• Title/Summary/Keyword: thermal processing

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Evaluation of Melanoidins Formed from Black Garlic after Different Thermal Processing Steps

  • Kang, Ok-Ju
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.398-405
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of melanoidins formed from black garlic (BG) after different thermal processing steps. The melanoidins formed from BG during thermal processing were produced in large amounts, and the initial (280 nm), intermediate (360 nm), and final stage product (420 nm) had similar tendencies. Compounds like degraded proteins, peptides, and phenolic acids were present in the melanoidins during thermal processing. All the melanoidin samples showed different absorptions in the UV-visible spectra, although these had similar shapes. Moreover, the carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen content of melanoidins formed from BG during thermal processing decreased initially, and then increased. However, the nitrogen content increased during thermal processing. As thermal processing progressed, the molecular weight of all the melanoidin samples showed increasing intensities, whereas the major peaks of each melanoidin sample had different retention times. Furthermore, the melanoidins formed from BG after different thermal processing steps contained -OH, -CH, amide I, and III groups. The crystallinity of the melanoidins was majorly formed at $31.58^{\circ}$ and $43.62^{\circ}$ ($2{\theta}$).

Physicochemical Characteristics of Black Garlic after Different Thermal Processing Steps

  • Kang, Ok-Ju
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.348-354
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    • 2016
  • This study investigated the physicochemical characteristics of black garlic (BG) after different thermal processing steps. Compared with fresh garlic (FG), the moisture content and pH in BG decreased significantly, while the ash content and browning intensity increased during thermal processing. The total mineral and the free sugar contents were significantly higher than that of the BG2 and BG4 samples, respectively. The free sugar content increased by 16-fold in the BG cloves compared with that of FG, while the amino acid content increased during the first stage of thermal processing, and subsequently decreased. The thiosulfinate content in all samples decreased to during thermal processing. The pyruvic acid content initially increased and then decreased during thermal processing. These results contribute to our understanding of the role of thermal processing in the quality formation of BG.

Control of Wafer Temperature Uniformity in Rapid Thermal Processing using an Optimal Iterative teaming Control Technique (최적 반복 학습 제어기법을 이용한 RTP의 웨이퍼 온도균일제어)

  • 이진호;진인식;이광순;최진훈
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.358-358
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    • 2000
  • An iterative learning control technique based on a linear quadratic optimal criterion is proposed for temperature uniformity control of a silicon wafer in rapid thermal processing.

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Effects of High Pressure Treatment on Cured Colour Development and Residual Nitrite Level in Model System

  • Hong, Geun-Pyo;Park, Sung-Hee;Kim, Jee-Yeon;Ko, Se-Hee;Lee, Sung;Min, Sang-Gi
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resources Conference
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    • pp.325-328
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    • 2006
  • In low nitrite level, treatment of combined with pressure and thermal processing improved cured meat colour comparing with that of only thermal processing. However, visual colour of only pressurised treatment could not be improved at low nitrite level. Pressure treatment could develop cured meat colour when high nitrite level was added. Moreover, pressurisation combined with thermal processing decreased nitrite residuals compared to thermal processing. Therefore the results indicated that pressurisation combined with thermal processing had potential benefits in appearance of cured meat products, promising improved food safety.

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Effects of Inoculum Level and Pressure Pulse on the Inactivation of Clostridium sporogenes Spores by Pressure-Assisted Thermal Processing

  • Ahn, Ju-Hee;Balasubramaniam, V.M.
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.616-623
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    • 2007
  • The effects of initial concentration and pulsed pressurization on the inactivation of Clostridium sporogenes spores suspended in deionized water were determined during thermal processing $(TP;\;105^{\circ}C,\;0.1MPa)$ and pressure-assisted thermal processing $(PATP;\;105^{\circ}C\;and\;700MPa)$ treatments for 40 min and 5min holding times, respectively. Different inoculum levels $(10^4,\;10^6\;and\;10^8CFU/ml)$ of C. sporogenes spores suspended in deionized water were treated at $105^{\circ}C$ under 700MPa with single, double, and triple pulses. Thermally treated samples served as control. No statistical significances (p>0.05) were observed among all different inoculum levels during the thermal treatment, whereas the inactivation rates $(k_1\;and\;k_2)$ were decreased with increasing the initial concentrations of C. sporogenes spores during the PATP treatments. Double- and triple-pulsed pressurization reduced more effectively the number of C. sporogenes spores than single-pulse pressurization. The study shows that the spore clumps formed during the PATP may lead to an increase in pressure-thermal resistance, and multiple-pulsed pressurization can be more effective in inactivating bacterial spores. The results provide an interesting insight on the spore inactivation mechanisms with regard to inoculum level and pulsed pressurization.

