• Title, Summary, Keyword: tissue microarray

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Exploiting cDNA Microarray-Based Approach Combined with RT-PCR Analysis to Monitor the Radiation Effect: Antioxidant Gene Response of ex vivo Irradiated Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte

  • Sung, Myung-Hui;Jun, Hyun-Jung;Hwang, Seung-Yong;Hwang, Jae-Hoon;Park, Jong-Hoon;Han, Mi-Young;Lee, U-Youn;Park, Eun-Mi;Park, Young-Mee
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.142-148
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    • 2002
  • Although ionizing radiation (IR) has been used to treat the various human cancers, IR is cytotoxic not only to cancer cells but to the adjacent normal tissue. Since normal tissue complications are the limiting factor of cancer radiotherapy, one of the major concerns of IR therapy is to maximize the cancer cell killing and to minimize the toxic side effects on the adjacent normal tissue. As an attempt to develop a method to monitor the degree of radiation exposure to normal tissues during radiotherapy, we investigated the transcriptional responses of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) following IR using cDNA microarray chip containing 1,221 (1.2 K) known genes. Since conventional radiotherapy is delivered at about 24 h intervals at 180 to 300 cGy/day, we analyzed the transcriptional responses ex-vivo irradiated human PBL at 200 cGy for 24 h-period. We observed and report on 1) a group of genes transiently induced early after IR at 2 h, 2) of genes induced after IR at 6 h, 3) of genes induced after IR at 24 h and on 4) a group of genes whose expression patters were not changed after IR. Since Biological consequences of IR involve generation of various reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thus oxidative stress induced by the ROS is known to damage normal tissues during radiotherapy, we further tested the temporal expression profiles of genes involved in ROS modulation by RT-PCR. Specific changes of 6 antioxidant genes were identified in irradiated PBL among 9 genes tested. Our results suggest the potential of monitoring post-radiotherapy changes in temporal expression profiles of a specific set of genes as a measure of radiation effects on normal tissues. This type of approach should yield more useful information when validated in in vivo irradiated PBL from the cancer patients.

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Cilostazol Promotes the Migration of Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells (Cilostazol에 의한 뇌혈관내피세포의 세포이동 증진 효과연구)

  • Lee, Sae-Won;Park, Jung Hwa;Shin, Hwa Kyoung
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.12
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    • pp.1367-1375
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    • 2016
  • Cilostazol is known to be a selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase III and is generally used to treat stroke. Our previous findings showed that cilostazol enhanced capillary density through angiogenesis after focal cerebral ischemia. Angiogenesis is an important physiological process for promoting revascularization to overcome tissue ischemia. It is a multistep process consisting of endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tubular structure formation. Here, we examined the modulatory effect of cilostazol at each step of the angiogenic mechanism by using human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs). We found that cilostazol increased the migration of HBMECs in a dose-dependent manner. However, it did not enhance HBMEC proliferation and capillary-like tube formation. We used a cDNA microarray to analyze the mechanisms of cilostazol in cell migration. We picked five candidate genes that were potentially related to cell migration, and we confirmed the gene expression levels by real-time PCR. The genes phosphoserine aminotransferase 1 (PSAT1) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ${\beta}$ ($C/EBP{\beta}$) were up-regulated. The genes tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 (TFPI2), retinoic acid receptor responder 1 (RARRES1), and RARRES3 were down-regulated. Our observations suggest that cilostazol can promote angiogenesis by promoting endothelial migration. Understanding the cilostazol-modulated regulatory mechanisms in brain endothelial cells may help stimulate blood vessel formation for the treatment of ischemic diseases.

