• Title, Summary, Keyword: thermal manikin

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Quantification of Thermal Insulation by Clothing Items and Analysis of Influencing Factors (단일의복의 보온력 정량화와 영향 요인)

  • Baek, Yoon Jeong;Hwang, Soo Kyung;Lee, Hyo Hyun;Park, Joonhee;Kim, Do-Hee;Lee, Joo-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.172-182
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of the present study was to quantify the thermal insulation of garments by item and examine factors influencing clothing insulation. A total of 769 garments in clo unit were collected and classified into 12 categories: blouses/shirts (95 items, BS), T-shirts/sweaters (62 items, TS), vest (23 items, VT), cardigans (23 items, CD), jackets/coats (75 items, JC), sport outerwear (including padding jackets)(48 items, SO), trousers (23 items, TR), skirts (56 items, SK), dresses (28 items, DS), underwear (150 items, UW), sleepwear (50 items, SW), and personal protective clothing (59 items, PPC). The results showed that clothing insulation was $0.21{\pm}0.01clo$ for the BS, $0.22{\pm}0.01clo$ for TS, $0.12{\pm}0.00clo$ for VT, $0.23{\pm}0.02clo$ for CD, $0.40{\pm}0.02clo$ for JC, $0.49{\pm}0.03clo$ for SO, $0.21{\pm}0.01clo$ for TR, $0.18{\pm}0.01clo$ for SK, $0.34{\pm}0.03clo$ for DS, $0.09{\pm}0.01clo$ for UW, $0.42{\pm}0.03clo$ for SW, and $0.56{\pm}0.03clo$ for PPC (p<.001). The most influential factors among the seven factors for thermal insulation of garments were clothing weight and covering area; however, the explanatory powers of two factors differed according to clothing categories. The covering area had more significant impact on clothing insulation in cardigans, jackets/coats, trousers, and dresses than clothing weight. Covering areas and clothing weight were the most influential factors in the following categories: blouses/shirt, T-shirts/sweaters, skirts, sleepwear and personal protective clothing. The garment weight was the most important factor for thermal insulation for the sport outerwear.

Evaluation of Thermal Insulation and Hypothermia for Development of Life Raft (해상 구명정의 단열성능평가 및 저체온증 예측 수치해석 연구)

  • Hwang, Se-Yun;Jang, Ho-Sang;Kim, Kyung-Woo;Lee, Jang-Hyun
    • Journal of Navigation and Port Research
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.485-491
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    • 2015
  • The technology review about risk of hypothermia of victim according to heat transfer characteristic of life raft and sea state can use accident correspondence of standing and sinking of ship. This study studied heat transfer characteristics required for the design of life raft and thermal insulation property analysis and evaluation methods. In addition, it is study for comprehend the risk of hypothermia and suggest analysis result that is experiment of thermal insulation property and body temperature property for decide of prediction the body temperature decline Thermal Analysis apply the finite element analysis method is comprehended the property of heat conductivity, convective effect of sea water and properties changes according to property of insulation material. it measure the heat flux with attach temperature sensor on body in order to comprehend the variation of body temperature with boarding a life raft experiment on a human body. This study validate results by comparing variation of temperature measured from experiment on a body with variation of temperature from finite element analysis model. Also, the criteria of hypothermia was discussed through result of finite element analysis.

A Study on the Mechanical and Comfort Performances of the Working Uniform for a Volunteer Fire Brigade Member (의용소방대용 근무복 소재의 역학적 특성 및 쾌적성에 관한 연구)

  • Kwon, Myoung-Sook;Shim, Huen-Sup;Kwon, Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.57 no.3
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    • pp.53-62
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate mechanical and comfort performances of the material for the improved working uniform for a volunteer fire brigade member, to get basic data for its evaluation and to help its material and design development. The results were as follows; The material of the newly developed working uniform was thinner and lighter than the material of the current used working uniform. It had better breathability, air permeability and heat transmission rate than the current one. It also had superior anti-flammability In all mechanical properties(tensile, bending, shearing, compression and surface properties), it showed better performances than the current one. It elongated and bended easier and more in both warp and weft directions. The elastic recovery and shape stability after elongation were also higher. The recovery and resistance to shearing and the resiliency and recovery after compression were also better than the current one. It was more flexible, softer and smoother in primary hand value, and was more suitable for the material for winter suit which needs softness and fullness in total hand value. The material of the improved working uniform showed lower thermal insulation value and higher evaporative resistance value compared to the material of the currently used working uniform from the sweating thermal manikin test. It was shown that the physical performances and the hand value of the textile material used in the newly developed working uniform for a volunteer fiber brigade member was improved compared to the one used in the currently used working uniform.

