• Title, Summary, Keyword: therapeutic agents

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Injectable hydrogels delivering therapeutic agents for disease treatment and tissue engineering

  • Lee, Jin Hyun
    • Biomaterials Research
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.235-248
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    • 2018
  • Background: Injectable hydrogels have been extensively researched for the use as scaffolds or as carriers of therapeutic agents such as drugs, cells, proteins, and bioactive molecules in the treatment of diseases and cancers and the repair and regeneration of tissues. It is because they have the injectability with minimal invasiveness and usability for irregularly shaped sites, in addition to typical advantages of conventional hydrogels such as biocompatibility, permeability to oxygen and nutrient, properties similar to the characteristics of the native extracellular matrix, and porous structure allowing therapeutic agents to be loaded. Main body: In this article, recent studies of injectable hydrogel systems applicable for therapeutic agent delivery, disease/cancer therapy, and tissue engineering have reviewed in terms of the various factors physically and chemically contributing to sol-gel transition via which gels have been formed. The various factors are as follows: several different non-covalent interactions resulting in physical crosslinking (the electrostatic interactions (e.g., the ionic and hydrogen bonds), hydrophobic interactions, ${\pi}$-interactions, and van der Waals forces), in-situ chemical reactions inducing chemical crosslinking (the Diels Alder click reactions, Michael reactions, Schiff base reactions, or enzyme-or photo-mediated reactions), and external stimuli (temperatures, pHs, lights, electric/magnetic fields, ultrasounds, or biomolecular species (e.g., enzyme)). Finally, their applications with accompanying therapeutic agents and notable properties used were reviewed as well. Conclusion: Injectable hydrogels, of which network morphology and properties could be tuned, have shown to control the load and release of therapeutic agents, consequently producing significant therapeutic efficacy. Accordingly, they are believed to be successful and promising biomaterials as scaffolds and carriers of therapeutic agents for disease and cancer therapy and tissue engineering.

Recent Progress in Drug Delivery Systems for Anticancer Agents

  • Kim, Chong-Kook;Lim, Soo-Jeong
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.229-239
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    • 2002
  • Recent progress in understanding the molecular basis of cancer brought out new materials such as oligonucleotides, genes, peptides and proteins as a source of new anticancer agents. Due to their macromolecular properties, however, new strategies of delivery for them are required to achieve their full therapeutic efficacy in clinical setting. Development of improved dosage forms of currently marketed anticancer drugs can also enhance their therapeutic values. Currently developed delivery systems for anticancer agents include colloidal systems (liposomes, emulsions, nanoparticles and micelles), polymer implants and polymer conjugates. These delivery systems have been able to provide enhanced therapeutic activity and reduced toxicity of anticancer agents mainly by altering their pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. Furthermore, the identification of cell-specific receptor/antigens on cancer cells have brought the development of ligand- or antibody-bearing delivery systems which can be targeted to cancer cells by specific binding to receptors or antigens. They have exhibited specific and selective delivery of anticancer agents to cancer. As a consequence of extensive research, clinical development of anticancer agents utilizing various delivery systems is undergoing worldwide. New technologies and multidisciplinary expertise to develop advanced drug delivery systems, applicable to a wide range of anticancer agents, may eventually lead to an effective cancer therapy in the future.

Microbubbles used for contrast enhanced ultrasound and theragnosis: a review of principles to applications

