• Title, Summary, Keyword: thermal manikin

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Comparisons of Thermal Insulations between on Air-Cell Pack Embedded Jacket and Down Jackets (공기주입형 의복의 보온력 측정 및 다운재킷의 보온력과의 비교)

  • Kim, Yung-Bin;Jang, Won;Kim, Kirim;Kim, Siyeon;Baek, Yoon Jeong;Lee, Joo-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.55-62
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    • 2015
  • This study investigated the thermal insulation of an air-cell pack embedded jacket and down jackets to understand the potential of air-cell pack as a filler for winter outdoor wear. A thermal manikin measured the thermal insulation of the following jackets: HD (heavy down jacket, total weight (Tw) 750g, goose down weight (Dw) 350g), LD (light down jacket, Tw 560g, Dw 140g), AF (air-cell pack embedded jacket, Tw 490g, trunk goose down in LD was replaced to air cell), F (film jacket, Tw 469g, but removed the air in the air-cell pack from the AF), and Control (control jacket, Tw 438g, removed the air-cell pack film from the F). Thermal insulations of each experimental condition were measured in a static standing posture. Total thermal insulations (IT) were 1.29clo (HD), 1.23clo (LD), 1.16clo (AF), 1.20clo (F), and 1.08clo (Control). Body regional thermal insulation was higher in the chest and back than in the abdomen and hip in all conditions. The results suggest that an economical and versatile outdoor jacket with superior thermal insulation will be feasible if the air volume is properly controlled in air-cell pack embedded jackets in consideration of regional different distribution and used in combination with film and down.

Sportswear Physiological Optimization: Effects of Clothing ease, local heating and materiales (운동복의 기능성과 쾌적성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee Young Suk;An Tae Whan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.127-138
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    • 1991
  • The aim of the present stud)r has been to obtain new and additional data allolwing a better design of sports garments as well as a better choice among some materiales, through measure-ment of body surface changes in the upper trunk in movement, measurement on the effects of local heating on other parts of the body and measurement of the thermal resistance of 6 types of materials applied on a manikin. In the first experiment, the upper trunk was divided in 32 Parts, the surface of which was measured by the tape method for two upper limb positions: extension at $90^{\circ}$ and $180^{\circ}$. In the second experiment, skin temperature, local thermal sensations and whole body thermal sensation were measured every 5 minutes during 40 minutes. The four areas of the shoulder, abdomen, hande and feet were heated with the hot pack at $50^{\circ}C$. In the third experiment, the regional thermal resistance of the various materials selected, in two different cases of clothing ease, have been measured by using a thermal manikin. Resultes of experiments were: 1. Extensions cause the upper front part of the trunk surface to lengthen vertically while the back tends to stretch in width. 2. Skin temperatures of the upper limbs are influenced by the abdomen and shoulder boatings. The correlation between the whole body thermal sensation and the upper trunk thermal sensation is significantly asserted. 3. Ceramic and aluminium coated materiales offer the most effective thermal resistance; ease in clothing increases the thermal resistance at the breast and the abdomen as well as the clo value of the materials.

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Comparative Studies of Thermal Insulation Performance of Life Vests by Numerical Analysis and Experiment (보온 재료에 따른 구명 조끼 별 단열성능의 비교 실험 및 해석)

  • Kim, Sung-Chan;Lee, Kyung-Hoon;Hwang, Se-Yun;Jang, Ho-Sang;Lee, Jang-Hyun
    • Journal of Navigation and Port Research
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.7-14
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    • 2016
  • Although the life jacket can provide the buoyance with the drowner, heat loss can make the drowned individual be subject to the hypothermia. In this study, The thermal insulation of two types life jacket including inflatable and foam type were evaluate by both experiments and numerical analysis. To estimate the thermal resistance of the jackets, experiments on the heat flux were conducted by the thermal manikin exposed to cold water. Heat flux loss on the surface of thermal manikin were measured for both foam and inflatable type life jacket. Also, finite element method is applied to a body section in order to understand the level of hypothermia of each life jacket. The segmental of human thigh is represented by a multi-layered section which considers the heat conduction within tissue, bone and fat. As a result, the thermal resistance and hypothermia time of each jackets have been compared based on the finite element analysis. It was found that the insulation ability of suggested life jackets is better than that of conventional type.

