• Title, Summary, Keyword: tobacco smoking

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Hardcore Smoking in Three South-East Asian Countries: Results from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey

  • Kishore, Jugal;Jena, Pratap Kumar;Bandyopadhyay, Chandan;Swain, Monali;Das, Sagarika;Banerjee, Indrani
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.625-630
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    • 2013
  • Background: Hardcore smoking is represented by a subset of daily smokers with high nicotine dependence, inability to quit and unwillingness to quit. Estimating the related burden could help us in identifying a high risk population prone to tobacco induced diseases and improve cessation planning for them. This study assessed the prevalence and associated factors of hardcore smoking in three South-East Asian countries and discussed its implication for smoking cessation intervention in this region. Materials and Methods: Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data of India, Bangladesh and Thailand were analyzed to quantify the hardcore smoking prevalence in the region. On the basis of review, an operational definition of hardcore smoking was adopted that includes (1) current daily smoker, (2) no quit attempt in the past 12 months of survey or last quit attempt of less than 24 hours duration, (3) no intention to quit in next 12 months or not interested in quitting, (4) time to first smoke within 30 minutes of waking up, and (5) knowledge of smoking hazards. Logistic regression analysis was carried out using hardcore smoking status as response variable and gender, type of residence, occupation, education, wealth index and age-group as possible predictors. Results: There were 31.3 million hardcore smokers in the three Asian countries. The adult prevalence of hardcore smoking in these countries ranges between 3.1% in India to 6% in Thailand. These hardcore smokers constitute 18.3-29.7% of daily smokers. The logistic regression model indicated that age, gender, occupation and wealth index are the major predictors of hardcore smoking with varied influence across countries. Conclusions: Presence of a higher number of hardcore smoking populations in Asia is a major public health challenge for tobacco control and cancer prevention. There is need of intensive cessation interventions with due consideration of contextual predictors.

Tobacco Control Law Enforcement and Compliance in Odisha, India - Implications for Tobacco Control Policy and Practice

  • Panda, Bhuputra;Rout, Anita;Pati, Sanghamitra;Chauhan, Abhimanyu Singh;Tripathy, Asima;Shrivastava, Radhika;Bassi, Abhinav
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.4631-4637
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    • 2012
  • Introduction: Tobacco use is a leading cause of deaths and disabilities in India, killing about 1.2 lakh people in 2010. About 29% of adults use tobacco on a daily basis and an additional 5% use it occasionally. In Odisha, non-smoking forms are more prevalent than smoking forms. The habit has very high opportunity cost as it reduces the capacity to seek better nutrition, medical care and education. In line with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA) is a powerful Indian national law on tobacco control. The Government of Odisha has shown its commitment towards enforcement and compliance of COTPA provisions. In order to gauge the perceptions and practices related to tobacco control efforts and level of enforcement of COTPA in the State, this cross-sectional study was carried out in seven selected districts. Materials and methods: A semi-structured interview schedule was developed, translated into Odiya and field-tested for data collection. It mainly contained questions related to knowledge on provisions of section 4-7 of COTPA 2003, perception about smoking, chewing tobacco and practices with respect to compliance of selected provisions of the Act. 1414 samples were interviewed. Results: The highest percentage of respondents was from the government departments. 73% of the illiterates consumed tobacco as compared to 34% post graduates. 52.1% of the respondents were aware of Indian tobacco control laws, while 80.8% had knowledge about the provision of the law prohibiting smoking in public places. However, 36.6% of the respondents reported that they had 'very often' seen tobacco products being sold 'to a minor', while 31.2% had seen tobacco products being sold 'by a minor'. In addition, 24.8% had 'very often' seen tobacco products being sold within a radius of 100 yards of educational institutions.

Impact of Increased Tobacco Price on Adult Smoking Rate in South Korea (담뱃값 인상 정책이 우리나라 성인흡연율에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Dong Jun;Kim, Sun Jung
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.219-228
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    • 2017
  • Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate impact of increased tobacco price in 2015 on the adult smoking rate in South Korea. Methods: This study used 6th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2013 to 2015. Total 14,860 adults were included in the analysis. The chi-square test, univariate- and multivariate survey logistic regressions, and subgroup analysis were conducted. Results: Results show that adult smoking rate before price increase were 19.08% and after price increase were 16.69%. Adjusted by variables associated with smoking behavior and others, multivariate survey logistic regressions revealed that smoking rate decreased after introduction of increased tobacco price policy (odds ratio [OR], 0.745; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.575 to 0.967) and the impact was different by various social status (male: OR, 0.688; 95% CI, 0.523 to 0.905; age over 60: OR, 0.487; 95% CI, 0.315 to 0.754; rural area: OR, 0.531; 95% CI, 0.309 to 0.912; household income Q1: OR, 0.593; 95% CI, 0.352 to 0.999; household income Q4, OR, 0.616; 95% CI, 0.386 to 0.983). Conclusion: The study revealed decreased smoking rate after increased tobacco price policy and different trend depending on various social characteristics. We recommend that government agencies and policy makers should pursue tobacco price control policy continuously and population specific manner and concurrently non-price policy should be implemented as well.

