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Growth and Root Characteristics and P, K Uptake by Soybean under Different Soil Water Conditions (토양(土壤) 수분(水分)의 상태(狀態)가 대두(大豆)의 생육(生育) 및 근계발달(根系發達) 특성(特性)과 P, K 흡수(吸收)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Jung, Yeong-Sang;Lim, Hyung-Sik;Ha, Sang-Geun;Han, Seong
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.8-15
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    • 1992
  • An experiment was conducted to find out effect of soil water condition on shoot and root growth and P, K uptake by soybean plants. Soybean plants were grown under different soil water table levels, 20cm, 40cm and 60cm below the soil surface using minirhizotron with 20cm in diameter, and well irrigated and water stressed conditions using 1/2000a Waganer pots. Three soybean plants, Paldal culfivar, were grown and sampled at the early growing period, 37 days after planting, and at the harvesing period, 115 days after planting. Shoot and root growth were restricted by water stresed condition and by excessive soil water condition with the 20cm water table. Little difference in shoot and root growth were found between well irrigated condition and 40cm or 60cm water table conditions. The P and K contents in shoot under water stressed condition were higher than well irrigated condition at the early growing period but reversed at later harvesting period. The dry weight and length of roots were more severely restricted by water stress than those of shoots. Root morphological difference was found by anatomical observation. Normal cortex was developed under the well irrigated condition, while abnormal cortex with aerenchyma formed by lysis under excessive water conditions of 20 or 40cm water talbes. Aerenchyma was formed at outer skirt of pericycle. Role of formation of aerenchyma of soybean roots might be an adaptation to excessive soil water condition and possibly related to survival of soybean roots growing under near flooding condition on dikes of paddy lands.

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Homocysteine, insulin, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels in obese children (비만아에서 혈청 호모시스테인, 인슐린, 비타민 B12, 엽산 농도에 대한 연구)

  • Park, Jee Yoon;Hong, Young Mi
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.475-481
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    • 2006
  • Purpose : As the prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus have become problems. High homocysteine levels and low vitamin $B_{12}$ supplementation are acknowledged to have a role in coronary artery disease, but there are few studies on homocysteine, insulin and vitamin $B_{12}$ levels in obese children. We aimed to study whether homocysteine, insulin, vitamin $B_{12}$, folic acid levels could have any difference and relation in obese children. Methods : The disease group consisted of 27 children from 8 to 11 years old, whose obesity index was over 130. The control group consisted of 30 healthy children of the same age group. Obesity index and body mass index were calculated by height and body weight of the children, and their systolic and diastolic blood pressures at resting state were checked. Total cholesterol, triglyceride, homocysteine, insulin, vitamin $B_{12}$, folic acid levels were studied after 10 hours of fasting. Intracellular fluid, extracellular fluid, protein, mineral, muscle mass, lean body fat, fat mass and fat percentages were checked by bioelectrical impedance. Results : Homocysteine levels were higher in obese children($8.1{\pm}2.1{\mu}mol/mL$ vs. $4.9{\pm}1.0{\mu}mol/mL$). Insulin levels were also higher in obese children($26.8{\pm}11.2{\mu}IU/mL$ vs. $12.5{\pm}5.24{\mu}IUl/mL$). Vitamin $B_{12}$ was lower in obese children($798.6{\pm}174.3pg/mL$ vs. $967.8{\pm}405.0pg/mL$). But there was not a difference in the folic acid levels between the two groups. In obese children, systolic blood pressure (r=0.535), triglyceride(r=0.517), total cholesterol(r=0.408), folic acid(r=0.408), vitamin $B_{12}$(r=0.338) and abdomoanl fat %(r=0.306) had a positive correlation. Conclusion : We found definite differences of insulin, homocysteine, and vitamin $B_{12}$ plasma levels in obese children, but we need more study to use those parameters as risk factors of metabolic syndrome in pediatric obese patients.