Development and Evaluation of Air Force Mechanic Parka to Enhance the Functions and Insulation (기능성과 보온성 향상을 위한 공군 정비파카 개발 및 평가)

  • Lee, Sung-Ji;Choi, Young-Lim;Nam, Yun-Ja
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.294-303
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    • 2012
  • This study was designed to develop air force mechanic parka, evaluate it, and ultimately provide functionally superior parka to the air force. The development process was 1) conducting a survey, 2) identifying problems and shortcomings of currently-supplied parkas, and 3) improving the design, pattern and materials. The newly-developed parkas were evaluated in terms of their ease of fit, clothing mobility, and insulation. Ease of fit was evaluated by subjects' sensory tests, and clothing mobility was by fitness-for-motion tests and range-of-motion tests using a Goniometer. Evaluation on insulation was conducted by thermal manikins. Findings of this study were as follows: 1. In the subjective evaluation on clothing mobility, new parkas were considered to have sufficient ease of fit while previous ones scored much lower, confirming the improvement of the new version. 2. Both subjective tests and ROM measurements on fitness for motion verified the superiority of the new parkas. 3. Insulation tests found that although insulation capability of newly-developed parkas was at a similar level to those of the previous ones, their insulation capability per unit weight was superior, demonstrating that new parkas were better at blocking heat conduction. When making changes in parka patterns and designs to enhance the mobility, it was necessary to maintain the insulation function. The new parkas developed by this study was verified to be superior to the previous ones in their insulation and clothing mobility.

A Study on Wearing Satisfaction and Thermal Properties of Jumper for Korean Military Tank Drivers (전차병 점퍼의 착용만족도 및 보온성에 관한 연구)

  • Kwon, Seo-Yoon;Choi, Eun-Mi;Lim, Chae-Guen;Shin, Dong-Woo;Kim, Kyung-Pil;Kwon, Oh-Kyung;Jeong, Hyun-Mi
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.261-268
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate problems of design, fitness, suitability for movement, and wearing comfort of jumper for Korean military tank drivers through analysis of actual wearing condition by questionnaire and field evaluation and to provide basic data for developing its improved design. The survey was done for 477 military tank drivers and evaluation was performed using thermal manikin to measure insulation. The overall satisfaction for design of jumper for military tank driver was over 3.5(likert scale). The overall satisfaction for fitness of jumper for military tank driver was also over 3.5. The satisfactions for material was between 2.39 and 3.13 and the satisfaction for pilling property was the lowest, followed by static property and shape stability after laundering. The satisfactions for movement suitability were standing(3.81), sitting(3,38), raising hand(forward: 2.90, sideward: 3.01), respectively. In insulation evaluation of jumper for military tank drivers and outwears(jacket, jumper), the insulation of jumper for military tank drivers was lower than outwear(jumper) and same with outwear(jacket). The insulation in dynamic and still condition(without wind) of jumper for military tank driver was 0.37clo and 0.31clo, respectively. Its decreation rate in dynamic condition comparing to still condition was 59% which was lower than jacket(0.73clo) and jumper(1.15clo).

An Analysis of Emotional and Cognitive Factors on Acupuncture (침에 대한 정서와 인지요소 분석)