A Study on the Evaluation of the Stop-smoking Program for Active Smoking- and Passive Smoking Students (흡연자와 간접흡연자에 대한 금연교육 효과의 평가에 관한 연구)

  • 신호상;김진구
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.26-33
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    • 2002
  • Adolescents exposed chronically to tobaccotobacco smoke have been found to have reduced pulmonary function as well as an increased risk of lung cancer and a serious heart disease. Consequently, reducing exposure to tobacco smoke is an important public health goal. This study was conducted to develope the exact evaluation method of student smoker or heavy exposure from ETS, and the change on smoking behavior and attitude after a stop-smoking program. From the study, we concluded that the cotinine concentrations in saliva from students indicate exactly whether they are smoker or not. Also, it was found that the more and exact informations from both the cotinine analysis and the questionnaire were obtained than from only the questionnaires. The non-smokers had more positive effects on the changes of cog-nitions, behaviors and attitude about passive-smoking after a stop-smoking program than the smokers. The results of this study show that through both the accurate determination of cotinine in saliva and the questionnaires, the smoking status and the tobacco education effectiveness can be predicted.

Harm of Passive Smoking (간접 흡연의 유해성)

  • Lee, Dong-Uk
    • Journal of Korea Association of Health Promotion
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.165-171
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    • 2005
  • Passive smoking is the involuntary inhalation of tobacco smoke by a person, especially a non-smoker, who occupies and area with smokers or a smoker. Passive smoking may cause eye and nose irritation, sore throat, headache, cough to everyone, and it is known that non-smokers have the same kinds of illness with smokers. Smoking rate among the adults aged over 20 in Korea is higher than that of the US or European conturies. Therefore we suppose that Koreans may be exposured to passive smoking than the people of other conturies. It is necessary that people have the knowledge on the heath problems caused by passive smoking and on prevention from the involuntary inhalation of tobacco smoke. I propose that the smokers should be informed the importance of smoking cessation.

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Global School Personnel Survey Among 5200 School Personnel in India: Comparison of the Results for the Years 2009 and 2006

  • Gajalakshmi, V.;Kanimozhi, C.V.;Sinha, D.N.;Rahman, K.;Warren, C.W.;Asma, S.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.539-543
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    • 2012
  • Background: The results of the Global School Personnel Survey (GSPS) conducted in India in 2009 are compared with 2006 GSPS to assess any change in 2009 on tobacco use and knowledge and attitudes to tobacco use, training and availability of tobacco control teaching material in schools and the existence of school tobacco control policies. Methods: GSPS is a cross sectional survey conducted twice (2006 and 2009) in entire India. A total of 180 schools were surveyed each time. Results: Of the participating school personnel, 2660 in 2006 and 2575 in 2009, about 95% were teachers and the balance administrators. In 2009, compared to 2006 the prevalence of current smoking of cigarettes (19.6% in 2006 and 10.3% in 2009) and bidis (21.5% in 2006 and 13.9% in 2009) was found to be significantly lower; the percentage of teachers receiving training on preventing youth tobacco use has significantly reduced (16.7% in 2006 and 10.1% in 2009); access of teachers to educational materials on tobacco use and how to prevent its use among youth had not increased (34.6% in 2006 and 37.8% in 2009); there was no change in policy prohibiting tobacco use among students and school personnel; however, ever use of any tobacco on school premises was significantly lower (15.6% in 2006 and 9.6% in 2009). Conclusions: The prevalence of current smoking (cigarettes/bidis) among school personnel and use of any tobacco on school premises were significantly decreased in 2009 as compared to 2006. Necessary action should be planned to increase the number of teachers trained and the availability of teaching materials on preventing youth tobacco use in order to have effective prevention of tobacco use among students.

Tobacco-Related Education in Graduate, Baccalaureate and Associate Degree Programs in Korea (전국 간호교육기관의 금연관련 교육내용 분석)

