• Title, Summary, Keyword: the Weight of Role

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Inhibition of Phospholipase $A_2$ Diminishes the Acute Alveolar Injury Induced by $Interleukin-1{\alpha}$

  • Lee, Young-Man
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.71-78
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    • 1997
  • In an attempt to investigate the role of phospholipase $A_2$($PLA_2$) in interleukin-l (IL-l) induced acute lung injury, mepacrine was tried to inhibit $PLA_2$ in IL-l induced ARDS rats. For confirmation of acute lung injury by IL-l, and to know the role of neutrophils in this injury, lung leak index, lung myeloperoxidase(MPO), number of neutrophils and protein content in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and wet lung weight were measured. At the same time lung $PLA_2$ was measured to know the effect of IL-l on $PLA_2$ activity. Pulmonary surfactant was also measured for an investigation of type II alveolar cell function. Neutrophil adhesion assay was performed to know the effect of $PLA_2$ inhibition in vitro with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). For precise location of injury by IL-l, morpholgical study was performed by electron microscopy. Five hours after instillation of IL-l (50 ng/rat), lung leak index, protein content, number of neutrophils, lung MPO and wet lung weight were increased significantly. Five hours after IL-l instillation lung $PLA_2$ activity was increased significantly, and increased surfactant release was observed in IL-l induced ARDS rats' BAL. In contrast, in rats given mepacrine and IL-l, there was decrease of acute lung injury i.e. decrease of lung leak index, wet lung weight, protein content, number of neutrophils in BAL and decreased lung MPO activity. Mepacrine decreased surfactant release also. Interestingly, inhibition of $PLA_2$ decreased adhesion of human neutrophils to HUVEC in vitro. Morphologically, IL-l caused diffuse necrosis of endothelial cells, type I and II epithelial cells and increased the infiltration of neutrophils in the interstitium of the lung but after mepacrine treatment these pathological findings were lessened. On the basis of these experimental results it is suggested that $PLA_2$ has a major role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury mediated by neutrophil dependent manner in IL-l induced acute lung injury.

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Birth weight was negatively correlated with plasma ghrelin, insulin resistance, and coenzyme Q10 levels in overweight children

  • Park, Eun-Ju
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.311-316
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between birth weight and appetite related hormones, insulin resistance, and antioxidant status in overweight children aged 9-10 years. Thirty-four healthy overweight children (18 boys, 16 girls) were evaluated with respect to anthropometric measurement, lipid profiles, leptin, ghrelin, glucose, insulin, C-peptide, lipid soluble vitamins, and antioxidant enzyme activities. I found that birth weight was negatively correlated with insulin resistance parameters, ghrelin, and coenzyme Q10 levels. There was a significant positive correlation between present BMI and leptin level, while a negative correlation was noted between the BMI and $\alpha$-tocopherol and lycopene levels. When total subjects were classified into three groups by tertiles of birth weight, the lowest tertile of birth weight (LTB) group showed higher levels of fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, and ghrelin level than the highest tertile of birth weight (HTB) groups. On the other hand, HTB group showed an increased oxidative stress (decreased coenzyme Q10 level and catalase activity) compared to the LTB group. In conclusion, plasma ghrelin level might play an important role in accelerated growth in overweight children with LTB. Increased insulin resistance is present in overweight children with LTB, while decreased coenzyme Q10 and catalase activity in overweight children with HTB. These results suggest that birth weight might be an important factor for determination of treatment for obesity related complications in childhood obesity.

Polymer matrices for carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites

  • Jin, Fan-Long;Lee, Seul-Yi;Park, Soo-Jin
    • Carbon letters
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.76-88
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    • 2013
  • Carbon fibers (CFs) have high service temperature, strength, and stiffness, and low weight. They are widely used as reinforcing materials in advanced polymer composites. The role of the polymer matrix in the composites is to provide bulk to the composite laminate and transfer load between the fibers. The interface between the CF and the resin matrix plays a critical role in controlling the overall properties of the composites. This paper aims to review the synthesis, properties, and applications of polymer matrices, such as thermosetting and thermoplastic resins.

Design of Dynamic Location Privacy Protection Scheme Based an CS-RBAC (CS-RBAC 기반의 동적 Location Privacy 보호 구조 설계)

  • Song You-Jin;Han Seoung-Hyun;Lee Dong-Hyeok
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartC
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    • v.13C no.4
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    • pp.415-426
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    • 2006
  • The essential characteristic of ubiquitous is context-awareness, and that means ubiquitous computing can automatically process the data that change according to space and time, without users' intervention. However, in circumstance of context awareness, since location information is able to be collected without users' clear approval, users cannot control their location information completely. These problems can cause privacy issue when users access their location information. Therefore, it is important to construct the location information system, which decides to release the information considering privacy under the condition such as location, users' situation, and people who demand information. Therefore, in order to intercept an outflow information and provide securely location-based information, this paper suggests a new system based CS-RBAC with the existing LBS, which responds sensitively as customer's situation. Moreover, it accommodates a merit of PCP reflecting user's preference constructively. Also, through privacy weight, it makes information not only decide to providing information, but endow 'grade'. By this method, users' data can be protected safely with foundation of 'Role' in context-aware circumstance.

