• Title, Summary, Keyword: tissue microarray

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Analysis of Thymosin β4 and Vascular Endothelial Cell Growth Factor (VEGF) Expression in Normal Human Tissues Using Tissue Microarray (Tissue microarray를 이용한 사이모신 베타4(Thymosin β4)와 vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF)의 정상 인간 조직 발현 양상 연구)

  • Ock, Mee-Sun;Cha, Hee-Jae
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.19 no.12
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    • pp.1777-1786
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    • 2009
  • Thymosin ${\beta}4$, a small protein containing 43 amino acids, has multi-functional roles in cell physiology. It was first identified as a thymic maturation factor and recently has been shown to accelerate wound healing, hair growth, angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis. It was also reported to play a key role in developing organs, including the nervous system and heart. Thymosin ${\beta}4$ induces the expression of vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF), laminin-5, and other important biologically active genes. Using tissue microarray analysis, we investigated the expression patterns of thymosin ${\beta}4$ and VEGF in various normal human adult tissues. Thymosin ${\beta}4$ was highly expressed in the liver, pancreas, ductal epithelium of the salivary gland, and heart, and moderately expressed in the skin, lung, spleen, lymph node, thymus, ureter, and blood endothelial cells in both the lung and adrenal gland. The expression of VEGF generally co-localized with thymosin ${\beta}4$ and VEGF was highly expressed in the pancreas, ureter, mammary gland, liver, esophagus, and blood endothelial cells in both the lung and adrenal gland. These results suggest that thymosin ${\beta}4$ plays an important role in the function of various organs and since the expression pattern of thymosin ${\beta}4$ co-localized with VEGF, part of that function may be to induce or maintain angiogenesis.

Analysis of Hemocyte-specific Gene Expression from Bombyx mori

  • Park, Seung-Won;Goo, Tae-Won;Kim, Seong-Ryul;Kang, Seok-Woo
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.137-141
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    • 2011
  • A previous data was provided information for tissuespecific expression genes by means of whole-genome oligonucleotide microarray in the silkworm. We analyzed the tissue-specific expression patterns in the hemocyte tissue on 5 days of 5th instar larvae during the development of $B.$ $mori$. Total 5 candidates pick out from the $Bombyx$ $mori$ Microarray Database (BmMDB; http://silkworm.swu.edu.cn/microarray). To verify the hemocyte-specific expression, we analyzed by semi-quantitative and real-time quantitative RT-PCR using the highly expressed endogenous $Actin$ RNA as an intrinsic reference. In this study, we confirmed that one gene-sw17255- out of 5 candidates expressed in the hemocyte tissue, which was consistent with the previous data. Circulating hemocytes in the body fluid of the $B.$ $mori$ are most powerful target organ for producing biomaterials. We need further studies to find hemocyte-specific promoter region from sw17255 gene. Finally, this result can be applied in creating transgenic silkworms as a biomedical insect.

Construction of Ovine Customer cDNA Chip and Analysis of Gene Expression Patterns in the Muscle and Fat Tissues of Native Korean Cattle (cDNA microarray를 이용하여 한우의 근육과 지방조직의 유전자 발현 패턴 분석 및 bovine customer cDNA chip 구성 연구)

  • Han, Kyung Ho;Choi, Eun Young;Hong, Yeon-Hee;Kim, Jae Yeong;Choi, In Soon;Lee, Sang-Suk;Choi, Yun Jaie;Cho, Kwang Keun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.376-384
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    • 2015
  • To investigate the molecular events of controlling intramuscular fat (or marbling), which is an important factor in the evaluation of beef quality, we performed cDNA microarray analyses using the longissimus dorsi muscle and back fat tissues. For this study, we constructed normalized cDNA libraries: fat tissues in native Korean cattle (displaying 1,211 specific genes), and muscle tissues in native Korean cattle (displaying 1,346 specific genes). A bovine cDNA chip was constructed with 1,680 specific genes, consisting of 760 genes from muscle tissues and 920 genes from fat tissues. The microarray analysis in this experiment showed a number of differentially expressed genes, which compared the longissimus dorsi muscle (Cy5) with back fat tissue (Cy3). Among many specific differentially expressed genes, 12-lipoxygenase (oxidizing esterified fatty acids) and prostaglandin D synthase (differentiation of fibroblasts to adipocytes) are the key candidate enzymes that should be involved in controlling the accumulation of intramuscular fat. In this study, differentially and commonly expressed genes in the muscle and fat tissues of native Korean cattle were found in large numbers, using the hybridization assay. The expression levels of the selected genes were confirmed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, and the results were similar to those of the cDNA microarray.