  • ;Sarna, Linda;Danao, Leda
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.256-264
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    • 2003
  • Purpose: The purpose of this research was to find out tobacco control education taught graduate, baccalaureate and associate degree-nursing programs in Korea. Method: A valid and reliable questionnaire previously used to assess tobacco use in medical and nursing schools in the United States was translated and revalidated. Surveys were sent out to all the graduate, baccalaureate and associate nursing programs in Korea. All 6-tobacco curricula content areas recommended by the United States National Cancer Institute and the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research was included. Result: Majority of BSN (93.2%-75%) and AD (92.3%-64.1%) programs were teaching health hazards, cancer risk, health effects of tobacco, effects of ETS, contents of cigarette, withdrawal symptoms and high risk groups of smoking as a part of required courses. However, 87.5% (14/16) of graduate, 50.0% (22/44) in baccalaureate, 53.8% (21/39) in associate degree programs were not teaching about the 5 A's. Of those who reported teaching smoking cessation strategies, they were covered most frequently in Community Nursing (50%), Adult Health Nursing (43.8%) on the graduate level, and in Community Nursing (65.9%-BSN, 76.9%-AD) and Adult Health (54.5%-BSN, 74.4%-AD) on the undergraduate level. 31.1% (5/16) in Graduate, 18.2%(8/44) in BSN, 10.3% (4/39) in Associate Degree programs reported that there are no smoking students in their schools and rest of the schools reported either do not know or they have 1 to more than 21% of students smoking. Conclusion: The study results identifies the quantity and level of tobacco control content in three different nursing programs and will help in developing curricular guidelines in the future. Further survey needs to be done on nursing students' knowledge, attitude and belief on smoking and smoking cessation.

Predictors of Cigarette Smoking among Young Adults in Mangalore, India

  • Lalithambigai, G;Rao, Ashwini;Rajesh, G;Ramya, Shenoy;Pai, BH Mithun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.45-50
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    • 2016
  • Background: The tobacco epidemic is a heralding health menace, particularly among college students. Tobacco usage among young can have an especially devastating effect as they can be exposed for longer periods. Data to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use in young adults will be a valuable addition to the existing resources. Materials and Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was therefore carried out in Mangalore city using a pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire adapted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) with a representative sample of 720 students aged 18-20 years selected from degree colleges by multi-stage random sampling. Results: Prevalence of 'ever users' and 'current users' of smoking were 20.4% and 11.4%, respectively. The mean age at initiation of cigarette smoking was 16 years and the majority (31 %) smoked in public places. Interestingly, 84% of them knew about the harmful effects of cigarette smoking. About one half of smokers had some or most of their friends smoking. Multivariate analysis revealed gender (OR=8.585: CI-3.26-22.5), pocket money (OR=4.165; CI=1.76-9.82) and peer's smoking habit (OR= 5.15; CI-2.21-11.9) have higher odds as correlates of tobacco usage among college students. Conclusions: It is of prime importance to highlight the role of prevention of smoking initiation rather than subsequently trying to stop the habit. Comprehensive interventions embracing family, friends and social milieu are needed to reduce tobacco use among students in India.

Using Focus Group Interviews to Analyze the Behavior of Users of New Types of Tobacco Products

  • Kim, Jinyoung;Lee, Sungkyu
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.50 no.5
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    • pp.336-346
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    • 2017
  • Objectives: To characterize the usage patterns of new types of tobacco products (NTTPs) to develop effective strategies for the regulation of NTTPs in Korea. Methods: We conducted focus group interviews to identify the NTTP usage patterns of research subjects. The NTTPs were limited to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), waterpipe tobacco, and rolling tobacco. We categorized 30 research subjects into 4 groups. The ecigarette group was divided into adult and adolescent groups. Each group contained 7-8 subjects. An interview lasting approximately 2 hours was conducted with each group. Results: Ninety percent of NTTP users used an NTTP in combination with conventional cigarettes. Subjects mostly bought NTTPs online, unlike how they bought cigarettes. Additionally, a great deal of information, such as how to use NTTPs and descriptions of NTTP products, was exchanged through online or offline societies. The primary reason why the subjects used NTTPs was that NTTPs offer a greater range of flavors and aromas than cigarettes. Moreover, NTTPs were felt to be less repulsive than cigarettes. NTTPs were not used as a cigarette substitute; rather, they were mostly used in places and situations where traditional cigarette smoking was not allowed. Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, the government should conduct studies on the effects of the combined use of NTTPs and cigarettes on the human body, obtain and provide accurate data regarding NTTP use, and develop and implement polices to ban NTTP advertising, which may arouse adolescents' curiosity, and the addition of flavoring substances to tobacco products.

Survey on Knowledge and Attitudes Related to the Relation between Tobacco, Alcohol Abuse and Cancer in the Northern State of Sudan

  • Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.2483-2486
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    • 2013
  • Background: The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology of tobacco smoking, toombak dipping and alcohol consumption as risk factors for cancer in the adult population of the northern state of Sudan. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey from March to April 2010, covering 963 adults, was performed. Result: Only 207 had responded, and the male female prevalence was 20.8% and 0.73%. Out of 207 respondents, 29.5% had smoked tobacco in their lifetime, 38% were toombak dippers, while 14% were consumers of alcoholic beverages. Conclusions: The prevalence of toombak dipping was higher than tobacco smoking among the adult population in the northern state of Sudan. Female participation in tobacco and alcohol related studies was found to suffer from major obstacles since these habits are considered as social stigma. Appreciation of the full impact of smoking on population health will definitely make a major contribution to improvement of the poor public health situation in Sudan.