  • Lee, Hohyeon;Kim, Haemin;Han, Hyounkoo;Lee, Minji;Lee, Sunho;Yoo, Hongkeun;Chang, Jin Ho;Kim, Hyuncheol
    • Biomedical Engineering Letters
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.59-69
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    • 2017
  • Ultrasound was developed several decades ago as a useful imaging modality, and it became the second most popular diagnostic tool due to its non-invasiveness, real-time capabilities, and safety. Additionally, ultrasound has been used as a therapeutic tool with several therapeutic agents and in nanomedicine. Ultrasound imaging is often used to diagnose many types of cancers, including breast, stomach, and thyroid cancers. In addition, ultrasound-mediated therapy is used in cases of joint inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoarthritis. Microbubbles, when used as ultrasound contrast agents, can act as echo-enhancers and therapeutic agents, and they can play an essential role in ultrasound imaging and ultrasound-mediated therapy. Recently, various types of ultrasound contrast agents made of lipid, polymer, and protein shells have been used. Air, nitrogen, and perfluorocarbon are usually included in the core of the microbubbles to enhance ultrasound imaging, and therapeutic drugs are conjugated and loaded onto the surface or into the core of the microbubbles, depending on the purpose and properties of the substance. Many research groups have utilized ultrasound contrast agents to enhance the imaging signal in blood vessels or tissues and to overcome the blood-brain barrier or blood-retina barrier. These agents are also used to help treat diseases in various regions or systems of the body, such as the cardiovascular system, or as a cancer treatment. In addition, with the introduction of targeted moiety and multiple functional groups, ultrasound contrast agents are expected to have a potential future in ultrasound imaging and therapy. In this paper, we briefly review the principles of ultrasound and introduce the underlying theory, applications, limitations, and future perspectives of ultrasound contrast agents.

Technique of Drug Tolerance Test for Selection of Antibacterial Agents and It′s Clinical Value (항균제내성의 검사요령과 임상적응용)

  • Kim Kyo-Joon
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.41-47
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    • 1984
  • The author carried out bovine mastitis test by California Mastitis test(CMT) for the milk from dairy cows in the surburbs of Taejeon. In order to select prefer commercial therapeutic antibacterial agents for mastitis treatment, Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from the CMT positive milk and the strains were tested for the tolerance test to the agents. The results obtained were summarized as follows : 1. The tolerance test appeared graduate tolerance in cases with continuously repeat of therapeutic agents. 2. The antibacterial agents revealed strong tolerance were D-and E-ointments. 3. The antibacterial agents revealed suspect tolerance were A-and F-ointments and ampicillin, penicillin, kanamycin and streptomycin. 4. The antibacterial agents revealed non or rare tolerance were B-and G-ointments and chloramphenicol, erythromycin and oxytetracycline. 5, It is concluded that the use of 3-day-interval in turn with antibacterial agents selected by tolerance test may be beneficial.

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Comprehensive Identification of Tumor-associated Antigens via Isolation of Human Monoclonal Antibodies that may be Therapeutic

  • Kurosawa, Yoshikazu
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.4-7
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    • 2009
  • Although the success of trastuzumab and rituximab for treatment of breast cancer and non-Hodgkins lymphoma, respectively, suggests that monoclonal antibodies(mAbs) will become important therapeutic agents against a wider range of cancers, useful therapeutic Abs are not yet available for the majority of the human cancers because of our lack of knowledge of which antigens (Ags) are likely to become useful targets. We established a procedure for comprehensive identification of such Ags through the extensive isolation of human mAbs that may be therapeutic. Using the phage-display Ab library we isolated a large number of human mAbs that bind to the surface of tumor cells. They were individually screened by immunostaining, and clones that preferentially and strongly stained the malignant cells were chosen. The Ags recognized by those clones were isolated by immunoprecipitation and identified by mass spectrometry(MS). We isolated 2,114 mAbs with unique sequences and identified 25 distinct Ags highly expressed on several carcinomas. Of those 2,114 mAbs 434 bound to specifically to one of the 25 Ags. I am going to discuss how we could select proper target Ags for therapeutic Abs and candidate clones are therapeutic agents.

Guideline Recommendation for Endpoints Used in Clinical Trials for Functional Dyspepsia (기능성 소화불량증 치료제의 임상시험 평가 가이드라인 권고안)

  • Lee, Han Hee;Jung, Hye-Kyung;Choi, Myung-Gyu
    • The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology
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    • v.72 no.4
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    • pp.170-178
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    • 2018
  • Functional dyspepsia is a disease, in which there is no organic lesion but chronic and repetitive postprandial fullness, early satiation, epigastric pain, and epigastric burning. Functional dyspepsia is not life-threatening but its symptoms are relapsing and remitting and persist over a lifetime, limiting the social life and reducing the quality of life. Therefore, the treatment for acute relapsing period may help improve the short-term symptoms. Continuous medication may be needed to improve the long-term symptoms. Research designs to demonstrate the short-term efficacy of therapeutic agents may differ from clinical trials to demonstrate long-term efficacy. There are many difficulties in clinical trial design, implementation, and screening because there are no international standards of clinical trials for functional dyspepsia. The purpose of this guideline recommendation is to develop a standard for clinical trials, such as clinical trial subjects and evaluation methods, in the development of therapeutic agents for functional dyspepsia. The ultimate aim is to enhance the safety and efficacy of therapeutic agents for functional dyspepsia and promote the development of new therapeutic agents.

