• Title, Summary, Keyword: the Weight of Role

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Design of Turbo Code Interleaver Using Union Bound (유니온 상한을 이용한 터보코드의 인터리버 설계)

  • 안홍영
    • Proceedings of the IEEK Conference
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    • pp.161-164
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    • 2000
  • Given the frame size and constituent encoders, interleaver plays a central role in a turbo code performance. Interleaver should be designed to generate a heavy weight codeword in the second encoder if the first encoder generates a low weight codeword. In this paper we present a search procedure for high performace interleaver whose performance is measured by computing union bound using the weight spectrum of all the weight 2, 3

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Lizhong-tang on Over Weight Syndrome : A Case Report (과체중에 이중탕(理中湯)을 사용한 1례)

  • Park, Yun-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.43-45
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    • 2001
  • Diet-control has had an important role in cases of over weight syndrome and obesity, but in the most of the cases diet-control hasn' t been successful. In view of oriental medicine, those were regarded as deficiency syndrome. Recently I experienced a 41 years old woman who had arthralgia with over weight and whose condition was improved through Lizhong-tang used insufficiency of the spleen-yang.

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Antiobesity Effect of Estrogen on Ovariectomized Rat (난소절제 흰쥐에서 Estrogen의 항비만 효과)

  • 정수연;유태무;양지선;류항묵
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.111-116
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    • 1999
  • Obesity is a chronic disease that is increasing in prevalence and that poses a serious risk for the hypertension, osteoporosis, heart disease, diabetes mellitus and certains forms of cancer. This study was performed to develop of obesity animal model and to assess the pharmacological assay for the rats of 8 weeks or 4 days after ovariectomization treated with estradiol for 8 weeks on the body weight. fat weight and food intake. The body weight, fat weight and food intake increased in the ovriectomized rats. In the rat of 8 weeks after ovariectomization treated with estradiol (250 mg/100 g) 8 weeks, the body weight decreased significantly (p<0.05). In the rats of 4 days after ovariectomization treated with estradiol 8 weeks, the body weight decreased significantly (p<0.05). These results suggest that estrogen plays a role in regulation body weight response to food intake and fat weight.

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Evaluation of Glucose Dehydrogenase and Pyrroloquinoline Quinine (pqq) Mutagenesis that Renders Functional Inadequacies in Host Plants

  • Naveed, Muhammad;Sohail, Younas;Khalid, Nauman;Ahmed, Iftikhar;Mumtaz, Abdul Samad
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.25 no.8
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    • pp.1349-1360
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    • 2015
  • The rhizospheric zone abutting plant roots usually clutches a wealth of microbes. In the recent past, enormous genetic resources have been excavated with potential applications in host plant interaction and ancillary aspects. Two Pseudomonas strains were isolated and identified through 16S rRNA and rpoD sequence analyses as P. fluorescens QAU67 and P. putida QAU90. Initial biochemical characterization and their root-colonizing traits indicated their potential role in plant growth promotion. Such aerobic systems, involved in gluconic acid production and phosphate solubilization, essentially require the pyrroloquinoline quinine (PQQ)-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) in the genome. The PCR screening and amplification of GDH and PQQ and subsequent induction of mutagenesis characterized their possible role as antioxidants as well as in growth promotion, as probed in vitro in lettuce and in vivo in rice, bean, and tomato plants. The results showed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in parameters of plant height, fresh weight, and dry weight, etc., deciphering a clear and in fact complementary role of GDH and PQQ in plant growth promotion. Our study not only provides direct evidence of the in vivo role of GDH and PQQ in host plants but also reveals their functional inadequacy in the event of mutation at either of these loci.

The Role of Milk Products in Metabolic Health and Weight Management

  • Zemel, Michael B.
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.17-28
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    • 2010
  • A substantial body of evidence has emerged over the last decade in support of the novel concept that dietary calcium and dairy foods play an important role in regulating energy metabolism and thereby promote healthy weight management and reduce obesity risk. This concept has been demonstrated in experimental animals studies, cross-sectional and prospective population studies and a number of randomized clinical trials. Notably, the effects of dairy foods in weight management are more consistent than the effects of supplemental calcium across clinical trials, and calcium per se is responsible for approximately 40-50% of the effects of dairy. The calcium component is only effective in individuals with chronically low calcium intake, as it serves to prevent the endocrine response to low calcium diets which otherwise favors adipocyte energy storage; calcium also serves to promote energy loss via formation of calcium soaps in the gastrointestinal tract and thereby reduce fat absorption. The calcium-independent anti-obesity bioactivity of dairy resides primarily in whey. The key components identified to date are leucine and bioactive peptides resulting from whey protein digestion. The high concentration of leucine in whey stimulates a repartitioning of dietary energy from adipose tissue to skeletal muscle where it provides the energy required for leucine-stimulated protein synthesis, resulting in increased loss of adipose tissue and preservation of skeletal muscle mass during weight loss. Finally, dairy rich diets suppress the oxidative and inflammatory responses to obesity and thereby attenuate the diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk associated with obesity.

