• Title, Summary, Keyword: tobacco smoking

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Acute Effects of Tobacco and Non-tobacco Cigarette Smoking on the Blood Pressure and heart Beat Rate

  • Kho, Young-Lim;Lee, Sang-Gu;Chung, Moon-Ho
    • Proceedings of the Korean Environmental Health Society Conference
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    • pp.166-170
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    • 2003
  • Smoking of tobacco cigarettes is associated with a rise in blood pressure together with an increase in heart beat rate. This study examined the acute effect of tobacco and non-tobacco cigarette smoking on the blood pressure and heart beat rate by randomized crossover study involved 39 volunteers. In the results, systolic blood pressure and heart beat rate changes after smoking were significantly different in non-tobacco cigarette smoking group from in tobacco cigarette smoking group.

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Acute Effects of Tobacco and Non-tobacco Cigarette Smoking on the Blood Pressure and Heart Rate

  • Kho Young-Lim;Yi Sang-Gu;Lee Eun-Hee;Chung Moon-Ho
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.222-226
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    • 2006
  • Smoking of tobacco cigarettes is associated with a rise in blood pressure together with increase in heart rate. This study was aimed to examine the acute effect of tobacco and non-tobacco cigarette smoking on the blood pressure and heart rate by randomized crossover study. In the results, systolic/diastolic blood pressure and heart rate changes after smoking were significantly different between male and female group. Blood pressure and heart rate were elevated after smoking, but statistical significance for the difference was identified only in the female group. Because Non-tobacco smoke made from leaves of E. ulmoides has no nicotine, its effect on blood pressure and heart rate was negligible. Remarkable difference of heart rate changes in women was observed between tobacco cigarette smoking group and non-tobacco cigarette smoking group.

Scientific Evidence for the Addictiveness of Tobacco and Smoking Cessation in Tobacco Litigation

  • Roh, Sungwon
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 2018
  • Smokers keep smoking despite knowing that tobacco claims many lives, including their own and others'. What makes it hard for them to quit smoking nonetheless? Tobacco companies insist that smokers choose to smoke, according to their right to self-determination. Moreover, they insist that with motivation and willpower to quit smoking, smokers can easily stop smoking. Against this backdrop, this paper aims to discuss the addictive disease called tobacco use disorder, with an assessment of the addictiveness of tobacco and the reasons why smoking cessation is challenging, based on neuroscientific research. Nicotine that enters the body via smoking is rapidly transmitted to the central nervous system and causes various effects, including an arousal response. The changes in the nicotine receptors in the brain due to continuous smoking lead to addiction symptoms such as tolerance, craving, and withdrawal. Compared with other addictive substances, including alcohol and opioids, tobacco is more likely to cause dependence in smokers, and smokers are less likely to recover from their dependence. Moreover, the thinning of the cerebral cortex and the decrease in cognitive functions that occur with aging accelerate with smoking. Such changes occur in the structure and functions of the brain in proportion to the amount and period of smoking. In particular, abnormalities in the neural circuits that control cognition and decision-making cause loss of the ability to exert self-control and autonomy. This initiates nicotine dependence and the continuation of addictive behaviors. Therefore, smoking is considered to be a behavior that is repeated due to dependence on an addictive substance, nicotine, instead of one's choice by free will.

Knowledge and Attitude Towards Tobacco Smoking among 13-15 Year-Old School Children in Viet Nam - Findings from GYTS 2014

