• Title, Summary, Keyword: thermal manikin

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A Study on the Thermal Resistance of Wool Fabric Constructions (의류직물의 구성조건에 따른 열저항 특성 연구)

  • Kim, Tae-Hoon;Jun, Byung-Ik
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.15-19
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the thermal characteristics of men's suits ensembles and their fabrics. For the study, 100% wool fabrics were woven with various fabric structure, fabric density and yam count and With the use of these, 12 men's suits were made with the same design. Physical characteristics that affect thermal transport properties, including drapery, cover factor; bulk density, keeping warmth ratio, vapor permeability, air permeability and porosity of the fabrics were measured. In addition, thermal resistance of men's suit ensembles, including Y-shirts, inner wear and socks was measured on the thermal manikin in the environmental chamber. The result of the study was as follows: 1. In terms of fabric structure, keeping warmth ratio of plain woven fabrics was higher than those of twill and satin woven fabrics and also, vapor and air permeability and porosity of plain woven fabrics were higher than those of twill and satin woven fabrics. 2. The result showed that thermal resistance of 12 ensembles were in the range of 0.77clo~0.97clo. 3. There was little correlation between woven condition such as, including structure, fabric density and yam count and thermal resistance of ensembles.

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A Study on the Thermal Characteristics of Comfortable Heat-Retaining Winter Clothing (겨울용 쾌적 보온성 의복의 온열특성에 관한 연구 - 무풍환경하에서 -)

  • Song, Min-Kyu;Kwon, Myoung-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.58 no.6
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    • pp.24-34
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study was to create a database of information on fabric factors(i.e., fabric insulation, fabric weight, clothing weight, fabric thickness, air permeability, and water vapor resistance) of clothing used for insulations, to compare them according to clothing types, and to estimate thermal resistance of clothing using these factors. A total of 25 kinds of clothing were selected(9 types for suits, 6 types of jacket, 5 types for shirts, and 5 types for trousers). The results of this study were as follows; Thermal insulation of clothing showed the highest positive correlation(0.85, p>0.01) with thermal insulation of fabric and very high positive correlation with water vapor resistance, fabric thickness, fabric weight, and clothing weight, respectively, 0.77, 0.77, 0.73, 0.71(p>0.01). Fabric weight of jacket was higher than that of shirts and trousers. Air permeability of shirts was the highest of clothing types. Clothing insulation of jacket was higher than that of shirts and trousers and its fabric insulation was also the highest of clothing types. Regression analysis showed that fabric thickness, water vapor resistance, and fabric weight would be useful factors for estimating the thermal resistance of clothing.

Computer Simulation for Calculation of Thermal Insulation in Korean Folk Clothes (한복의 보온력 평가를 위한 컴퓨터 시뮬레이션)

  • 권오경;성수광
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.21 no.7
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    • pp.1153-1161
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    • 1997
  • The insulation provided by clothing system is usually expressed in terms of a coo units and its distribution of the body, directly affect convective, conductive, and radiant heat loss from the skin to the environment Evaporated heat loss is dependent upon fabric permeability, the amount of body surface area covered by clothing, and the pumping of air between the body and garment layers. Persons at low to medium activity levels, dressed in conventional apparel in door environments, usually do not lose a large amount of heat through evaporation. Thermal manikin technology is used to measure the resistance to heat transfer provided by clothing systems. The reciprocal of this value, 6.45 W/m2.$^{\circ}C$ is often used in calculations for convenience. The purpose of this study was to implement a research program for calculation the insulation value (clo), body surface area and basal metabolic rate of selected clothing system. The project provided for the building of an insulation data base for use in evaluating and comparing new and improved garments.