Mitochondrial dysfunction and Alzheimer's disease: prospects for therapeutic intervention

  • Lim, Ji Woong;Lee, Jiyoun;Pae, Ae Nim
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.47-55
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    • 2020
  • Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disease and has become a major socioeconomic issue in many developed countries. Currently available therapeutic agents for AD provide only symptomatic treatments, mainly because the complete mechanism of the AD pathogenesis is still unclear. Although several different hypotheses have been proposed, mitochondrial dysfunction has gathered interest because of its profound effect on brain bioenergetics and neuronal survival in the pathophysiology of AD. Various therapeutic agents targeting the mitochondrial pathways associated with AD have been developed over the past decade. Although most of these agents are still early in the clinical development process, they are used to restore mitochondrial function, which provides an alternative therapeutic strategy that is likely to slow the progression of the disease. In this mini review, we will survey the AD-related mitochondrial pathways and their small-molecule modulators that have therapeutic potential. We will focus on recently reported examples, and also overview the current challenges and future perspectives of ongoing research.

Therapy of Diabetes Mellitus Using Experimental Animal Models

  • Min, T.S.;Park, Soo Hyun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.672-679
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    • 2010
  • Diabetes mellitus is a worldwide epidemic with high mortality. As concern over this disease rises, the number and value of research grants awarded by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) have increased. Diabetes mellitus is classified into two groups. Type 1 diabetes requires insulin treatment, whereas type 2 diabetes, which is characterized by insulin resistance, can be treated using a variety of therapeutic approaches. Hyperglycemia is thought to be a primary factor in the onset of diabetes, although hyperlipidemia also plays a role. The major organs active in the regulation of blood glucose are the pancreas, liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, intestine, and kidney. Diabetic complications are generally classified as macrovascular (e.g., stroke and heart disease) or microvascular (i.e., diabetic neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopathy). Several animal models of diabetes have been used to develop oral therapeutic agents, including sulfonylureas, biguanides, thiazolidinediones, acarbose, and miglitol, for both type 1 and type 2 diseases. This review provides an overview of diabetes mellitus, describes oral therapeutic agents for diabetes and their targets, and discusses new developments in diabetic drug research.

A Clinical Therapeutic Guideline of Antipsychotic Drugs (항정신병약물의 임상치료지침)

  • Yoon, Doh-Joon
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.7-16
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    • 1994
  • I will try to serve as the basis for the development of a clinical therapeutic guideline of antipsychotic drugs. Knowing that many patients fail standard treatment recommendations, either because of insufficient efficacy or intolerance to adverse effects, led us to emphasize the importance of the guideline. The clinicians continually assimilate new information about recent advances, including : novel agents targeted to impact specific components of various neurotransmitter systems ; combination strategies ; alternative uses of existing agents ; and specialized requirements of a growing number of identified diagnostic subtypes. The cost to benefit ratio must always be considered when developing a therapeutic guideline.

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Microglia and neuroinflammation: implications in neurodegenerative diseases

  • Suk, Kyoung-Ho
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.15-22
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    • 2007
  • Increasing evidence indicates that microglia-driven chronic inflammatory responses playa pathological role in the central nervous system. Activation of microglia is pivotal in the initiation and progression of neuroinflammation. Inhibition of the microglial activation may provide an effective therapeutic intervention that alleviates the progression of the neurodegenerative diseases. Anti-inflammatory agents may be a useful candidate for such a therapeutic approach. Continual investigation of the mechanisms underlying microglial activation and regulation of neuroinflammation by endogenous or exogenous factors would not only lead to the discovery of novel neuroprotective agents, but also help to understand complex pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases.

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