  • Nguyen, Thanh Huong;Nguyen, Trung Kien;Kim, Bao Giang;Hoang, Van Minh;Phan, Thi Hai;Doan, Thu Huyen;Luong, Ngoc Khue;Nguyen, Thuy Linh;Nguyen, Tuan Lam;Pham, Thi Quynh Nga
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.sup1
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    • pp.37-42
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    • 2016
  • Studies have shown that smoking is a learnt behavior, often initiated during adolescence. This paper aims to describe tobacco-related knowledge, attitude and associations among school adolescents aged 13-15 with exposure to anti-smoking information. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Viet Nam, 2014, knowledge was measured through 4 questions about tobacco use, and attitude was assessed through 3 questions on personal, social and environmental aspects. Students giving most anti-tobacco responses to all questions were considered as having correct knowledge or appropriate attitude or both. Access to anti-smoking information was determined by exposure to any media messages on tobacco control during the past 30 days and teaching in school about the danger of tobacco use during the past 12 months. A substantial percentage of students thought that being near others who smoke might be harmful to them and smoking is harmful to health (89.4% and 89.6% respectively). However, only 46.4% reported that it is definitely difficult to quit smoking and 66.9% thought that smoking for only 1 or 2 years, once stopped, is harmful to health. Slightly more than half of the respondents reported appropriate attitude that young smokers have fewer friends than others and smoking makes them less attractive and less comfortable at social events. Noticing anti-smoking messages in the media together with having lessons in school about the dangers of tobacco substantially increased the likelihood of having correct knowledge, appropriate attitude and both. Despite relatively high awareness about smoking harms, effective educational communication is still highly needed to improve the level of comprehensive knowledge and an appropriate attitude regarding tobacco use.

A Cross Sectional Study of Kretek Smoking in Indonesia as a Major Risk to Public Health

  • Palipudi, Krishna;Mbulo, Lazarous;Kosen, Soewarte;Tjandra, Aditama;Kadarmanto, Kadarmanto;Qureshi, Farukh;Andes, Linda;Sinha, Dhirendra N;Asma, Samira
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.16
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    • pp.6883-6888
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    • 2015
  • Background: Tobacco smoking is a major cause of preventable disease and death worldwide. Kreteks are clove-flavored cigarettes made from a combination of tobacco and ground-clove mixed with a sauce, smoked widely in Indonesia. Because health and social consequences of kretek smoking are potentially as great as those of traditional cigarettes, this study examines the prevalence of kretek smoking in Indonesia and associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: The study used nationally representative Indonesia Global Adult Tobacco Survey data. Multiple logistic regression analysis was employed to identify correlates of kretek smoking. Results: One-third of Indonesian adults smoked tobacco of which about 90.0% smoked kreteks. Prevalence of kretek smoking among men (60.9%) was more than 25 times the rate among women (2.3%). Overall, the highest prevalence of kretek use was in the age group 45-54 years (36.5%), followed by 34-44 (35.1%), 25-34 (34.2 %), and 55-64 years (32.8%). By wealth index, prevalence of kreteks smoking among those in the middle index was almost 50% above the rate for the wealthiest group (36.4% vs 24.8% respectively). Logistic regression results showed that being male, being older, having less education, and being less wealthy were significant predictors of kretek smoking, while urban vs rural residence was not. Conclusions: Kretek smoking is common in Indonesia and is entrenched in the sociocultural fabric of the country. However, potential consequences of kretek smoking, particularly as risks for noncommunicable diseases, underscore the importance of a comprehensive approach to tobacco control as outlined in the World Health Organization's MPOWER strategies.

Role of Tobacco Warning Labels in Informing Smokers about Risks of Smoking among Bus Drivers in Mangalore, India