Expression of Tiam1 in Lung Cancer and its Clinical Significance

  • Wang, Hong-Ming;Wang, Jing
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.613-615
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    • 2012
  • The aim of this study was to ana1yze T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis-inducing factor 1 (Tiam1) expression in 1ung cancer patients. A total of 204 patients with lung cancer tissue lesions were enrolled in the present study, along with 40 cases of normal lung tissue and 40 of normal fetal lung tissue. Tiam1 protein expression level was determined using intensity quantitative analysis, for comparison in lung cancer, metastatic, normal lung, and fetal lung tissue. The positive unit (PU) of Tiam1 was $13.5{\pm}5.42$ in lung cancer,$5.67{\pm}1.56$ in norma1 epithelial cells, and $5.89{\pm}1.45$ in fetal lung epithelial cells. The value in the lung cancer tissue was significantly higher than that in the normal lung tissue and the fetal lung tissue (P<0.01). The Tiam1 PU values with lymph node metastasis and without 1ymph node metastasis were $15.2{\pm}4.34$ and $12.5{\pm}4.23$, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The Tiam1 PU values in different tumor, nodes, metastasis (TNM) stages, III-IV period, and I-II phase were $14.7{\pm}4.14$ and $11.0{\pm}5.34$ (P<0.05). A correlation was found between Tiam1 expression and the age of patient, tumor size, tumor type, and tumor differentiation. Tiam1 protein expression in the lung tumor tissue is significantly higher than that in the normal lung tissue and fetal lung tissue. Tiam1 expression may be closely related to lung cancer development and metastasis.

Survey of Genes Responsive to Long-Term Heat Stress Using a cDNA Microarray Analysis in Mud Loach (Misgurnus mizolepis) Liver (장기 고온 스트레스에 대한 미꾸라지(Misgurnus mizolepis) 간 조직 내 유전자 발현 반응의 cDNA microarray 분석)

  • Cho, Young Sun;Lee, Sang Yoon;Noh, Choong Hwan;Nam, Yoon Kwon;Kim, Dong Soo
    • Korean Journal of Ichthyology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.65-77
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    • 2006
  • Gene transcripts potentially responsive to the heat stress were surveyed by cDNA microarray analysis in mud loach (Misgurnus mizolepis). Transcriptional profiles of hepatic tissue in the fish exposed to either $23^{\circ}C$ or $32^{\circ}C$ for 4 weeks were compared each other by 3 replicated hybridization assays using 1,124 unigene clones selected from mud loach liver expressed sequence tags (ESTs). A total of 93 clones showed the substantially increased mRNA levels (>2-fold) in $32^{\circ}C$-exposed group when compared in $23^{\circ}C$control group. It includes various enzymes and proteins involved in energy pathway, protease/protein metabolisms, immune/antioxidant functions, cytoskeleton/cell structure, transport and/or signal transduction. Maximum level of increase was up to 15-fold relative to $23^{\circ}C$ treatment. Heat exposure also resulted in the significant decrease (less than 50% relative to $23^{\circ}C$-exposed fish) of the transcriptional activities in 85 genes. Besides the above categories, yolk protein (vitellogenin) and ribosomal proteins were notably down regulated in the fish exposed to heat stress. A number of novel gene transcripts were also detected in both up-regulated and down-regulated groups.

Identification of Cuts-specific Myogenic Marker Genes in Hanwoo by DNA Microarray (DNA Microarray 분석을 통한 한우 부위별 특이 마커 유전자의 발굴)

  • Lee, Eun-Ju;Shin, Yu-Mi;Lee, Hyun-Jeong;Yoon, Du-Hak;Chun, Tae-Hoon;Lee, Yong-Seok;Choi, In-Ho
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.329-336
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    • 2010
  • Myogenic satellite cells (MSCs) are mononuclear, multipotent progenitors of adult skeletal muscle possessing a capacity of forming adipocyte-like cells (ALC). To identify the skeletal muscle type-specific myogenic and adipogenic genes during MSCs differentiation, total RNA was extracted from bovine MSCs, myotube-formed cell (MFC), and ALC from each of Beef shank, Longissimus dorsi, Deep pectoral, and Semitendinosus. DNA microarray analysis (24,000 oligo chip) comparing MSCs with MFC and ALC, respectively, revealed 135 differentially expressed genes (> 4 fold) among four cuts. Real-time PCR confirmed expression of 29 genes. Furthermore, the whole tissue sample RNAs analysis showed 6 differentially expressed genes in Beef shank. Among which, 1 gene in MSCs, 4 in MFC, and 1 in ALCs were highly expressed. This study will provide an insight for better understanding the molecular mechanism of differentiation of skeletal muscle type-specific MSCs. The identified genes may be used as marker to distinguish skeletal muscle types.