Development of Firefighters' Personal Protective Clothing with Nomex Honeycomb Fabric and its Protective and Comfort Evaluation (노멕스 허니콤 구조 직물을 적용한 소방관용 특수방화복 개발 및 이의 보호 쾌적 성능평가)

  • Jung, Jae-Yeon;Ku, Ponjun;Kim, Do Hyung;Kwon, Min-Jae;Kang, Sungwook;Choi, Jeong-Yoon;Lee, Joo-Young
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.606-617
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    • 2019
  • The present study newly developed a firefighters' protective jacket and pants using a Nomex honeycomb structured layer (HPC) in cases of being exposed to flashover or flameover. This study evaluated the protective and comfort functions of an HPC compared to the current KFI firefighters' protective clothing (FPC). The results are as follows. First, thermal protective performance (TPP) of fabric layers was 2.75 times greater for HPC than FPC at $125kW/m^2$. Second, the predicted second and third degree burn areas were smaller for HPC than FPC when using a flame manikin. Third, thermal insulation using a thermal manikin was 0.2 clo greater for HPC than FPC. Fourth, there were no marked differences in maximal performance, mobility, and microclimate temperature/humidity between FPC and HPC through human wear trials. The thermal insulation of HPC was higher than that of FPC; however, any negative effect of HPC thermal insulation on the comfort functions for firefighters was not found. In conclusion, the newly-developed HPC provided more protection in reducing burn injuries from $125kW/m^2$, while no negative impact on maximal performance, mobility and thermal comfort functions of firefighters, which is appropriate for quick-evasive tactics at the flashover, flameover or back draft fires.

Development of Panty Hose blade with Silk Comparison of Physical and Wear Performances of Panty Hoses Made with Silk Filament, Texturized Nylon Filament and Blends of Two Filaments (실크섬유를 이용한 팬티스타킹 개발에 관한 연구 -실크필라멘트사와 나일론 텍스쳐사 혼방에 따른 스타킹의 물성 및 착용성능 비교-)

  • Park, Mi-Ran;Jo, Jeong-Suk;Jo, Gil-Su
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.509-519
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    • 1995
  • The objectives of this study were 1) to compare physical and wear performances of panty hoses made with silk 61amen1 and texturized nylon filament yams, 2) to examine these characteristics as a function of the percentage of texturized nylon filament yarn, 3) to evaluate thermal resistances and thermoyaphic assessments of those panty hoses worn on a thermal manikin, and 4) to investigate objective wear performances including microclimate and subjective wear sensations and relationships with their physical performances. Five digrent types of panty hoses made with silk filament yarn(S4), texturized nylon filament(N4), and blending level of the two types of yarn were(SIN3, S2N2, S3Nl) used as test specimens. Warmth retention values and Q-max values were measured using Thermo Labo II, and breaking strengths and elongations were evaluated by Instron Tensile Tester. Thermal manikin and subject wear tests were conducted in the following environmental conditions 21$\pm$1$^{\circ}C$, 60$\pm$ 5% RH., and 0.25m/sec air velocity. Ten healthy female subjects followed the repeated exercises consisting of walking on a treadmill and resting. The results were as follows: 1) In warmth retention values and Q-max values, S4 showed higher values than N4. 2) The wickability and moisture regain of S4 showed higher performance than those of N4 but elongation and breaking strength of S4 was lower than that of N4. 3) As the blending level of silk filament yarn increases, warmth retention value, 0-max values, moisture regain, and wickability were increased but elongation and breaking strength were decreased. 4) Clo values measured using thermal manikin increased in the following order: S4>S2N2>N4. 5) Microclimate temperatures of the subjects who worn S4 were significantly higher than those of subjects who worn S2N2 and N4. But microclimate humidities were not significantly different among the subjects who worn S4, S2N2 and N4. 6) Thermal sensation rating of subjects who worn S2N2 was significantly higher than that of subjects who worn S4 and N4. Humidity, tactile and overall sensation ratings of subjects who worn S4 and S2N2 were lower than those of subjects who worn N4.

