• Title/Summary/Keyword: thermal processing

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Studies on the Processings of Sterilized Salt-Fermented Anchovy Sauces (멸치액젓의 레토르트 식품화에 관한 연구)

  • Oh, Kwang-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.1038-1044
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    • 1996
  • The salt-fermented anchovy sauce (AS) was packed in round No. 307-1 can, and thermally processed at $121.1^{\circ}C$ to obtain Fo values of 3, 5 and 10. The changes of food components and qualifies by thermal processing of sterilized AS (RAS) were examined. The compositions of AS were as followed; pH 6.81, VBN 394.7 mg/100g, total nitrogen 2,195.5 mg%, amino-nitrogen 1,010.5 mg%, and acidity 10.5 ml. Viable cell counts of AS on 0%, 5%, 20% NaCl-medium were $2.9{\times}10^3,\;9.1{\times}10^3$ and not detected, respectively. And viable cell counts of RAS were not detected. Acidity, total nitrogen and amino nitrogen contents of AS decreased slightly with the severeness of heat treatments, whereas pH and VBN content were increased. Total free amino acid contents of raw AS and RAS were 12,802.5 mg% and $11,212.6{\sim}12,105.4\;mg%$, and major amino acids were alanine, glutamic acid, leucine, isoleucine, valine and lysine. Also contents of IMP, hypoxanthine, TMAO and TMA in AS and RAS were 42.1 mg% and $35.5{\sim}40.9\;mg%$, 103.7 mg% and $103.1{\sim}105.5\;mg%$, 78.8 mg% and $58.2{\sim}71.6\;mg%$, 55.8 mg% and $58.9{\sim}68.5\;mg%$ respectively. And a little changes were observed in whole volatile components of AS with severeness of heat treatments by GC chromatogram patterns. Judging from the chemical and sensory evaluations, the Fo 3 heat treatment sample was not inferior to raw AS, and maintained good quality for 1 year storage.

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Physicochemical Characteristics of Black Garlic (Allium sativum L.) (흑마늘의 이화학적 특성)

  • Choi, Duk-Ju;Lee, Soo-Jung;Kang, Min-Jung;Cho, Hee-Sook;Sung, Nak-Ju;Shin, Jung-Hye
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.465-471
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    • 2008
  • Physicochemical characteristics of black garlic were analyzed. Colorimetry measurement showed that the black garlic, compared with fresh and steamed garlics, was the highest in a value and the lowest in L and b values. Crude lipid, crude protein, and total sugars were the highest in black garlic, which was followed by steamed and fresh garlic. On the other hand, moisture content was the lowest in the black garlic and the highest in the fresh garlic. The pH of garlics was ca. 6.8, 6.5, and 4.4 in fresh, steamed, and black garlic, respectively, which indicated that garlics tended to be acidified with the thermal processing. Total pyruvate and total thiosulfinates were the lowest in steamed garlic ($77{\mu}mol$/g and 0.07 OD/g for each) and the highest in black garlic ($278{\mu}mol$/g and 0.77 OD/g). Arabinose and galactose were detected only in black garlic and their contents were 1.6 and 13 mg/100 g, respectively. Free sugars such as glucose, sucrose and fructose were the highest in the order of fresh, steamed, and black garlic. Potassium was a predominant mineral in all garlics, constituting 76% of total minerals. Glutamic acid, arginine, and aspartic acid were the major composition amino acids in all garlics, regardless of processing conditions. 15 kinds of free amino acids were detected in fresh and steamed garlic, while five more free amino acids, O-phosphoethanolamine, and urea were additionally detected in black garlic.

Changes in Food Components of Dark, White-Fleshed Fishes by Retort Sterilization Processing -1. Changes in Nitrogenous Extractives and Textures- (레토르트 살균처리가 적색육 및 백색육 어류의 성분변화에 미치는 영향 -1. 함질소엑스분 및 텍스튜어의 변화-)

  • OH Kwang-Soo;SUNG Dae-Whan;CHOI Jong-Duck;LEE Eung-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.123-129
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    • 1991
  • The skipjack and Alaska pollack meat were packed in square No. 3B can, and thermally processed at $121.1^{\cir}C$ so far as to reach Fo values of 5, 10 and 20, respectively. Also the another samples which were heated at $98^{\cir}C$ for 30 minutes were prepared. We have examined the changes of nitrogenous extractives and texture by thermal processing at high temperature in both fish meats. Moisture contents of both fish meats decreased slightly with the increasing of Fo values. When the samples were heated at $98^{\cir}C$ and $121.1^{\cir}C$, pH and VBN contents increased markedly in both fish meats; increasing ratio of pH and VBN contents in skipjack meat was larger than those of Alaska pollack meat. Histamine were detected in concentration of 6.1mg/100g, 0.1mg/100g in raw skipjack and Alaska pollack meat, 8.2mg/100g, 0.1mg/100g in Fo 20 samples of these fish meats, respectively. The contents of total free amino acids in skipjack and Alaska polack meat were 984.8mg/100g, 282.3mg/100g, and these total contents decreased slightly with increasing of Fo values. Little changes were observed in free amino acid composition, but only His, Tau, Ala in skipjack meat and Tau in Alaska pollack meat decreased significantly by heat treatment. Also the degredation of IMP were Proceeded during Preparation and heat treatment of samples, and TMAO changed into TMA almost equivalently. In changes of textures, as compared with heating of 98t for 30 minutes; Fo 5 heat treatment became more softened these fish meats.

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