Changes of pH, Meat Color, Cooking Loss, Shear Force and Sensory Evaluation on Hanwoo Meat Fed with Supplemental Fig Fermentation during Storage Period (무화과 발효물을 급여한 한우고기의 저장기간 중 pH, 육색, 가열감량, 전단력 및 관능평가의 변화)

  • Kook, Kil;Kim, Kwang-Hyun
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.289-293
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    • 2002
  • This study was conducted to investigate changes of pH, meat color, cooking loss, shear force and sensory evaluation on Hanwoo meat fed with supplemental fig fermentation(SFF) during storage period. A total of 10 Hanwoo bulls were subjected to one of two treatment diets (control and 10% SFF) from live weight of 400kg far 6 months. After slaughter, longissimus muscles were removed, zipper-wrapped and stored at 4$\^{C}$ for 21 days. The pH, meat color, cooking loss, shear force and sensory evaluation of the samples were measured at 1, 3, 9, 15, 21 days of storage. There were no differences in pH, meat objective color(Hunter L, a and b) and cooking loss (%) of longissimus muscles between control and SFF treatment during storage. Shear force values of longissimus muscle from SFF treatment showed lower level in 1, 3 and 9 days and tended to decrease during storage. No differences in odor and appearance of sensory evaluation were observed between control and SFF treatment during storage. The taste induced by SFF was increased(f<0.05) at 1, 3 and 9 days of storage. These results indicate that the SFF may improve meat quality of Hanwoo during storage.

Studies on electrophoretic pattern and amino acids of wild soybean protein[1] -Acrylamide gel electrophoretic pattern of seed protein- (야생대두단백질(野生大豆蛋白質)의 전기영동유형(電氣泳動類型)및 아미노산조성(酸組成)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究)[1] -종실단백질(種實蛋白質)의 Acrylamide gel 전기(電氣) 영동유형(泳動類型)-)

  • Park, H.;Lee, J.S.;Lee, C.Y.
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.247-254
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    • 1977
  • Acrylamide gel electrophoretic pattern of 13 wild soybean (Glycine ussuriensis) was compared with that of G. gracilis and G. max var. Gwanggyo. Average Protein content (50%) of wild soybean was greater than that of C. gracilis (46%) and Gwanggyo (45%). Grain weight of wild soybean was one third of G. gracilis and one ninth of Gwanggyo. Electrophoresis of wild soybean protein showed total 16 different bands and three of which (Rm 0.09, 0.59 and 0.84) were specific and did not appeared in 86 var. of G. max which showed four specific bands (Rm 0.35, 0.45, 0.50 and 0.77) of total 17 bands. G. glacilis had all bands of Gwanggyo and two bands (Rm 0.53 and 0.59), one of which (Rm 0.59) was specific for wild soybean indicating that G. gracilis is middle type. Of 16 protein bands the third band (32%), the first band (28%) and the 5th band (13%) were main bands. Electrophoretic pattern could be sorted qualitatively into 4 groups, semiquantitatively into 6 groups and 2 or 4 groups depending on reference pattern by correlation or pattern similarity method. All sorting methods separated a wild soybean from Sogri mountain into a group and except that there were no similarity among methods but correlation methods seems more reasonable. Protein content was no relation with electrophoretic pattern but positively correlated with percent contribution of first band at 5% level suggesting that the first band may have a important role for protein synthesis.