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Effect of partial pyloric obstruction on body weight, gastric juice, gastric surface area and gastric edema in normal intact rats and/or vagotomized rats (정상 및 미주신경절단 흰쥐의 체중, 위액 분비량, 위의 형태변화에 대한 위 유문부 부분폐색과 재개통의 효과)

  • Seon, Jong-Ki;Yoon, Sang-Hyub
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.26-38
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    • 2012
  • Objectives : The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of partial pyloric obstruction on body weight, gastric juice, gastric surface area and gastric edema in normal intact and/or vagotomized rats. Methods : Partial pyloric obstruction was performed by wrapping a non-absorbable rubber ring (D:6 mm, W:4 mm, T:1 mm) around the 1st portion of the duodenum. Vagotomy was performed by resecting the branches around the esophagogastric junction. Pre-post body weight differential, fasting gastric juice volume, gastric surface area and gastric edema were measured at 8 weeks and 20 weeks. For the effect of pyloric reperfusion the rubber ring was removed after 8 weeks and then an additional 12 weeks of observation was performed to the end of the 20-week experimental period. Results : In the initial 8 weeks observation, the effect of pylorus obstruction and/or vagotomy was significantly remarkable in the pylorus obstructed and vagotomized group; slowdown of weight gain, increase of fasting gastric juice volume, dilatation of gastric surface area and severe gastric edema were shown. In the remaining 12 weeks observation, the effect of reperfusion was significantly remarkable in the ring-removed antral dilated group; recovery of weight gain, decrease of gastric surface area and decrease of gastric edema were shown. However, gastric juice volume was not significantly different from the other group. Conclusions : Partial pyloric obstruction plays a aggravating role and the vagus nerve plays a protective role in body weight, gastric juice, gastric surface area, and gastric edema. Furthermore, pyloric valve dysfunction as an aggravating factor strengthened in defect of the vagus nerve. These results suggest that patients with both functional pyloric outlet obstruction and hypofunction of vagus nerve need to be diagnosed in good time and treated properly.

The Study for Differences of Eating Traits, Personality Characteristics, Depression and Other Psychopatology According to Need for Weight Control in Athletes (운동선수에 있어 체중조절필요성에 따른 식사특성, 성격특성, 우울성향 및 기타병리의 차이에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Young-Ho;Park, Se-Hyun;Chung, Young-Cho
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.39-48
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    • 1995
  • This study was designed to investigate the role of weight control in the formation of underlying pathology in eating disorder or eating related problems. The subjects were 304 college athletes(Male : 187. Female: 121) and they were divided into two groups according to need for weight control(Weght control group: 110, Weght non control group: 194). The authors used self report questionnaire which was composed of epidemiologic data, food habit scale, eating attitude test, scale for locus of control for weight, scale for food preference and eating behavior. And we also used Eysenck Personality Questionnaire of Korean standardized edition for assessment of personality characteristics, Beck depression inventory, and the scale of hypochondriasis. The results were as follows: 1) Body mass index and the amount of cigarrette smoking and alcohol drinking showed significant differences by sex but not by need for weight control. 2) Eating habit of female athletes was the worst in all athletes. The score of eating attitude test of female athletes was higher than that of male athletes but there was no significant difference by need for weight control. Food preference and eating related behavior was also different by sex. 3) There were no significant differences in all subscales of Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Beck depression inventory, and the scale of hypochondriasis between two groups which were divided by need for weight control. Neuroticism score was higher in female atheletes and psychoticism score was the highest in weight control male atheletes. 4) There was no significant difference in number of population with abnormal EAT score(to-tal score$\geq$26) between two groups which were divided by need for weight control. 5) The score of eating attitude test had positive correlation with the score of psychoticism and the tendency of depression in weight control male athletes but not in non-weight control male athletes. In non-weight control male athletes, the score of eating attitude test had positive correlation with the score of lie scale. so its correlation is different from those of weight control male athletes. But in female athletes, the score of eating attitude test had significant positive correlation with the score of psychoticism in both groups. In conclusion, these results suggest that the differences of eating traits in athletes are depend upon the sex difference, not upon the need for weight control. and that the role of weight control in eating disorder or abnormal eating attitude differs according to sex.