Effect of Planned Nursing Intervention on the Stress, the Maternal Role Strain, and the Maternal Role Performance of Mothers of Premature Infants (계획된 간호 중재가 미숙아 어머니의 스트레스, 모성 역할 긴장과 역할 수행에 미치는 영향)

  • Joung Kyoun -Hwa
    • Child Health Nursing Research
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.70-83
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    • 1999
  • The birth of a premature infant is distressing for its parents. The parents of a premature infant experience stress according to the infant's physical appearance and behavior, the environment of the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) , and the alteration in the parental role. Especially, a mother of a premature infant feels distressed even after the discharge of the infant : therefore, she has difficulties in maternal role performance. The main purpose of this study is to identify the effects of the planned infant care information program in order to lower the stress level for mothers of premature infants caused by the birth and hospitalization in NICU of premature infants, to reduce the maternal role strain, and to promote the maternal role performance after the infants' discharge. This study employed two methods of research at the same time : quasi -experimental non-equivalent pre and post test to compare : non-equivalent post test to compare. The total number of subjects was 19 who were assigned to the research program : 12 mothers of premature infants at the NICU at the Ch university hospital and 7 at the NICU at the Y general hospital located in Chounju city. The data were collected for 79 days from August 18 to November 5, 1998. The questionnaire method was applied for the data collection, and the measures used in this study were Parental Stressor Scale : NICU(Miles, 1993), the Maternal Role Strain Measures ( Hobbs, 1968 ; Steffensmeier, 1982) , and Self Confidence Scale (Pharis, 1978). Research procedure is as follows : after preliminary examination, the experimental subjects, the mothers of premature infants at the Nl CU at Ch university hospital were provided with slide films and information developed by the researcher based on existing documents and data. It took two 60-minute sessions a week for two weeks, and the mothers' stress level was measured using the same instrument twice one week and two week after the infants' hospitalization. The stress level of the contrast subjects, the mothers at Y general hospital was measured during the same period. The experimental subjects were provided with booklets on matters that require attention after the infants' discharge and on developmental project, and they were educated to play the maternal role in person for 2-3 hours a week : breast-feeding, burping a baby, and changing diapers. One week after the infants' discharge, the maternal role strain and the maternal role performance were examined in two groups of the subjects. The analysis of collected data was done using descriptive statistics including real numbers, percentages, averages, and standard deviations. Mann-Whitney test ; x² test ; Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance ; ANCOVA Spearman's rho correlation coefficients. The results on this study were as follows. (1) The examination of the same quality showed that there were no differences in the general and obstetrical characters between the two groups. However, in terms of the characters of premature infants. just right after their birth, the infants at the contrast group weighed more than those at the experimental group(U=16.5, p=.02), and the former was in mother's womb longer than the latter(U=15.5, p=.02). (2) The stress level of the mothers provided with the plannned nursing intervention program became lower as time passed compared to the others'(F=16.61, p=.00) Even when the influence of weight at birth and the length of gestation was removed among the premature infants' characters, the mothers' stress levels made a statistical difference 2 weeks after the infants' hospitalization depending on treatment (F=8.00, p=.01) (3) The maternal role strain of the mothers provided with the planned nursing intervention program was lower than the others'(U=2.0, p=.00). Even when the influence of weight at birth and the length of gestation was removed among the premature infants' characters, the maternal role strain levels made a statistical difference 2 weeks after the infants' hospitalization, depending on treatment(F=14.72, p=.00). (4) The maternal role performance level of the mothers provided with the planned nursing program was higher than the others'(U=.0, p=.00). Even when the influence of weight at birth and the length of gestation was removed among the premature infants' characters, the mothers' stress levels made a statistical difference 2 weeks after the infants' hospitalization, depending on treatment(F=8.00, p=.01). (5) The correlation between a mother's stress level 2 weeks after her infant's hospitalization, the maternal role strain and the maternal role performance were compared : the stress and the maternal role strain were statistically irrelevant to each other(r=.33, p=.12) : the stress was found to be in inverse proportion to the maternal role performance(r=-.53, p=.02). The maternal role strain was in inverse proportion to the maternal role performance as well(r=-.50, p=.00). In conclusion, for the mothers provided with the planned nursing intervention program, their stress level was getting lower as time passed during the infants' hospitalization, their maternal role strain reduced when they took care of their infants after their discharge, and their maternal role performance level was high compared to the other mothers. Besides, the lower the stress level of mothers of premature infants was during the infants' hospitalization, the higher the maternal role performance after their discharge was. The lower maternal role strain was, the higher the maternal role performance was as well. These results of the study suggested that the nursing intervention program for the mothers of premature infants developed by the researcher would be effectively applied to nursing practice, and it would be a foundation for the development of this kind of program.