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Effect of Ondansetron Alone and Combination of Naltrexone and Ondansetron on Alcohol Intake in C57BL/6 Mice (Naltrexone과 ondansetron의 병합투여가 C57BL/6형 생쥐의 알코올 섭취량에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hyeun-Kyeung;Kim, Sung-Gon;Kang, Cheol-Joong;Park, Sang-Ick;Kim, Won-Ho
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.17 no.11
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    • pp.1576-1581
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    • 2007
  • Dopamine reward pathway projecting from ventral tegmental area to nucleus accumbens is well known as playing an important role in alcohol dependence. It is supposed that this dopamine pathway is modulated by $5-HT_3$ nervous system, and it was reported that ondansetron (OND), $5-HT_3$ receptor antagonist, reduced drinking amount and increased abstinence rate in alcohol-dependent patients. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of combination of OND and naltrexone (NTX), non-specific opioid receptor antagonist, on alcohol intake in C57BL/6 mice. In 40 C57BL/6 mice in the state of alcohol dependence, vehicle, while OND 0.01 mg/kg, or NTX 1.0 mg/kg administrated respectively, or OND 0.01 mg/kg and NTX 1.0 mg/kg administrated simultaneously for ten days, medication effects on 2-hr alcohol, 22-hr water, 24-hr food intake and body weight were studied. When vehicle group was compared with 3 medication groups respectively, using a repeated measure ANOVA, NTX alone and vehicle groups showed a significant medication by time interaction (p=0.042) in 2-hr alcohol intake, but in the other 2 groups, OND and NTX combination group and OND alone group, there was no significant interaction with vehicle group in 2-hr alcohol intake. From these results, it is suggested that there is no effect on alcohol intake in mice treating with OND, and naltrexone#s suppression effect on alcohol intake in mice is attenuated when treating with OND and NTX simultaneously. It is supposed that a further study looking at the interactions of serotonin, dopamine and opioid nerves systems will be needed.

The Causes of Conflict and the Effect of Control Mechanisms on Conflict Resolution between Manufacturer and Supplier (제조-공급자간 갈등 원인과 거래조정 방식의 갈등관리 효과)

  • Rhee, Jin Hwa
    • Journal of Distribution Research
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.55-80
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    • 2012
  • I. Introduction Developing the relationships between companies is very important issue to ensure a competitive advantage in today's business environment (Bleeke & Ernst 1991; Mohr & Spekman 1994; Powell 1990). Partnerships between companies are based on having same goals, pursuing mutual understanding, and having a professional level of interdependence. By having such a partnerships and cooperative efforts between companies, they will achieve efficiency and effectiveness of their business (Mohr and Spekman, 1994). However, it is difficult to expect these ideal results only in the B2B corporate transaction. According to agency theory which is the well-accepted theory in various fields of business strategy, organization, and marketing, the two independent companies have fundamentally different corporate purposes. Also there is a higher chance of developing opportunism and conflict due to natures of human(organization), such as self-interest, bounded rationality, risk aversion, and environment factor as imbalance of information (Eisenhardt 1989). That is, especially partnerships between principal(or buyer) and agent(or supplier) of companies within supply chain, the business contract itself will not provide competitive advantage. But managing partnership between companies is the key to success. Therefore, managing partnership between manufacturer and supplier, and finding causes of conflict are essential to improve B2B performance. In conclusion, based on prior researches and Agency theory, this study will clarify how business hazards cause conflicts on supply chain and then identify how developed conflicts have been managed by two control mechanisms. II. Research model III. Method In order to validate our research model, this study gathered questionnaires from small and medium sized enterprises(SMEs). In Korea, SMEs mean the firms whose employee is under 300 and capital is under 8 billion won(about 7.2 million dollar). We asked the manufacturer's perception about the relationship with the biggest supplier, and our key informants are denied to a person responsible for buying(ex)CEO, executives, managers of purchasing department, and so on). In detail, we contact by telephone to our initial sample(about 1,200 firms) and introduce our research motivation and send our questionnaires by e-mail, mail, and direct survey. Finally we received 361 data and eliminate 32 inappropriate questionnaires. We use 329 manufactures' data on analysis. The purpose of this study is to identify the anticipant role of business hazard (environmental dynamism, asset specificity) and investigate the moderating effect of control mechanism(formal control, social control) on conflict-performance relationship. To find out moderating effect of control methods, we need to compare the regression weight between low versus. high group(about level of exercised control methods). Therefore we choose the structural equation modeling method that is proper to do multi-group analysis. The data analysis is performed by AMOS 17.0 software, and model fits are good statically (CMIN/DF=1.982, p<.000, CFI=.936, IFI=.937, RMSEA=.056). IV. Result V. Discussion Results show that the higher environmental dynamism and asset specificity(on particular supplier) buyer(manufacturer) has, the more B2B conflict exists. And this conflict affect relationship quality and financial outcomes negatively. In addition, social control and formal control could weaken the negative effect of conflict on relationship quality significantly. However, unlikely to assure conflict resolution effect of control mechanisms on relationship quality, financial outcomes are changed by neither social control nor formal control. We could explain this results with the characteristics of our sample, SMEs(Small and Medium sized Enterprises). Financial outcomes of these SMEs(manufacturer or principal) are affected by their customer(usually major company) more easily than their supplier(or agent). And, in recent few years, most of companies have suffered from financial problems because of global economic recession. It means that it is hard to evaluate the contribution of supplier(agent). Therefore we also support the suggestion of Gladstein(1984), Poppo & Zenger(2002) that relational performance variable can capture the focal outcomes of relationship(exchange) better than financial performance variable. This study has some implications that it tests the sources of conflict and investigates the effect of resolution methods of B2B conflict empirically. And, especially, it finds out the significant moderating effect of formal control which past B2B management studies have ignored in Korea.

