did not affect hookah tobacco smoking generally. Indoor air quality in smoking lounges was found to be poor and some hookah lounges were operated without smoke shop certification. Conclusions: Our findings revealed the availability of minimal information on the practices in controlling waterpipe smoking in reducing its prevalence. The lack of comprehensive legislations or practices in controlling waterpipe smoking warrants further research and policy initiatives to curb this burgeoning global epidemic, especially among the vulnerable younger population.