• Title/Summary/Keyword: tobacco quality

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Change of Essential Oil Constituents during Flue-curing Process in Flue-cured Tobacco, NC82 & KF114 (황색종 NC82와 KFl14의 건조단계별 정유성분의 변화)

  • Hong, Yeol;Lim, Heung-Bin;Seok, Young-Sun;Shin, Ju-Sik;Kim, Jong-Yeol;Ra, Do-Young;Lee, Hak-Su
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.168-178
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    • 2001
  • Essential oil in tobacco leaves influences the taste and aroma of cigarette smoke and is important to tobacco quality. This study was conducted to investigate the change in the level of essential oil components during flue-curing process of two flue-cured tobaccos, NC82 and KEl14. Flue-curing process was divided by six steps; harvest stage, the end of yellowing stage, the middle of color fixing stage, the end of color fixing stage, the middle of midrib drying stage, full-cured stage. NC82 in each stage contained 0.28%, 0.30%, 0.35%, 0.36%, 0.40% and 0.42% essential oil, respectively, and KF114 were 0.29%, 0.31%, 0.34%, 0.36%, 0.39% and 0.41%, respectively. Almost all hydrocarbons on the basis of relative peak area were gradually increased in two varieties with curing, neophytadiene content in them was highest at the full-cured stage. Most of alcohols and esters with curing showed a declining trend, but benzyl alcohol was increased in two tobaccos. Ketones were largely increased at the midrib drying stage during the curing process, especially, the most largely increasing constituent was $\beta$-damascenone among them. The content of 2-butylterahydrofuran, heterocyclic compounds, was largely increased at tile color fixing stage. There was no considerable difference between NC82 and KFl14 at the GC profile of essential oil and the pattern of each components during flue-curing process.

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Statistical Analysis of Meteorological Factors with the Leaf Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco I. The Proportion of the Respective Grades of the Thin Leaf and Meteorological Factors (황색종 잎담배 품질과 기상요인과의 관계분석 I. 부엽의 등급별 수량분포와 기상요인)

  • 김정환;한원식;이용득
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.163-169
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    • 1989
  • Seasonal climatic factors associated with tobacco quality grade and production rate were analyzed. The degree of influence on yield distribution rate in high guality tobacco leaues was highly positive with the average temperature in early May, but negatively related to those in late May and early June. Positive correlations were noticed between the degree of influence and sunshine hours in Middle June, late June and late May in decrease order, while negative degree of influence was higher in early May than in late May, The order influenced by recipitation in a positive direction was early May, late May and middle May. Negative influence was noticed in middle and early June with a great degree.

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A Study for Automatic Analysis of Qualysis of Quality Components in Tabacco Leaves Using Non-destructive Analytical Method (근적외 분광분석법에 의한 잎담배의 품질측정 자동화)

  • Cho, Rae-Kwang;Lee, Kyung-Hee;Lee, Jung-Hwan;Kwon, Yong-Kil
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.349-355
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    • 1994
  • The present study was conducted to develop the automatic analytical method for determining moisture, nicotine, reducing sugar and total nitrogen contents and color(L, a, b) value in domestic tobacco leaves using near infrared(NIR) spectroscopy. The results of multiple linear regression analysis between chemical and NIR data showed that NIR spectro-scopy can determine those quality components of tobacco samples in 30 seconds, non-destructively. The results using developed calibrations are summarized as follows; The standard error of prediction(SEP) for moisture, nicotine. total nitrogen, reducing sugar contents and color(L, a, b) value in domestic tobacco leaves was 0.28%, 0.25%, 0.07%, 0.75%, 1.25, 0.44 and 1.07, respectively. In addition, The possibility of developing the cheaper filter type NIR instrument, for quality evaluation in the procurement from leaf tobacco cultivators and process control was investigated.