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Partial Heat Resistance of Hanbok When it Worn (한복 착용시의 부위별 열저항에 관한 연구)

  • 송명견
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.565-572
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    • 1996
  • The purpose of this study was to measure partial heat resistance of Hanbok when it worn. Since Hanbok varies from season to season, four different set of Hanboks (R, SN, p and S) were tested. Also Durumagi (D) which is worn over Hanbok (5) to keep warm from winter cold was tested as well. The thermal manikin was used in this experiment. The room temperature, air velocity and the relative humidity was set at $20\pm0.5^{\circ}C$, 0.15 m/sec and $50\pm$5% respectively. The mean skin temperature of the manikin was set at $33\pm0.5^{\circ}C$. The results were as follows: 1. The order from the least total heat resistance to the most was SN, R, p, 5 and D. 2. Upper arms had the highest heat resistance among the 13 parts. The next was abdomen thighs, buttock, legs, forearms and chest, back, and head, the order from the most to the least.

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Thermal Comfort Aspects of Pesticide-protective Clothing Made with Nonwoven Fabrics

  • Choi Jong-Myoung;Tanabe Shin-Ichi
    • International Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.55-72
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the thermal resistance of pesticideprotective clothing and to investigate its subjective wear performance. Three different nonwoven fabrics, which provide barrier properties against water and pesticide, were used to manufacture the experimental clothing: spunbonded nonwoven (SB), spunbonded/meltblown/spunbonded nonwoven (SM), and spunlaced nonwoven (SL). The thermal insulation values of the experimental clothing were measured with a thermal manikin, and other wear trials were performed on human subjects in a climate chamber at $28^{\circ}C$, with 70% R.H. and air movement at less than 0.15m/s. Our results found that the thermal resistance was lower in the SB experimental clothing than in the others; that the mean skin temperature of subjects who wore the experimental clothing made with SL was significantly lower than that of subjects who wore the SB and SM clothing; and that the microclimate temperature and humidity with SB were significantly higher than that of the others. Overall, the experimental clothing made with SL was more comfortable than the others in terms of subjective wear sensations.

A Study on Development of Work Wear for the Plastic House Workers (비닐 하우스용 작업복 개발에 관한 연구)

  • Myung, Ji Young;Shim, Huen Sup;Choi, Jeong Wha
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.19-35
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    • 1993
  • This study was designed to devise work wear for plastic house worker. It was carried out (1) research on the clothing actual condition through interviewings with plastic house worker and observations, (2) thermal manikin test to measure thermal resistance of experimental clothes and (3) clothing comparing test in the laboratory and in the plastic house. In the laboratory experiment, it was choosen general type (A) and new devised types (B, C) made of microporous fabric for experimental clothes. Experimental clothes were made of 6 combinations including 3 type work wears (A, B, C) and 2 type underwears (1, 2). In the plastic house experiment, it was choosen general types of A (without rest place) and B (with rest place), and devised type C (with rest place), which was appeared good effect in the laboratory experiment. The results were as followings. 1. Work environment of the plastic house in summer and winter was very different from the outer environment. Work motion in the plastic house was burden to the plastic house workers. 2. Plastic house workers had on the general type's work wear. 3. As a result of thermal manikin test, thermal resistance was appeared B1>B2>C2>C1>A1>A2 in orders. 4. In the laboratory experiment, experimental clothes A was appeared smaller burden than B, C. Effect of mesh underwear was not appeared in this study condition. In subjective sensation, experimental clothes C was lower vote than A. Therefore experimental clothes C was superior to A in subjective wearing sensation. 5. In the plastic house experiment, the experimental conditions with rest place were appeared smaller burden than without rest place. General type B was appeared more positive physiological reactions than devised type C but significances between two types was not appeared.