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Effects of Pranlukast on Ovalbumin Induced Early-Phase Bronchoconstriction in Guinea Pigs (기니픽에서 Ovalbumin으로 유발된 즉시형 기관지 수축반응에 대한 Pranlukast의 효과)

  • Lee, Sin-Hyung;Shim, Jae-Jeong;Kim, Kyung-Kyu;Jeong, Hye-Cheol;Kwon, Young-Hwan;Kim, Je-Hyeong;Lee, Sung-Yong;Lee, So-Ra;Lee, Sang-Youb;Cho, Jae-Youn;In, Kwang-Ho;Yoo, Se-Hwa;Kang, Kyung-Ho
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.697-708
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    • 1999
  • Background : Leukotriene (LT) $C_4$, $D_4$, and $E_4$, the main components of slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A), have been suggested to play an important role in bronchial asthma such as antigen-induced bronchoconstriction, airway hyperreactivity, and pulmonary eosinophil accumulation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of treatment with the cysteinyl-LTs (cys-LTs) antagonist, pranlukast on allergen-induced guinea pig asthma model. Methods : Guinea pigs of treatment and placebo groups were sensitized by subcutaneous injection of ovalbumin(OVA) and challenged by inhalation of aerosolized OVA (1% weight/volume OVA). Normal control group did not sensitize with OVA. Oral ingestion of pranlukast and normal saline to the treatment and placebo groups was performed. In the treatment and placebo groups, airway resistance was measured before and after oral ingestion. Serum $LTC_4$ and eosinophilic infiltration of the bronchiolar and peribronchiolar tissues were measured after ingestion in the treatment and placebo groups. Results : Allergen-induced airway constriction developed in 20 (8 in treatment group, 12 in placebo group) among 35 guinea pigs. Airway resistance was significantly decreased at 3 and 6 minutes after OVA challenge in the pranlukast treatment group. In the placebo group, there was no difference of airway resistance between before and after saline ingestion. Serum $LTC_4$ levels showed 348.4 pg/ml in the treatment group, 373.9 pg/ml in the placebo group, and 364.4 pg/ml in the control group. There were no statistically significant difference between treatment and placebo group (p=0.232), and treatment and control group (p=0.501). Eosinophilic infiltrations in the peribronchiolar region per one-microscopic field ($\times$400 high power fields) demonstrated 7.06 in the treatment group, 19.2 in the placebo group, and 4.50 in the control group. There was significant decrement of eosinophilic infiltration in the treatment group which was compared with placebo group (p=0.001). Conclusion : These results demonstrate that pranlukast, a cys-LTs receptor antagonist, can attenuate allergen induced early-phase bronchoconstriction and eosinophilic infiltration in the bronchiolar tissues.