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Effect of Fly Ash on the Yield and Quality of Tobacco (석탄회 시용이 연초의 수량 및 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • 홍순달;석영선
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.92-101
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    • 1997
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of fly ash on the yield and quality and to determine the optimum application amount of fly ash for tobacco(Nicotiana tabacum L). Two kinds of fly ash, anthracite and bituminous coal, were treated with different levels of 0, 20, 40, 60 MT/ha. Dry weights of tobacco at middle and topping growth stage were increased with application of fly ash, showing the highest dry weight at 40 MT/ha in both kinds of fly ash. It was showed that the bituminous coal had a little more effective for yield than that of anthracite. Comparing with the control, yields of tobacco applied with fly ash were significantly increased about 17.7% and 17.1% by the application of bituminous coal and anthracite, respectively. Quality of flue-cured leaves was better by application of fly ash than that of the control. The quality index was given the highest at 40 MT/ha for bituminous coal increasing by 24.6% and at 60 MT/ha fur anthracite increasing by 13.4% compared with the control. The economical efficiency considered of the yield and quality of tobacco was the highest at 40 MT/ha of bituminous. Soil pH, contents of available P2O5, organic matter, exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+ of soil during the growing season were increased by application of fly ash, showing more effectiveness in bituminous than that in anthracite. By the application of fly ash, the nutrients availability and the acidity of soil were reformed and they caused significantly the increase of growths yield, and quality of tobacco. By the application of lime reforming soil acidity, growth response, yields and quality of tobacco were not increased compared to the control, although the effect of reforming soil pH was remarkable.

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A Comprehensive Study on the Forced Aging of Flue-cured Tobacco-Leaves (황색종 잎담배의 발효숙성 촉진에 관한 종합적 연구)

  • Bae, H.W.
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.1-27
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    • 1970
  • The process of the forced aging of flue-cured tobacco leaves were studied extensively from various scientific points of view. The Flue-cured tobacco leaves were inoculated and fermented with nicotine resistant Hansenula yeast, or the leaves were subjected under simple forced aging. The above two processes of forced aging were studied from the summarized points of microbiology, physics, chemistry, and biochemistry, and the resulted products ware compared in their physical, chemical and biochemical quality determining factors with that of raw material tobacco leaves (dried-tobacco leaves) and 2 years aged high quality tobacco leaves. The summary results were as follows. 1) The Korean flue-cured tobacco leaves, were forcedly aged under the basic optimum aging condition, temperature $40^{\circ}C$, moisture contents 18%, relative humidity 74%. It was found that this aging condition was the best in bringing the quality of forcedly aged tobacco leaves to the utmost state. 2) Under this optimum temperature and moisture condition of forced aging in about 20 days the forcedly aged tobacco leaves both with yeast inoculation and without yeast inoculation showed the equivalent tobacco qualities comparable with that of more than 2 years aged tobacco leaves. 3) The forcedly aged tobacco leaves both with and without yeast inoculation under $40^{\circ}C$ temperature and $74^{\circ}C$ relative humidity achieved the necessary quality determining physical and chemical changes in about 20 days. 4) The microbial changes during the forced aging were as follows. The population of yeasts and bacteria increased until to 15 days of aging, then decreased thereafter. Whereas the molds grew continously until the end of fermentation. 5) The tobacco quality determing physico-chemico-properties of yeast inoculated aged and simple forcedly aged tobacco leaves, progressed as the follows in time. As the forced aging progresses, swelling and combustibility properties were improved. The pH, total reducing materials, total sugars, alkaloids contents decreased. The contents of organic and ether extractable materials increased. The total nitrogen, protein, crude fiber, ash contents showed no changes. The color properties, excitation purity, luminance, main wave length, showed equivalent changes comparable with that of 2 years aged tobacco leaves. 6) The changes in chemical components in yeast treated and simple forcedly aged tobacco leaves during $15{\sim}20{\;}days$ of forced aging were as follows. The following chemical components decreased as the aging. Sugars-sucrose. rhamnose, glucose. Pigments-chlorophyll, carotenes, xanthophyll and violax anthine. Polyphenols-rutin, chlorogenic and, coffeic acid. Organic acids-iso-butylic, crotonic, caprylic, galacturonic, tartaric, succinic, citric acid. Alkaloids-nicotine, nornicotine. The following components increased as the forced aging progressed. Sugars-frutose, maltose, raffinose. Amino acids-proline, cystine. Organic acids-formic, acetic, propionic, n-butyric, iso-valeric, n-valeric, malic, oxalic, malonic, ${\alpha}-ketoglutaric$, fumaric, glutaric acid. 7) During the forced aging of tobacco Leaves the oxygen-uptake decreased gradually. The enzyme activities of polyphenol oxidase, ${\beta}-amylase$ ${\alpha}-amylase$ decreased gradually. The activities of the enzymes, catalase, and invertase increased once then decreased at the later stage.

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