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Comfort Properties of Ski Wear Using Vapor-Permeable Water Repellent Fabrics and Thermal Insulation Battings (투습발수직물과 축열보온섬유를 이용한 스키웨어의 쾌적감)

  • Cho Gil Soo;Choi Jong Myoung;Lee Jung Ju;Lee Sern Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.245-254
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    • 1992
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanical thermal resistances and comfort properties of ski wear made with vapor-permeable water repellent (VPWR) fabrics and thermal insulation battings. Four types of experimental clothing were made with the combination of two VPWR fabrics (Hipora-$TM^{\circledR}$, Hipora-$CR^{\circledR}$) and two thermal insulation battings ($Viwarm^{\circledR},\;Airseal^{\circledR}$). Thermal resistances of ski wear were objectly evaluated by thermal manikin experiment ($21{\pm}\;2^{\circ}C,\;50{\pm}5\%$ R.H.,0.25 m/sec air velocity) and thermographic accessment ($2{\pm}2^{\circ}C,\;0\%$ R.H.,0.25 m/sec air velocity, and emissivity level : 1). Garment wear tests of ski wear included the measurement of the microclimate (inner temp. and relative humidity) of the experimental clothing by digital thermohygrometer and subject wear sensation using McNall's thermal comfort ratings. CBo values of experimental clothing 4 (Hipora-$CR^{\circledR}+Airseal^{\circledR}$) and 1 (Hipora-$TM^{\circledR}+Viwarm^{\circledR}$) were significantly higher than those of 2 (Hipora-$TM^{\circledR}+Airseal^{\circledR}$) and 3 (Hipora-$CR^{\circledR}+Viwarm^{\circledR}$). Thermal resistances in the points of breast, back, belly, and loin was significantly higher than those of upper am, fore arm, and shank of measuring points on the thermal manikin. According to the color map of the thermogram, the experimental clothing 4 indicated higher surface temperatures than the others showing more yellowish spots on the surface of clothing. Inner temperature of experimental clothing was not significantly different among the four types of ski wear, but relative humidities of experimental clothing were significantly different. Relative humidities of experimental clothing 1 and 3 showed higher than those of 2 and 4. Relative humidity of experimantal clothing was affected largely by the thermal resis- tance of thermal insulation batting materials. The subject wear sensation of experimental clothing 2 and 4 showed lower humidity than the others. Subject wear sensation was affected more by humidity sensation than by thermal sensation.

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A Study on Noxious Gases Analysis of Polyurethane foams (Polyurethane foam의 유해가스 분석에 관한 연구)

  • 이창우;김정환;현성호
    • Fire Science and Engineering
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.7-13
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    • 2000
  • We had investigated thermal stability, Ignition temperature and fire gas for polyurethane foams used for manikin, cushion and interior finishing material. Decomposition of polyurethane foams with temperature was investigated using a DSC and the weight loss with temperature increase using a TGA in order to find the thermal hazard of polyurethane foams, and the ignition temperature of polyurethane foams according to species. We studied constant temperature among ignition temperature measuring methods. In addition, noxious gases for polyurethane foams according to combustion condition were analyzed using gas analyzer and GASTEC. As results, initial decomposition temperature of polyurethane foam used for interior finishing material was lower than those for manikin and cushion, and exothermic energy was higher. Ignition temperature of polyurethane foam of interior finishing material was $420^{\circ}$. All of combustion forms at $427^{\circ}$ and under were smoldering combustion, and it was combustion at $500^{\circ}$. As furnace temperature was increased, concentration of noxious gases such as carbon oxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen cyanide was increased. And nitrogen oxide at combustion condition($500^{\circ}$) was over 10 ppm.

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