Analysis of the Expression Patterns of Thymosin β4, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α in Various Tumors Using Tissue Microarray (Tissue microarray를 이용한 여러 암에서의 thymosin β4, vascular endothelial growth factor, 및 hypoxia-inducible factor-1α 발현양상 연구)

  • Lee, Bo-Young;Lee, Seung-Hyun;Ahn, Byung-Kwon;Ock, Mee-Sun;Cha, Hee-Jae
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.417-423
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    • 2011
  • Thymosin ${\beta}4$ (TB-4) has been reported to play a key role in tumor growth, metastasis and angiogenesis. In addition, TB-4 induced the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and stabilized the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-$1{\alpha}$ in melanoma cells. Although the importance of thymosin ${\beta}4$ in angiogenesis and metastasis has been proven, there are few studies that show the expression patterns of TB-4, VEGF and HIF-$1{\alpha}$. This study was conducted to analyze the relationship among these proteins in various tumors. Using tissue microarray analysis, we investigated the expression patterns of TB-4, VEGF and HIF-$1{\alpha}$ in various tumors to identify the expression patterns and relationships of these proteins in certain tumors. TB-4 was highly expressed in osteosarcoma, colon adenocarcinoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, kidney and urinary bladder transitional carcinoma, lung cancer, and liver cancer. HIF-$1{\alpha}$ was highly expressed in nasal cavity inverted papilloma, lung cancer, and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The expression patterns of TB-4 and HIF-$1{\alpha}$ were almost similar and co-localized. VEGF expression was high in the blood vessels in tumors, but usually not high in the tumors themselves. VEGF was moderately expressed in stomach cancer, liver angiosarcoma, gall bladder adenocarcinoma, and uterus endometrial adenocarcinoma. The expression patterns of VEGF shows similarities in certain tumors including stomach cancer, osteosarcoma, liposarcoma, lung cancer, liver cancer, gall bladder adenocarcinoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, stomach cancer, colorectal carcinoma and renal cell carcinoma. These results suggest that the expression patterns of TB-4, HIF-$1{\alpha}$ and VEGF were co-localized and related to tumorigenesis and angiogenesis of certain tumors.

Analysis and Subclass Classification of Microarray Gene Expression Data Using Computational Biology (전산생물학을 이용한 마이크로어레이의 유전자 발현 데이터 분석 및 유형 분류 기법)

  • Yoo, Chang-Kyoo;Lee, Min-Young;Kim, Young-Hwang;Lee, In-Beum
    • Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
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    • v.11 no.10
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    • pp.830-836
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    • 2005
  • Application of microarray technologies which monitor simultaneously the expression pattern of thousands of individual genes in different biological systems results in a tremendous increase of the amount of available gene expression data and have provided new insights into gene expression during drug development, within disease processes, and across species. There is a great need of data mining methods allowing straightforward interpretation, visualization and analysis of the relevant information contained in gene expression profiles. Specially, classifying biological samples into known classes or phenotypes is an important practical application for microarray gene expression profiles. Gene expression profiles obtained from tissue samples of patients thus allowcancer classification. In this research, molecular classification of microarray gene expression data is applied for multi-class cancer using computational biology such gene selection, principal component analysis and fuzzy clustering. The proposed method was applied to microarray data from leukemia patients; specifically, it was used to interpret the gene expression pattern and analyze the leukemia subtype whose expression profiles correlated with four cases of acute leukemia gene expression. A basic understanding of the microarray data analysis is also introduced.