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A Study on Weight Control Program for 4th and 5th Grade Obese Children in Elementary School

  • Chang, Soon-Ok
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.34-41
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    • 1998
  • This study examined the proper roles of dietitian and nurse-teacher in the weight control program (WCP) in schools and the effect of the WCP on subjects with respect to anthropometric measurements, nutrition knowledge, dietary attiude, and behavior changes. The program consisted of six sessions of nutrition education and frequent face-to-face nutrition counseling. Subjects were 22 obese children in the 4th and 5th grade who underwent counseling and 18 obese children in another school who served as a control group. After two months of WCP, obesity index such as .elative body weight (RBW, from 135.7 to 132.5), tricep skinfold thickness (TSFT, from 34.9 to 32.8 mm), and body fat content (from 32.0 to 29.8%) had decreased significantly in the experimental group, while the control group showed no significant differences in these indices. The reductions in obesity indices were maintained in the experimental group except for fat content (32.6%), which returned to its original value within six months. The control group significantly increased fat content in the same period (from 31.2% to 36.2%). Both groups decreased RBW, TSFT, and fat content while midarm circumference and waist/hip ratio remained the same after one year. Subjects' nutrition knowledge was improved with average test scores from 15.1 to 16.7 while nutrition attitude and behavior test scores remained unchanged suggesting that behavior modification may require more time than knowledge acquirement. These results suggest that proper nutrition counseling can initiate weight reduction. However, the maintenance of controlled weight requires changes in attitude and behavior which have not been achieved by the present WCP. The role of school dietitian for WCP in this study was limited to assisting the nurse-teacher in nutrition education. Expansion of dietitian's role in nutrition education and counseling is needed.

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Exosomal Protein Profiles as Novel Biomarkers in Weight Gain After Kidney Transplantation: A Pilot Study

  • Cho, Young-Eun;Lee, Hyangkyu;Kim, Hyungsuk;Yun, Sijung;Cashion, Ann
    • Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.119-126
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    • 2020
  • Purpose:Weight gain after kidney transplantation is a critical factor that can lead to poor outcomes with cardiovascular complications. Many studies have been conducted to identify predictive markers of future weight changes at the time of transplant. Recently, circulating exosomes and its contents including miRNAs and proteins have attracted attention as potential biomarkers. In this pilot study, we investigated exosomal proteins and weight change after kidney transplant. Methods: Recipients (n = 10) were classified into two groups; weight gainers (n = 5, 9.7 ± 4.4kg) and weight losers (n = 5, -6.4 ± 1.8kg) based on their weight changes at 12-months posttransplant. Based on the exosomal protein profiles obtained by the LC-MS/MS, differentially expressed proteins were identified between the groups. Results: Concentration and the mean size of exosomes significantly increased at 12-months compared to the baseline (p= .009) in the total group. Eleven exosomal proteins were found at the baseline as differentially expressed between the two groups. In the weight gain group, complement proteins including HV169, C3, C4B, and C4A, were significantly upregulated. Conclusion: Our pilot study suggests that exosomal complementary proteins are associated with weight gain after kidney transplantation. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of these exosomal proteins in the underlying mechanisms of weight changes in kidney transplant recipients.

Lung interstitial cells during alveolarization

  • Choi, Chang-Won
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.53 no.12
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    • pp.979-984
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    • 2010
  • Recent progress in neonatal medicine has enabled survival of many extremely low-birth-weight infants. Prenatal steroids, surfactants, and non-invasive ventilation have helped reduce the incidence of the classical form of bronchopulmonary dysplasia characterized by marked fibrosis and emphysema. However, a new form of bronchopulmonary dysplasia marked by arrest of alveolarization remains a complication in the postnatal course of extremely low-birth-weight infants. To better understand this challenging complication, detailed alveolarization mechanisms should be delineated. Proper alveolarization involves the temporal and spatial coordination of a number of cells, mediators, and genes. Cross-talk between the mesenchyme and the epithelium through soluble and diffusible factors are key processes of alveolarization. Lung interstitial cells derived from the mesenchyme play a crucial role in alveolarization. Peak alveolar formation coincides with intense lung interstitial cell proliferation. Myofibroblasts are essential for secondary septation, a critical process of alveolarization, and localize to the front lines of alveologenesis. The differentiation and migration of myofibroblasts are strictly controlled by various mediators and genes. Disruption of this finely controlled mechanism leads to abnormal alveolarization. Since arrest in alveolarization is a hallmark of a new form of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, knowledge regarding the role of lung interstitial cells during alveolarization and their control mechanism will enable us to find more specific therapeutic strategies for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. In this review, the role of lung interstitial cells during alveolarization and control mechanisms of their differentiation and migration will be discussed.