Changes of Corn Proteins and Lipids induced by Thermal Processing (옥수수 가열가공처리에 의한 단백질 및 지질성분의 변화)

  • Cho, Sung-Hwan;Yoon, Zoo-Lk
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.287-299
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    • 1989
  • This research was conducted in order to investigate thermal stability and nutritional value of corn lipids and proteins during thermal processing. The lipids of raw and popped corn were fractionated and analyzed by column and gas chromatography. The effect of thermal processing on corn proteins was examined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and amino acid analysis. There was no remarkable change in proximate compositions during thermal processing. The lipid fractions obtained by silicic acid column chromatography were composed of neutral lipid(93.5%), glycolipid(3.8%), and phospholipid(2.7%), Although the thermal processing showed the increase in the ratio of unsaturated/saturated fatty acid, there was no significant differences in the lipid composition between raw and popped corn. Most of each protein fractions had lower molecular weight than 25,000 dalton and albumin fractions were distributed in the molecular weight range 11,500-94,000 daltons. Popped corn proteins did not show marked differences in their electrophoretic migrations when compared with raw corn proteins.

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A robust controller design for rapid thermal processing in semiconductor manufacturing

  • Choi, Byung-Wook;Choi, Seong-Gyu;Kim, Dong-Sung;Park, Jae-Hong
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.79-82
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    • 1995
  • The problem of temperature control for rapid thermal processing (RTP) in semiconductor manufacturing is discussed in this paper. Among sub=micron technologies for VLSI devices, reducing the junction depth of doped region is of great importance. This paper investigates existing methods for manufacturing wafers, focusing on the RPT which is considered to be good for formation of shallow junctions and performs the wafer fabrication operation in a single chamber of annealing, oxidation, chemical vapor deposition, etc., within a few minutes. In RTP for semiconductor manufacturing, accurate and uniform control of the wafer temperature is essential. In this paper, a robustr controller is designed using a recently developed optimization technique. The controller designed is then tested via computer simulation and compared with the other results.

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Influence of Sulfur Fertilization on the Antioxidant Activities of Onion Juices Prepared by Thermal Treatment

  • Koh, Eunmi;Surh, Jeonghee
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.160-164
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    • 2016
  • Two onions (Sulfur-1 and Sulfur-4) cultivated with different sulfur applications were thermally processed to elucidate the effects of heat treatment on browning index and antioxidant activity. Sulfur-4 onion had higher sulfur content compared with the Sulfur-1 onion. After thermal processing, browning intensity was different between the two onions juices, with lower values observed for Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that sulfur inhibits the Maillard browning reaction. The total reducing capacity of the juices increased at higher thermal processing temperatures; however, it was also lower in the Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that the heat treatment of onions enhanced their antioxidant activity, but the effect was offset in the Sulfur-4 onion juice presumably due to higher sulfur content. This study indicates that sulfur, a core element for the functionality of onions, can decrease the antioxidant activity of thermally processed onions because of its potential as a Maillard reaction inhibitor.

Analysis of plate deformations in thermal processing using the eigenstrain concept (고유변형율의 개념을 이용한 열가공공정시 판 변형 예측에 관한 연구)

  • 손광재;양영수
    • Proceedings of the KWS Conference
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    • pp.149-151
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    • 2002
  • In this study, a formula for thermal processing induced plate deformations, in terms of process parameters such as heat input and plate thickness, is developed analytically using an infinite laminated plate theory to consider cuboidal inclusion with an eigenstrains. When a plate has arbitrary heating lines, complex deformed shape of plate was calculated by the method estimating plate deformation proposed by this study. To make a curved surface of the ship hull, the line heating method is mainly used. Application in automatization of line heating was deliberate by using proposed method.

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Effects of High Pressure Treatments and Added Binders on the Physico-Chemical Properties of Restructured Pork Meat

  • Hong, Geun-Pyo;Park, Sung-Hee;Kim, Jee-Yeon;Min, Sang-Gi
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resources Conference
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    • pp.131-135
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    • 2005
  • In general, the application of HP contributes to improvement of functionalities of meat protein. In the current study, HP allowed the lower thermal processing of restructured meat product. Low thermal processing allowed fresh-like meat color which is one of problems in hot-set restructuring, while they showed slight discolorization induced by HP. In addition, HP processing combined with thermal processing could be achieved the palatable binding strength in restructured meat product. The addition of non-meat protein had an effect in binding strength. However, they showed no effect on water binding properties at 200 MPa, especially in milk proteins such as casein and whey protein. This is probably due to protein aggregation or to increase in surface hydrophobicity under HP. This result indicates that the application of HP on meat restructuring is more significant than the addition of binders. Therefore, the application of HP has apotential benefit in restructured meat product, and further investigations are needed.

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