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Thermal Characteristics of Men's Suit Ensembles (남성용 정장의 온열특성 연구)

  • Song, Min-Kyu;Jeon, Byung-Ik
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.1 no.3
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    • pp.264-274
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    • 1999
  • The thermal resistance of 60 men's suits for summer and winter was measured to determine their thermal characteristics and physical properties, including air permeability, weight, and thickness of the jackets and trousers consisted of the ensembles were measured to predict the thermal resistance of garments and ensembles. In this study, general physical properties of the men' suit ensembles were determined. In general, thickness and weight of winter ensembles were greater than those of summer ensembles. A factor which could distinguish the difference between summer and winter ensembles was the air permeability. The air permeability of summer ensembles was 3~6 times greater than those of winter ensembles. For the thermal characteristics, the thermal resistance of winter ensembles were higher than those of summer ensembles. When the wind was involved, the thermal resistance of both ensembles decreased up to 30%. In addition, the equations were developed to predict the thermal resistance of the garments and ensembles when there was no air velocity and the thermal resistance of the ensembles with air velocity of 1.2 m/sec. Looking at the equations, thickness, weight, and size of the garments were the definite factors that affect the thermal resistance of the samples.

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A Study on the Comfort and Skin Temperature on the Clothing Environment in the Taegu City during Years -Concentrated on indoor uniforms- (섬유·패션 산업 DB 구축을 위한 대구지역의 연간 피복환경내의 피부온과 쾌적성 -실내 제복을 중심으로-)

  • Ryo, Duck-Hwan;Lee, Uk-Ja;Kim, Seong-Jin;Song, Min-Kyo;Cho, Ji-Hyun;Jung, Meung-Sun
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.1 no.4
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    • pp.376-386
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological responses and the Subjective sensations of the human subjects when 10 human subjects(5 males and 5 females) were tested with selected ensembles, including the uniforms of students, industrial and bank workers. For the study, garment material and design were selected, which was mostly used in Taegu area by the survey. Thermal manikin and the human subject tests were performed. The results were as follows: 1. There was no significant difference among skin temperature of head by season and among that of breast and back by all variables, however, there was a significant difference among that of belly by gender and that of thigh and shank by season. In addition, there was no significant difference among rectal temperature by gender and season, but there was a significant difference by uniform. 2. Mean skin temperature of male subjects was significantly higher than that of female subjects. Specially in lower environmental condition, the difference got larger. 3. There was a significant difference among purse rate of subjects by uniform, but there was no significant difference among those by gender and season. There were no significant difference among maximum and minimum blood pressure by gender, uniform, and season. 4. There was a significant difference in temperature of chest among gender and uniform, and there was no significant difference in temperature of back by season. In addition, There was a significant difference in humidity of back by uniform and season but there were no significant difference in that by gender. 5. There was a significant difference in humidity sensation by gender, comfort sensation by uniform and season, but there was no significant difference thermal sensation by uniform and season. 6. For the result of regression analysis, we got the regression equations as follows: Clo=1.810 Thickness+0.525, Clo=0.475 weight+0.863.

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A Study on Changes in Thermal Performances in Ensembles Made up of Single Garments Marketed for Korean Men - In Still and Dynamic Air Conditions - (한국 남성용 단일의복의 앙상블 조합시의 온열특성 변화에 관한 연구 - 무풍, 풍속환경하에서 -)

  • Song, Min-Kyu;Kwon, Seo-Yoon;Jung, Hyun-Mi
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.660-668
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the thermal characteristics of garments marketed for Korean males and to investigate the influence of each garment on ensemble, by measuring their insulation values(clo) using thermal manikins. The results are as follows. The total insulations(clo) of ensembles for S/S seasons are between 1.46 and 2.6 clo, with the mean of 2.12 clo. The insulation in the still air condition is 1.23 clo, which means a decrease of 42% compared to the total insulation of all the component garments. The insulation of ensembles for S/S seasons in the dynamic air condition decreased by 46.8%, compared to the still air condition. The total insulation(clo) of ensembles for F/W seasons is between 3.84 and 7.36 clo with the mean of 4.74 clo. The insulation in the still air condition is 2.26 clo, which means a decrease of 53.6% compared to the total insulation of all the component garments. The insulation of ensembles for F/W seasons in the dynamic air condition decreased by 36.2%, compared to the still air condition. As the clo value of each component garment gets higher, the insulation of ensembles gets higher. Especially, the insulation of ensembles was more influenced by outer wear than inner wear. The insulation of ensembles could be predicted by the insulation of outerwear better.