Characterization of the MicroRNA Expression Profile of Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma Metastases

  • Ding, Hui;Wu, Yi-Lin;Wang, Ying-Xia;Zhu, Fu-Fan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.1675-1679
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    • 2014
  • Objectives: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of many physiological and pathological processes, including tumorigenesis and metastasis. In this study, we sought to determine the underlying molecular mechanisms of metastatic cervical carcinoma by performing miRNA profiling. Methods: Tissue samples were collected from ten cervical squamous cancer patients who underwent hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node (PLN) dissection in our hospital, including four PLN-positive (metastatic) cases and six PLN-negative (non-metastatic) cases. A miRNA microarray platform with 1223 probes was used to determine the miRNA expression profiles of these two tissue types and case groups. MiRNAs having at least 4-fold differential expression between PLN-positive and PLN-negative cervical cancer tissues were bioinformatically analyzed for target gene prediction. MiRNAs with tumor-associated target genes were validated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: Thirty-nine miRNAs were differentially expressed (>4-fold) between the PLN-positive and PLN-negative groups, of which, 22 were up-regulated and 17 were down-regulated. Sixty-nine percent of the miRNAs (27/39) had tumor-associated target genes, and the expression levels of six of those (miR-126, miR-96, miR-144, miR-657, miR-490-5p, and miR-323-3p) were confirmed by quantitative (q)RT-PCR. Conclusions: Six MiRNAs with predicted tumor-associated target genes encoding proteins that are known to be involved in cell adhesion, cytoskeletal remodeling, cell proliferation, cell migration, and apoptosis were identified. These findings suggest that a panel of miRNAs may regulate multiple and various steps of the metastasis cascade by targeting metastasis-associated genes. Since these six miRNAs are predicted to target tumor-associated genes, it is likely that they contribute to the metastatic potential of cervical cancer and may aid in prognosis or molecular therapy.

Expression of HERC4 in Lung Cancer and its Correlation with Clinicopathological Parameters

  • Zeng, Wen-Li;Chen, Yao-Wu;Zhou, Hui;Zhou, Jue-Yu;Wei, Min;Shi, Rong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.513-517
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    • 2015
  • Background: Growing evidence suggests that the members of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) are important for tumorigenesis. HERC4, one component, is a recently identified ubiqutin ligase. However, the expression level and function role of HERC4 in lung cancer remain unknown. Our objective was to investigate any correlation between HERC4 and development of lung cancer and its clinical significance. Materials and Methods: To determine HERC4 expression in lung cancer, an immunohistochemistry analysis of a tissue microarray containing samples of 10 lung normal tissues, 15 pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinomas, 45 squamous epithelial cancers and 50 adenocarcinomas was conducted. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was applied to obtain a cut-off point of 52.5%, above which the expression of HERC4 was regarded as "positive". Results: On the basis of ROC curve analysis, positive expression of HERC4 was detected in 0/10 (0.0%) of lung normal tissues, in 4/15 (26.7%) of pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinomas, in 13/45 (28.9%) of squamous epithelial cancers and in 19/50 (38.0%) of adenocarcinomas. It showed that lung tumors expressed more HERC4 protein than adjacent normal tissues (${\chi}^2$=4.675, p=0.031). Furthermore, HERC4 positive expression had positive correlation with pT status (${\chi}^2$=44.894, p=0.000), pN status (${\chi}^2$=43.628, p=0.000), histological grade (${\chi}^2$=7.083, p=0.029) and clinical stage (${\chi}^2$=72.484, p=0.000), but not age (${\chi}^2$=0.910, p=0.340). Conclusions: Our analysis suggested that HERC4 is likely to be a diagnostic biomarker for lung cancer.