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Metallothioneins and oxidative stress

  • Beattie, John H.;Trayhurn, Paul
    • Proceedings of the Korean Nutrition Society Conference
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    • pp.73-82
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    • 2002
  • The low molecular weight zinc-binding protein metallothionein (U) contains 32% cysteine and has been shown to efficiently scavenge hydroxyl radicals in vitro. MT expression is induced by oxidative stress and an antioxidant role for this protein has therefore been proposed. This review mainly focuses on the evidence for this role arising from studies using genetically modified animals and cells which either over- or under-express MT. Despite some considerable disparity of results in the literature, reported studies do generally support an antioxidant role. Nevertheless, oxidant stress at non-physiological treatment levels has been the preferred experimental model and there is little information about the role of MT in physiological oxidative stress. Although it is presumed that the mechanism by which MT has an antioxidant effect involves oxidation of cysteinal thiols, it is possible that zinc release from MT is in itself an important signalling factor.

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Metallothioneins and Oxidative Stress

  • Beattie, John H.;Trayhurn, Paul
    • Proceedings of the Korean Nutrition Society Conference
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    • pp.1171-1177
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    • 2002
  • The low molecular weight zinc-binding protein metallothionein (MT) contains 32% cysteine and has been shown to efficiently scavenge hydroxyl radicals in vitro. MT expression is induced by oxidative stress and an antioxidant role for this protein has therefore been proposed. This review mainly focuses on the evidence for this role arising from studies using genetically modified animals and cells which either over-or under-express MT. Despite some considerable disparity of results in the literature, reported studies do generally support an antioxidant role. Nevertheless, oxidant stress at non-physiological treatment levels has been the preferred experimental model and there is little information about the role of MT in physiological oxidative stress Although it is presumed that the mechanism by which MT has an antioxidant effect involves oxidation of cysteinal thiols, it is possible that zinc release from MT is in itself an important signalling factor.

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A Study on Optimum Structural Design of the Corrugated Bulkhead Considering Stools (상하부 스툴을 고려한 파형 격벽 최적 설계에 관한 연구)

  • 신상훈;남성길
    • Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.53-58
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    • 2003
  • Design of the corrugated watertight bulkhead for a bulk carrier is principally determined by the permissible limit of Classification requirements. As the weight of upper and lower stool has considerable portion of the total weight of the transverse bulkhead, optimum design including the stool geometry and size will play an important role on economic shipbuilding. The purpose of this study is focused on the minimization of steel weight using the design variables, which are the shape and the size of the corrugation as well as the upper and lower stools. Discrete variables are used as design variables for the practical design. In this study, the evolution strategies (ES), which can highly improve the possibility of leaching the global minimum point, are selected as an optimization method. Usefulness of this study is verified by comparison with the proven type ship design. As objective function, total weight of the transverse bulkhead including the upper and lower stools is used.

Metallothioneins and Oxidative Stress

  • Beattie, John H.;Trayhurn, Paul
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.228-233
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    • 2002
  • The low molecular weight zinc-binding protein metallothionein(MT) contains 32% cysteine and has been shown to efficiently scavenge hydroxyl radicals in vitro. MT expression is induced by oxidative stress and an antioxidant role for this protein has therefore been proposed. This review mainly focuses on the evidence for this role arising from studies using genetically modified animals and cells which either over- or under-express MT. Despite some considerable disparity of results in the literature, reported studies do generally support an antioxidant role. Nevertheless, oxidant stress at non-physiological treatment levels has been the preferred experimental model and there is little information about the role of MT in physiological oxidative stress. Although it is presumed that the mechanism by which MT has an antioxidant effect involves oxidation of cysteinal thiols, it is possible that zinc release from MT is in itself an important signalling factor.

Scavenging Strategy of Panax ginseng Against Formed Free Radicals Under Stress of Mercuric Chloride in Rattus norvegicus

  • Mahour, Kanhiya;Saxena, Prabhu N.
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.150-154
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    • 2008
  • Twenty five albino rats were divided into five groups for conducting this experiment. The first group was for positive control (Vitamin C, ascorbic acid), the second group was of Panax ginseng (10 mg/kg body weight) treated group after bio-activity assay, the third group was of mercuric chloride treated group (0.033 mg/kg body weight) based on calculating $LD_{50}$ 9.26 mg/kg body weight by probit analysis, the fourth group was of mercuric chloride (0.033 mg/kg body weight) followed by Panax ginseng (10 mg/kg body weight) and the fifth group was Panax ginseng (10 mg/kg body weight) followed by mercuric chloride (0.033 mg/kg body weight) treated group. The interval between intake of Panax ginseng and mercuric chloride was of 2 hours in groups, fourth and fifth respectively. Comparative free radical scavenging property of Panax ginseng was studied under three in vitro models (role model for calculating scavenging activity) viz. DPPH method (hydroxyl free radicals), Nitric oxide method (nitrile free radicals) and Lipid peroxidation (mercury free radicals).