The Effect of Adjustable Garment Closures and Layering on Insulation in Cold Weather

  • Kim, Chil-Soon;McCullough, Elizabeth
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.3 no.5
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    • pp.479-485
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    • 2001
  • This study was to determine the effect of garment closures and layering systems on insulation, using a thermal movable manikin in cold weather conditions. The insulation values of ensembles with opened and closed features were measured, and those of four different layered clothing ensembles were tested while standing and while walking. Our research indicated that when there was an opening involved in design the system, insulation decreased; even a zip-out lining in the armpit affected little. If a light weight jacket and pants are put on over a fleece shirt and pants instead polyester underwear, the amount of insulation increase was 0.43 clo.

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Detachable Liner and Insulation of Outdoor Clothing (착탈식 라인어와 아웃도어 의복의 보온성)

  • Kim, Chil-Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.26 no.12
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    • pp.1756-1764
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    • 2002
  • 본 연구의 목적은 의복시스템 내 에서 착탈이 가능한 라이너 가 있을 때 얼마만큼의 보온성 이 증가되는가를 알고자 하는 것이다. 서로 다른 섬유조성 과 두께를 가지는 3개 의 의복앙상블을 선정하여 움직일 수 있는 마네킨을 사용하여 14$^{\circ}C$로 조절되어 있는 인공기후실에서 보온성을 측정하였다. 그 결과 라이너 사용 후 보온성이 증가되었는데 그 정도는 라이너 의 두께 와 섬유조성에 따라서 다르며 약 0.5 clo 증가하였다. 이 결과로부터 착탈 가능한 라이너의 사용으로 추운기후에 어느 정도 적응 할 수 있는가를 확인할 수 있었다.

Assessment of clothing ventilation by a trace gas method (Trace gas법에 의한 의복의 환기 양상의 평가)

  • 추미선
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.21 no.8
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    • pp.1387-1395
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    • 1997
  • Effects of the ambient air temperature and the opening position on the pattern of the clothing ventilation of a thermal manikin wearing an impermeable blouse were investigated by the trace gas method. Under an isothermal condition, the ventilation was governed by diffusion, and the ventilation rate through the wrist-openings was greatly affected by the distance from the openings. Under non-isothermal conditions, however, the ventilation was accelerated by the convection driven by the temperature gradient between the clothing microclimate and the surrounding air; the greater the temperature gradient, the greater the ventilation. Even though it was certainly affected by the ambient air temperature, the ventilation rate was more significantly influenced by the position of openings. The ventilation patterns at the arm and the body were distinctive.

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The Analysis of the Sweating Rate, Skin Temperature on the Upper Body and Subjective Sensations (상반신의 부분별 발한량, 피부온과 주관적 감각 고찰)

  • Kim, Seong-Suk;Kim, Hee-Eun
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.993-999
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    • 2013
  • This study aimed to measure the amount of sweating on 12 parts of the upper body using absorption fabric and analyze subjective sensations. The study was conducted with 9 male subjects in climate chamber controled at $30{\pm}0.5^{\circ}C$, and $55{\pm}5%$ RH. The result was that sweating amount of the upper back part was significantly more than upper front part. We assumed that forced convection flow cased by exercise decreased the sweating rate in the front. The skin temperature of upper front body rapidly decreased as soon as exercise starts and gradually increased with cessation of exercise. On the other hand, the skin temperature of palm increased with exercise and showed continuous increasing even exercise stopping all the experimental period. This is caused by thermoregulatory responses through vasodilatation on the peripheral area. Subjective sensations, such as thermal sensation, wet sensation, and thermal comfort showed the highest score at the time of exercise stop. This means the subjects felt more hot, wet, and uncomfortable after exercise stopped. Bur after wiping of sweat, subjective sensation scores were recovered rapidly. The present study has provided more detailed information on the upper body sweat distribution than previously available, which can be used in clothing design, thermo-physiological modeling, and thermal manikin design. We also think that results of the present study will play an important role in making the sweat distribution map.