Expression Pattern of KLF4 in Korean Gastric Cancers (한국인 위암에서 KLF4 단백 발현 양상)

  • Song, Jae-Hwi;Cho, Yong-Gu;Kim, Chang-Jae;Park, Cho-Hyun;Kim, Su-Young;Nam, Suk-Woo;Lee, Sug-Hyung;Yoo, Nam-Jin;Lee, Jung-Young;Park, Won-Sang
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.200-205
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: KLF4, a member of the KLF family, is a zinc finger tumor suppressor protein that is critical for gastric epithelial homeostasis. Our aim was to determine whether the altered expression of KLF4 might be associated with gastric cancer development and, if so, to determine to which pathologic parameter it is linked. Materials and Methods: For the construction of the gastric cancer tissue microarray, 84 paraffin-embedded tissues containing gastric cancer areas were cored 3 times and transferred to the recipient master block. The expression pattern of KLF4 was examined on tissue microarray slides by using immunohistochemistry and was compared with pathologic parameters, including histologic type, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, and peritoneal dissemination. Results: The KLF4 protein was expressed in cytoplasm and nucleus of superficial and foveolar epithelial cells in the normal gastric mucosa. We found markedly reduced or loss of KLF4 expression in 43 (51.2%) of the 84 gastric cancer tissues. There was no significant correlation between KLF4 expression and pathologic parameters, including histologic type, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis and peritoneal dissemination. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that altered expression of KLF4 may contribute to abnormal regulation of gastrointestinal epithelial cell growth and differentiation and to the development of Korean gastric cancer, as an early event.

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The Role of Immunohistochemical Biomarkers as Prognostic Factors by the Use of a Tissue Microarray in Breast Cancer Patients Under 45-years-old (45세 이하의 유방암환자에서 조직미세배열법을 이용한 면역조직화학적 생체표지자의 역할)

  • Kim, Eun-Seog;Choi, Doo-Ho;Jin, So-Young;Lee, Dong-Wha;Park, Hee-Sook;Lee, Min-Hyuk;Won, Jong-Ho;Kim, Yong-Ho;Lee, Kyu-Taek;Kim, Sung-Yong
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.45-55
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: This study evaluates the association of estrogen receptor(ER), progesterone receptor(PR), Her-2, COX-2, and survivin with the clinicopathological features and outcomes in young Korean women with breast cancer using recently developed tissue microarray(TMA) technology. Materials and Methods: A cohort of 212 young patients with breast cancer diagnosed at the age of 45 years or younger from March 1994 to August 2005, were enrolled in this study. The age range of patients was $23{\sim}45$ years(median age, 39 years). The minimum and median follow-up periods were 24 months and 60 months, respectively. Serial sections of primary tumors were processed by the use of a TMA for immunohistochemical staining for five biomarkers. The correlation of these five biomarkers and the clinicopathological features and outcomes were analyzed by statistical methods. Results: The majority of the patients were stage T1(90 patients) or T2(101 patients), and 105 patients(49.5%) had an axillary node metastasis. The 5-year overall and relapse free survival rates for all of the patients were 90.4% and 82.3%, respectively, and 36 patients had a locoregional or distant metastasis as a first event. Positive expression of ER, PR, Her-2, COX-2, and survivin was determined in 38.2%, 45.3%, 25.9%, 41.5%, and 43.4%, of the tumor samples, respectively. Tumor stage, nodal status, age, as well as expression of ER, PR, and HER-2 status were significantly associated with the disease free survival rate. Tumor stage, nodal status, as well as expression of ER, PR, and HER-2 were significantly related with the overall survival rate. Expression of COX-2 and survivin were not single independent prognostic factors for the disease free and overall survival rate although co-expression of HER-2 and COX-2 had a tendency as a poor prognostic factor. By multivariate analysis, only T stage and lymph node status were significant prognostic factors, and ER status was a marginally significant prognostic factor(p=0.075). Conclusion: Expression of ER, PR and HER-2 were significant prognostic factors for the relapse free and overall survival rate. Expression of COX-2 and survivin were not prognostic factors for young women with breast cancer.