Gene Expression Profile in Epididymal Adipose Tissue from High-fat Diet Fed Mice (고지방식이를 섭취한 mouse에서의 유전자군의 발현양상 변화)

  • Cha, Min-Ho;Kim, Kyung-Seon;Sim, Woong-Seop;Yoon, Yoo-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Oriental Medicine
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.75-84
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    • 2002
  • Obesity can be defined as a metabolic disease due to a increased state of fat tissue caused by an imbalance of calorie intake and use. To define genes that affected by different nutrient, we study gene expression from mice which were fed different nutrient. Epididymal and retro-peritineal adipose tissue were increase in high fat diet feeding mice compared with control, but liver and spleen were not. In serum, total cholesterol were differently increase in high fat diet feeding mice but total triglyceride and free fatty acid were not. That was maybe result of energy balance regulation in vivo system. aP2, PPART2 and FAS genes that were increased during adipogenesis were inclosed in high fat diet fed mice compared with control. In microarray assay, 1.4% of total genes were affected in epididymal adipose tissue by different nutrient. 1.1% of total genes were decreased down 0.5 fold and 0.3% were increased over 2 fold. These results indicated that many genes are affected in adipose tissue by nutrient.

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Gene Expression Profiling of Liver and Mammary Tissues of Lactating Dairy Cows

  • Baik, M.;Etchebarne, B.E.;Bong, J.;VandeHaar, M.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.871-884
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    • 2009
  • Gene expression profiling is a useful tool for identifying critical genes and pathways in metabolism. The objective of this study was to determine the major differences in the expression of genes associated with metabolism and metabolic regulation in liver and mammary tissues of lactating cows. We used the Michigan State University bovine metabolism (BMET) microarray; previously, we have designed a bovine metabolism-focused microarray containing known genes of metabolic interest using publicly available genomic internet database resources. This is a high-density array of 70mer oligonucleotides representing 2,349 bovine genes. The expression of 922 genes was different at p<0.05, and 398 genes (17%) were differentially expressed by two-fold or more with 222 higher in liver and 176 higher in mammary tissue. Gene ontology categories with a high percentage of genes more highly expressed in liver than mammary tissues included carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis, glucoenogenesis, propanoate metabolism, butanoate metabolism, electron carrier and donor activity), lipid metabolism (fatty acid oxidation, chylomicron/lipid transport, bile acid metabolism, cholesterol metabolism, steroid metabolism, ketone body formation), and amino acid/nitrogen metabolism (amino acid biosynthetic process, amino acid catabolic process, urea cycle, and glutathione metabolic process). Categories with more genes highly expressed in mammary than liver tissue included amino acid and sugar transporters and MAPK, Wnt, and JAK-STAT signaling pathways. Real-time PCR analysis showed consistent results with those of microarray analysis for all 12 genes tested. In conclusion, microarray analyses clearly identified differential gene expression profiles between hepatic and mammary tissues that are consistent with the differences in metabolism of these two tissues. This study enables understanding of the molecular basis of metabolic adaptation of the liver and mammary gland during lactation in bovine species.

GENE EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF THE DENTAL PULP IN HEALTHY AND CARIES TEETH (치아 우식증에 따른 치수내 유전자 발현 변화에 관한 분석)

  • Oh, So-Hee;Kim, Jong-Soo
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.275-287
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    • 2010
  • Deep caries may induce pulpitis and the pulpal tissue interacts with microbial invasion. The immune response to protect the pulpal tissue can be mediated by cellular signal molecules produced by the pulpal cells. The understanding of these processes is important to find future therapeutic method for the diseased pulp. The pulp tissue from sound teeth was set as control group (n=30) and the pulp tissue from decayed teeth was set as test group (n=30). Total RNA was extracted from the pulp of each group and it was used for cDNA microarray and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). The expression of TGF-${\beta}1$ was studied by immunohistochemistry. The results were as follows: 1. cDNA microarray analysis identified 520 genes with 6-fold or greater difference in expression level with 143 genes more abundant in health and 377 genes more abundant in disease. 2. The RT-PCR analysis was done for randomly selected 14 genes and the results supported the result of cDNA microarray assay. 3. TGF-${\beta}1$ was highly expressed in the carious pulp and it was found in odontoblast by immunohistochemistry. In conclusion, many cytokines were found to be significantly changed their expression in the diseased pulp(/M/>1.6).