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Clinical Study on Thoracic Actinomycosis (흉부 방선균종의 임상적 고찰)

  • Hong, Sang-Bum;Kim, Woo-Sung;Lee, Jae-Hwan;Bang, Sung-Jo;Shim, Tae-Son;Lim, Chae-Man;Lee, Sang-Do;Koh, Youn-Suck;Lee, In-Chul;Kim, Dong-Soon;Kim, Won-Dong
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.1058-1066
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    • 1998
  • Background: Actinomycotic infection is uncommon and primary actinomycosis of the lung and chest wall has been less frequently reported. This disease may present as chronic debilitating illness with radiologic manifestation simulating lung tumor, pulmonary infiltrating lesion, or chronic suppuration. Diagnosis of choice was not definded yet and role of bronchoscopy on diagnosis was not described yet. Methods: From 1989 to 1998, we experienced 17 cases of thoracic actinomycosis. We have reviewed the case notes of 17 patients with thoracic actinomycosis. The mean age at presentation was $53{\pm}13$ years, 11 were male. Results: Cough, hemoptysis, sputum production, chest pain and weight loss were the commonest symptoms. The mean delay between presentation and diagnosis was $6.6{\pm}7.8$ months. There were six patients who presented with a clinical picture of a suppurative lesion and eleven patients were suspected of having primary lung tumor initially. In no cases was made an accurate diagnosis at the time of hospital admission. Associated diseases were emphysema (1 case), bronchiectasis (2 cases) and tuberculosis (2 cases). Bronchoscopic findings were mucosal swelling and stenosis(n=4), mucosal swelling, stenosis and necrotic covering (n=2), mass (n=3), mass and necrotic covering (n=1) and normal(n=6). Radiologic findings were mass lesion(n=8), pneumonitis(n=3), atelectasis(n=3), pleural effusion(n=2), and normal(n=3). Final diagnosis was based on percutaneous needle aspiration and biopsy (n=3), bronchoscopic biopsy specimens (n=9), mediastinoscopic biopsy (n=1) and histologic examination of resected tissue in the remaining patients(n=4) who received surgical excision. Among 17 patients, 13 were treated medically and the other 4 received surgical intervention followed by antibiotic treatment. Regarding the surgically treated patients, suspected malignancy is the most common indication for operation. However. both medically and surgically treated patients achieved good clinical results. Conclusion: Thoracic actinomycosis is rare. but should still be considered in the differential diagnosis of a chrinic, localized pulmonary lesion. Thoracic actinomycosis may co-exist with pulmonary tuberculosis or lung cancer. If the lesion is located in the central of the lung. the bronchoscopy is recommanded for the diagnosis.

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The Effects of Diltiazem and Pentoxifylline on Apoptosis of Irradiated Rat Salivary Gland (흰쥐 침샘의 방사선조사시 Apoptosis에 대한 Diltiazem과 Pentoxifylline의 효과)