  • Mallikarjun, Sajjanshetty;Rao, Ashwini;Rajesh, Gururaghavendran;Shenoy, Ramya;Mithun, Pai B.H.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.19
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    • pp.8265-8270
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    • 2014
  • Background: Smoking tobacco is considered as a leading cause of preventable death, mostly in developing countries like India. One of the primary goals of international tobacco control is to educate smokers about the risks associated with tobacco consumption. Tobacco warning labels (TWLs) on cigarette packages are one of the most common statutory means to communicate health risks of smoking to smokers, with the hope that once educated, they will be more likely to quit the habit. Materials and Methods: The present survey was conducted to assess the effectiveness of TWLs in communicating health risks of tobacco usage among 263 adult smokers working as bus drivers in Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC), Mangalore, India. Information was collected on demographic details, exposure and response to health warnings on tobacco products, intention to quit and nicotine dependency. Results: The majority (79.5%) of the respondents revealed negative intentions towards quitting smoking. Nearly half of the participants had a 'low' nicotine dependency (47.5%) and 98.1% of the respondents had often noticed warning labels on tobacco packages. These health warnings made 71.5% of the respondents think about quitting smoking. Respondents who noticed advertisement or pictures about dangers of smoking had better knowledge, with respect to lung cancer and impotence as a consequence of tobacco. A higher exposure to warning labels was significantly associated with lower nicotine dependency levels of smokers among the present study population. A significantly higher number of respondents who noticed advertisement or pictures about the dangers of smoking thought about the risks of smoking and were more inclined to think about quitting smoking. As exposure increased, an increase in the knowledge and response of participants was also observed. Conclusions: Exposure to tobacco warning labels helps to educate smokers about health risks of tobacco smoking. It may be possible to promote oral health among bus drivers by developing strategies to educate them about these risk factors.

A Study on Trends and Validities of Regulation Policy of the Tobacco Industry for the National Health Promotion - Focusing on U.S. Family Smoking Prevention And Tobacco Control Act - (국민건강증진을 위한 담배사업 규제정책의 동향과 타당성 검토 -미국, '가족 흡연 예방 및 담배규제 법'(Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act)을 중심으로-)

  • Choi, Ho-Young;Song, Ki-Min
    • The Korean Society of Law and Medicine
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.317-338
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    • 2011
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) tries to accomplish the goal of 'smoke free society', and developed countries regard the nicotine as an addictive drug. In order to better protect human health, all parties are required to adopt and implement effective legislative, executive, administrative or other measures for tobacco control in accordance with Article 4 the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). In order to achieve the objective of the FCTC and its protocols and to implement its provisions, Korea need to take an attention on the U.S. Family Smoking Prevention And Tobacco Control Act of 2009 and Final Rule. It is need to integrate and centralize of tobacco safety administration and smoking prevention for the national health promotion.

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Access to Anti-smoking Information among School Children and its Potential Impact on Preventing Smoking Initiation: Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Use Survey (GYTS) 2014 in Viet Nam

  • Hoang, Van Minh;Kim, Bao Giang;Phan, Thi Hai;Trinh, Dinh Hoang;Doan, Thu Huyen;Luong, Ngoc Khue;Nguyen, Thuy Linh;Nguyen, Tuan Lam;Pham, Thi Quynh Nga
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.sup1
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    • pp.31-36
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    • 2016
  • Scientific evidence on all aspects of smoking amongst youth is very important for designing appropriate interventions to reduce smoking among this vulnerable population. This paper describes current access to anti-smoking information among school children aged 13 to 15 years in Vietnam in 2014 and examines its potential impact on preventing smoking initiation. The data used in this paper were obtained from the 2014 Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Vietnam. Students were asked questions about their level of awareness of anti-smoking information from various sources in the past 30 days and about lessons in school regarding the dangers of tobacco use during the last 12 months. Those who have never smoked were asked "whether or not they thought about avoiding cigarettes because of health warnings on cigarette packages" and answers were analyzed in combination with data on access to anti-smoking information from other sources. The prevalence of exposure to antismoking campaigns was high among school children in Viet Nam: 55.3% of current smokers reported thoughts of smoking cessation because of health warnings on cigarette packages; 60.5% of never smokers avoided initiating smoking because of the same health warnings. The potential impact of graphic health warnings to prevent school-aged children from smoking initiation would be stronger if there was concurrent access to anti-smoking programs on the dangers of tobacco use in schools. However, school education for tobacco prevention and control has not been as strong as expected. A more comprehensive school curriculum on tobacco prevention and control is recommended to reinforce antismoking messages among school children.