  • Chae, Youn-Byoung;Park, Hi-Joon;Kang, O-Seok;Lee, Jeong-Chan;Park, Kyung-Mo;Lee, Hye-Jung
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.215-229
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    • 2007
  • Objectives : Placebo phenomena have been considered as a confounding factor of clinical trial. Expectancy and belief of acupuncture have not been evaluated quantitatively. The present study was performed to analyze the emotional and cognitive factor .of acupuncture and investigate whether the expectancy of acupuncture treatment is associated with the cognition of acupuncture. Methods : The expectancy and the perception of bodily sensation (PBS) of 22 participants were assessed using self-reported questionnaire. The subjects used the self assessment manikin (SAM) to rate each of the standard affective image of the international affective picture system (lAPS) and other acupuncture-related image. Based on the degree of expectancy, the high expectant (HE) and the low expectant (LE) group were classified. The thermal and pressure pain threshold was objectively evaluated using radiant-heat device and algometer. The degree of expected pain of acupuncture and the actual pain of painful stimulation was subjectively evaluated using facial pain scales (FPS). Results : Using SAlVI analysis, we identified the negative correlation between hedonic valence and arousal dimension on acupuncture-related visual cue. The degree of the PBS and general pain threshold did not show any significant difference between the HE and the LE group. The HE group rated the acupuncture images as more pleasant, more arousing, than the LE group. In addition, we also found that the higher expectancy marked the lower FPS of the expected pain of acupuncture, but not of the actual pain of painful stimulation. Conclusions : Our preliminary study identified the psychological dimensions of acupuncture-related visual cue. These findings indicate that the expectancy of acupuncture could affect the cognition of acupuncture.

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A Study on the Bed Climate and the Physiological Responses in Sleep. - On Ondol Environment - (수면시 침상기후와 인체생리반응에 관한 연구 -온돌환경을 중심으로-)

  • Kim Myung Ju;Choi Jeong Wha
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.77-87
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    • 1991
  • The purpose of this study were to investigate the bed climate and the physiological responses in sleep on the traditional Korean floor heating system called Ondol. Ondol has been the most widely used heating system in Korea, yet there has been a no systematic studies examined its environmental effects on human body. Experimental room was constructed to match the typical thermal environment of Ondol. (floor surface temperature; $32\~33^{\circ}C$, air temperature; $22.5{\pm}1.0^{\circ}C$, relative humidity; $64.0{\pm}4.0\%$RH, air velocity; 0.25 m/sec.) Three different combinations of bedclothes were chosen for the experiment based on the study results showing that they were the most widely used types in Korea. Type 1 was the combination of a cotton-padded mattress with a cotton-padded Korean style blanket. Type 2 was a cotton-padded mattress with a cotton-guilted Korean style blanket. Type 3 was a cotton-padded matless with a polyacryl blanket. Thermal resistance of each of these combina-tions in the bedclothes was measured using thermal manikin. Two adult female was chosen for the seven hour sleeping experiment which was known to be the average sleeping hours of Korean adult female. The bed climate was measured with the temperature under the mattress, the surface temper-ature of the mattress, and the air temperature and the relative humidity of the space between the mattress and blanket. The skin temperature, rectal temperature of the subjects and the bed climate were measured eight times, one hour before the experiment and every hour during the experiment. The weight loss and the subjective sensation were measured for the each subjects before and after the experiment. The procedure was repeated twice with two subjects and three types of bedclothes, yielding twelve combinations of results. The results were as follows; 1. With the surface temperature of $32\~33^{\circ}C$ of Ondol, air temperature was $22.5{\pm}1.0^{\circ}C$ with $64.0{\pm}4.0\%$ RH. The bed climates were $39.2{\pm}40.8^{\circ}C$ under the mattress, $35.3\~36.2^{\circ}C$ on the mattress, and $26.9\~32.0^{\circ}C$ with $56.0\~71.3\%$ RH between the mattress and the blanket. 2. Mean skim temperature during sleep was 34.2"C with local skin temperature of $34.0\~35.5^{\circ}C$. The skin temperatures of abdomen, thigh, foot were higher than the other parts of the body. 3. The skin temperature of chest, thigh, leg and back varied significantly according to the combinations of bedclothes. With the cotton-padded blanket, the skin temperature was the highest, while with the cotton-guilted blanket showed lowest. 4. Examining the relationship between the mean skin temperature and the local skin temper-ature, the chest temperature showed the highest correlation with the former. Therefore, the chest temperature can be recommended to represent the skin temperature in measuring the bed climate. 5. The subjective bed climates were $39.0\~40.4^{\circ}C$ under the mattress, $35.2\~35.9^{\circ}C$ on the mattress, $29.8\~31.6^{\circ}C$ with $56.8\~68.4\%$ RH between the mattress and blanket. In sum, from this experiment we not only obtained the reliable value of bed climates on Ondol, but also showed that the bed climates and the physiological responses were affected differently according to the materials of bed clothes.

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