Evaluation of HER-2/neu Overexpression in Gastric Carcinoma using a Tissue Microarray

  • Rakhshani, Nasser;Kalantari, Elham;Bakhti, Hadi;Sohrabi, Masoud Reza;Mehrazma, Mitra
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.18
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    • pp.7597-7602
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    • 2014
  • Background: Amplification and overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) oncogene has considerable prognostic value in breast and gastric cancers. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency, overexpression pattern, clinical significance, and concordance between the results for protein expression and gene amplification of HER-2/neu in gastric and gastro-esophageal junction carcinomas. Materials and Methods: In this study, 101 gastric tissue samples which were included in tissue microarray were immunohistochemically examined for overexpression of HER2/neu. Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) was used for HER-2/neu amplification. The correlation of HER2/neu amplification with clinicopathological parameters was also assessed. In addition, concordance between CISH and IHC was detected. Results: This study demonstrated a significant difference in the overexpression of HER2/neu in gastric tumors. The overexpression of HER2/neu was significantly higher in intestinal type, poorly differentiated grade, large size ($5cm{\leq}$) and positive nodal involvement tumors (p-value=0.041, 0.015, 0.038 and 0.071, respectively). Also, amplification of HER2/neu according to CISH test, had a significant positive correlation with tumor size and tumor type (p-value=0.018 and 0.058, respectively).Concordance between CISH and IHC was 76.9% in 101 evaluable samples. Conclusions: IHC/CISH differences were attributed to basolateral membranous immunoreactivity of glandular cells resulting in incomplete membranous reactivity and/or a higher rate of tumor heterogeneity in gastric cancers compared to breast cancers. Therefore, this can be a potential marker for targeted therapy of malignant gastric tumors.

High Quality Tissue Miniarray Technique Using a Conventional TV/Radio Telescopic Antenna

  • Elkablawy, Mohamed A.;Albasri, Abdulkader M.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.1129-1133
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    • 2015
  • Background: The tissue microarray (TMA) is widely accepted as a fast and cost-effective research tool for in situ tissue analysis in modern pathology. However, the current automated and manual TMA techniques have some drawbacks restricting their productivity. Our study aimed to introduce an improved manual tissue miniarray (TmA) technique that is simple and readily applicable to a broad range of tissue samples. Materials and Methods: In this study, a conventional TV/radio telescopic antenna was used to punch tissue cores manually from donor paraffin embedded tissue blocks which were pre-incubated at $40^{\circ}C$. The cores were manually transferred, organized and attached to a standard block mould, and filled with liquid paraffin to construct TmA blocks without any use of recipient paraffin blocks. Results: By using a conventional TV/radio antenna, it was possible to construct TmA paraffin blocks with variable formats of array size and number ($2-mm{\times}42$, $2.5-mm{\times}30$, $3-mm{\times}24$, $4-mm{\times}20$ and $5-mm{\times}12$ cores). Up to $2-mm{\times}84$ cores could be mounted and stained on a standard microscopic slide by cutting two sections from two different blocks and mounting them beside each other. The technique was simple and caused minimal damage to the donor blocks. H&E and immunostained slides showed well-defined tissue morphology and array configuration. Conclusions: This technique is easy to reproduce, quick, inexpensive and creates uniform blocks with abundant tissues without specialized equipment. It was found to improve the stability of the cores within the paraffin block and facilitated no losses during cutting and immunostaining.