  • Yang, Kwang-Mo;Suh, Hyun-Suk
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.367-375
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    • 1998
  • Purpose : Xerostomia is a complication met by almost all patients who have radiotherapy for cancers of head and neck. Many studies for prevention of xerostomia will be necessary. Radiation-induced acute response of salivary glands has been defined as interphase death or apoptosis. Increased intracellular calcium level have an important role in radiation-induced apoptosis. Calcium channel blocker may prevent radiation-induced apoptosis of salivary glands. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of diltiazem known as calcium channel blocker and pentoxifylline with inhibition of inflammatory response on the apoptosis as an acute response of radiation in rat salivary glands. Materials and Methods : Sprague-Dawley rats with about body weight 200-250 g were divided into 5 study groups : control, radiation alone, diltiazem with radiation, pentoxifylline with radiation, and diltiazem and pentoxifylline with radiation. The diltiazen and pentoxifylline were injected intraperitoneally 20 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg, 30 and 20 mimute before irradiation. respectively. Irradiation was given with a 4 MV linear accelerator. The 1600 cGy of radiation was delivered in a single fraction through a single anterior portal encompassing the entire neck. After 24 h of irradiation, rats were sacrificed and parotid and submandibular glands were removed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The quantification of apoptosis was performed by microscopic examination of stained tissue sections at a magnification of 200X and the percentage of apoptotic cell was calculated. Results : On parotid glands, the percentage of apoptosis by radiation alone, diltiazem with radiation, pentoxifylline with radiation, and diltiazem and pentoxifylline with radiation were 1.72$\%$ (8.35/486), 0.64$\%$ (2.9/453), 0.23$\%$ (1.2/516), and 0.28$\%$ (1.1/399), respectively. The apoptosis was markedly reduced in the groups receiving drugs compared with groups receivinge, radiation alone (p<0.05). In serous cell of submandibular glands, the percentages of apoptosis of radiation alone, diltiazem with radiation, pentoxifylline with radiation, and diltiazem and pentoxifylline with radiation were 1.94$\%$ (l1/567), 0.34$\%$ (1.9/554), 0.28$\%$ (1.8/637), and 0.22$\%$ (1.3/601), respectively. In the mucus cell of submandibular glands, the percentages of apoptosis were 0.92$\%$ (5.1/552), 0.41$\%$ (2.5/612), 0.29$\%$ (1.3/455), and 0.18$\%$ (1.0/562), respectively. The apoptosis was markedly reduced in the serous glands (p<0.05), but there was no difference in development of apoptosis in each group of mucus gland. Conclusion : These results suggest that radiation-induced apoptosis of serous cells of salivary glands may be decreased by diltiazem and pentoxifylline administration.

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Light and Electron Microscopy of Gill and Kidney on Adaptation of Tilapia(Oreochromis niloticus) in the Various Salinities (틸라피아의 해수순치시(海水馴致時) 아가미와 신장(腎臟)의 광학(光學) 및 전자현미경적(電子顯微鏡的) 관찰(觀察))

  • Yoon, Jong-Man;Cho, Kang-Yong;Park, Hong-Yang
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.27-40
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    • 1993
  • This study was taken to examine the light microscopic and ultrastructural changes of gill and kidney of female tilapia{Oreochromis niloticus) adapted in 0%o, 10%o, 20%o, and 30%o salt concentrations, respectively, by light, scanning and transmission electron microscope. The results obtained in these experiments were summarized as follows: Gill chloride cell hyperplasia, gill lamellar epithelial separation, kidney glomerular shrinkage, blood congestion in kidneys and deposition of hyalin droplets in kidney glomeruli, tubules were the histological alterations in Oreochromis niloticus. Incidence and severity of gill chloride cell hyperplasia rapidly increased together with increase of salinity, and the number of chloride cells in gill lamellae rapidly increased in response to high external NaCl concentrations. The ultrastructure by scanning electron microscope(SEM) indicated that the gill secondary lamella of tilapia(Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to seawater, were characterized by rough convoluted surfaces during the adaptation. Transmission electron microscopy(TEM) indicated that mitochondria in chloride cells exposed to seawater, were both large and elongate and contained well-developed cristae. TEM also showed the increased chloride cells exposed to seawater. The presence of two mitochondria-rich cell types is discussed with regard to their possible role in the hypoosmoregulatory changes which occur during seawater-adaptation. Most Oreochromis niloticus adapted in seawater had an occasional glomerulus completely filling Bowman's capsule in kidney, and glomerular shrinkage was occurred higher in kidney tissues of individuals living in 10%o, 20%o, 30%o of seawater than in those living in 0%o of freshwater, and blood congestion was occurred severer in kidney tissues of individuals living 20%o, 30%o of seawater than in those living in 10%o of seawater. There were decreases in the glomerular area and the nuclear area in the main segments of the nephron, and that the nuclear areas of the nephron cells in seawater-adapted tilapia were of smaller size than those from freshwater-adapted fish. Our findings demonstrated that Oreochromis niloticus tolerated moderately saline environment and the increased body weight living in 30%o was relatively higher than that living in 10%o in spite of histopathological changes.

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