Assessment of Tobacco Habits, Attitudes, and Education Among Medical Students in the United States and Italy: A Cross-sectional Survey

  • Armstrong, Grayson W.;Veronese, Giacomo;George, Paul F.;Montroni, Isacco;Ugolini, Giampaolo
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.177-187
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    • 2017
  • Objectives: Medical students represent a primary target for tobacco cessation training. This study assessed the prevalence of medical students' tobacco use, attitudes, clinical skills, and tobacco-related curricula in two countries, the US and Italy, with known baseline disparities in hopes of identifying potential corrective interventions. Methods: From September to December 2013, medical students enrolled at the University of Bologna and at Brown University were recruited via email to answer survey questions assessing the prevalence of medical students' tobacco use, attitudes and clinical skills related to patients' smoking, and elements of medical school curricula related to tobacco use. Results: Of the 449 medical students enrolled at Brown and the 1426 enrolled at Bologna, 174 Brown students (38.7%) and 527 Bologna students (36.9%) participated in this study. Italian students were more likely to smoke (29.5% vs. 6.1%; p<0.001) and less likely to receive smoking cessation training (9.4% vs. 80.3%; p<0.001) than their American counterparts, even though the majority of students in both countries desired smoking cessation training (98.6% at Brown, 85.4% at Bologna; p<0.001). Additionally, negative beliefs regarding tobacco usage, the absence of formal training in smoking cessation counseling, and a negative interest in receiving specific training on smoking cessation were associated with a higher risk of not investigating a patient's smoking status during a routine history and not offering tobacco cessation treatment to patients. Conclusions: Medical curricula on tobacco-related health hazards and on smoking cessation should be mandatory in order to reduce smoking among medical students, physicians, and patients, thereby improving tobacco-related global health.

The Development of Tobacco Litigation in USA and it's Impact of Law and Politics in Public Health (미국 담배소송의 변천과 보건법정책 효과)

  • Kim, Un-Mook;Kim, Ji-Hyun
    • The Korean Society of Law and Medicine
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.133-173
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    • 2011
  • Since mid-1960s the reports from the Surgeon General, the World Health Organization, and other health experts state that there is no risk-free level exposure to smoking and secondhand smoke. Tobacco smoke is made up of more than 7,000 chemicals. Hundreds are toxic, and at least 70 are carcinogens. The chemicals in tobacco smoke reach smoker's lungs quickly every time smoker inhale causing damages immediately. Inhaling even the smallest amount of tobacco smoke can also damage smoker's DNA, which can lead to cancers. Smoking is responsible for more than 87% of lung cancers, but there are a host of other chronic diseases directly related to exposure to tobacco smoke. It's also a major cause of heart disease, stroke, aortic aneurysm, peripheral arterial disease and most of the other diseases. In the United States, each year with more than from 440,000 to 520,000 deaths caused by smoking and exposure to involuntary smoke. They conclude that smoking is the single most important source of preventable morbidity and mortality. The United States of America have about 60-year history of tobacco litigation. Tobacco litigation has been an important tool in tobacco control strategies aimed at limiting the activities of tobacco companies and providing redress to people who have become ill as a result of their use of tobacco products. Tobacco litigation is a kind of tort litigation. Quite often, as in the asbestos and other mass tort litigation episodes, tobacco litigation can play an educational role, warning the public about the magnitude of health risks that might otherwise be less clearly perceived. Tobacco litigation allows smokers, their families or other victims of smoking to sue tobacco companies in order to be compensated for the harm they have suffered. Potential benefits of tobacco litigation include compensation for smoking-related damages, strengthening regulatory activity, publicity, documents disclosure and changing tobacco industry behavior. And also tobacco litigation can limit the political activities of tobacco industry, protect human rights of smokers and non-smokers, increase burden to tobacco price-up and enhance the effects of law and politics in public health.

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