• Title, Summary, Keyword: the United States

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Electronic Fund Transfer Systems in United States (미국(美國)의 전자자금이체(電子資金移替)시스템에 관한 고찰(考察))

  • Kang, Won-Jin
    • The Korean Research Institute of International Commerce and Law
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    • v.15
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    • pp.59-87
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    • 2001
  • In recent years electronic fund transfers covered by the Electronic Fund Transfer Act 1978 for consumer protection and the Article 4A of Uniform Commercial Code(U.C.C.) 1989 for wholesale electronic payments in United States. Electronic fund transfers carried out by use of a wire transfer network, automated clearing house, or other communication system of a clearing house or other association of banks such as direct deposit, Fedwire, automated teller machine, point-of-sale, and credit card transactions have been increasingly common in consumer transactions and wholesale transactions. Especially, the Article 4A of U.C.C. governs the rights and obligations associated with transactions such as an issue and acceptance of payment order, execution of sender's payment order by receiving bank, and payment. These legal frameworks in connection with electronic fund transfers in United States can play a leading role in establishing model not only within the United States, but also as a basis for developments of electronic commerce law in Korea including other countries.

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Capability Assessment on Korean Meteorological Technology: A Comparative Analysis of US, Japan, and UK (한국의 기상기술력 평가: 미국, 일본, 영국과 비교분석)

  • Kim, Hye-min;Park, So-yeon;Lee, Kyoungmi;Lim, Byung-hwan;Yoo, Seung-hoon
    • Journal of Korea Technology Innovation Society
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.34-61
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    • 2017
  • The objective of this study is to assess the capability of meteorological technology in Korea, the United States, Japan, and the United Kingdom as of 2015 and compare them with the previous values for Korea, the United States, and Japan. For the comparison, the indicators and weights for the assessment similar to those used in previous studies are used and Gordon's rating model is applied here to evaluate the indicators and conduct a survey of weather experts. The survey was administered to 200 of experts in meteorology using the Delphi method. More specifically, we investigate four categories of observation, data processing, forecast, and climate. The overall results show that the United Kingdom has the highest capability of meteorological technology among the four countries. With the result of indicator evaluation on this study the United Kingdom has the highest capability of meteorological technologies compared with Korea, the United States, and Japan. The capability of meteorological technology in Korea is 88.5% of the United Kingdom, 89.9% of Japan, and 90.6% of the United States. The countries in order of score on survey evaluation are the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, and Korea. Through the result of survey evaluation, the level of meteorological technology in Korea was 88.9% of the United States, 91.6% of the United Kingdom, and 92.2% of Japan.

A Comparative Study between Korea and the United States on Executive and Supportive Programs for the Multifamily Housing Remodeling (공동주택 리모델링 시행 프로그램에 관한 한.미간 비교연구 - 미국 리모델링 관련 제도와 전문가 대상 면접조사 결과를 중심으로 -)

  • Yoon, Chung-Sook;Seidel, Andrew D.;Abrams, Robin F.;Kim, Suk-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean housing association
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.45-55
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    • 2007
  • The study is based on a two-year research study titled 'A study on the Development of the Programs for Housing Policy to support Multi-family Housing Remodeling in Korea'. The primary purpose of this two-year study was to recommend governmental program initiatives for supporting multi-family housing remodeling activities in Korea. As a part of this research study, this article was written based on the results from the two surveys regarding multi-family housing remodeling in the United States and Korea, and a focus group with housing researchers affiliated to the Joint Center for Housing Studies. Major research findings are presented as follows: First, there have been various types of supportive programs for single- and multi-family housing remodeling in the United States. Those have focused on lower income families than middle income families. Compared with the programs in the United States, the apartment remodeling in Korea has been focusing on small population of the multi-family housing owners. Apartment remodeling in Korea needs supportive programs for rental housing remodeling and the housing remodeling for low-incomes. Second, there have been various types of remodeling activities made in multi-family housing properties in the United States. Size of remodeling project also varied. Their remodeling activities were based on the long-term repairing plans initiated by professional apartment management groups. For making our multi-family housing properties more sustainable, we also need to have the long-term repairing plans. Third, the apartment property remodeling has been regarded as a substitute of reconstruction of apartment properties. However, remodeling should be regarded as one of the most efficient ways to extend the life-cycle of apartment buildings. Thus, benefits and executive plans of apartment remodeling should be studied by a professional research center under our governmental responsibilities as done in the United States.

Investigation of a pre-clinical mandibular bone notch defect model in miniature pigs: clinical computed tomography, micro-computed tomography, and histological evaluation

  • Carlisle, Patricia L.;Guda, Teja;Silliman, David T.;Lien, Wen;Hale, Robert G.;Baer, Pamela R. Brown
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.20-30
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: To validate a critical-size mandibular bone defect model in miniature pigs. Materials and Methods: Bilateral notch defects were produced in the mandible of dentally mature miniature pigs. The right mandibular defect remained untreated while the left defect received an autograft. Bone healing was evaluated by computed tomography (CT) at 4 and 16 weeks, and by micro-CT and non-decalcified histology at 16 weeks. Results: In both the untreated and autograft treated groups, mineralized tissue volume was reduced significantly at 4 weeks post-surgery, but was comparable to the pre-surgery levels after 16 weeks. After 16 weeks, CT analysis indicated that significantly greater bone was regenerated in the autograft treated defect than in the untreated defect (P=0.013). Regardless of the treatment, the cortical bone was superior to the defect remodeled over 16 weeks to compensate for the notch defect. Conclusion: The presence of considerable bone healing in both treated and untreated groups suggests that this model is inadequate as a critical-size defect. Despite healing and adaptation, the original bone geometry and quality of the pre-injured mandible was not obtained. On the other hand, this model is justified for evaluating accelerated healing and mitigating the bone remodeling response, which are both important considerations for dental implant restorations.

Korean Students' Health and Adjustment in the United States (미국내 한국학생들의 건강과 적응)

  • 최은진
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.72-82
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    • 1995
  • The purpose of this study was to review health and adjustment issues of Korean students in the context of international students' health in the United States. The number of international students studying in the United States has increased. In addition, more and more Koreans come to the United States for education. Korean students formed the fifth largest international group found on American campuses. As more and more international students study on American campuses, their health needs and problems became a concern to health professionals. Most health problems international students experience are stress related and psychosomatic. These students also have difficulties in using health care services. International students face barriers to obtaining health care because of differences in language and differences in cultural beliefs toward health. Korea manifests an eastern culture which is quite different from the western culture, so many Korean students studying in the United States experience difficulties in adjustment and using health care services. The study on the needs of Korean students in the U.S. reviewed in this research was a survey of 105 Korean students at the Pennsylvania State University, 1990. Korean students' health problems included stress, colds, fatigue, and headaches. Homesickness, financial problems, and academic problems were also important problems the Korean students faced. Korean students usually did not participate in any activities with Americans as much as with Koreans. Most Korean students did not participated in any health education workshops held on campus. This may be because the students had not participated previously in health education workshops conducted on campuses in Korea. Korean student's confidence with the English language appeared to be an important variable in using or not using the university health services. University health professionals in the United States need to develop better information system for international students so that they may better use the health services provided on campus. Also, university health professionals working on campuses in Korea need to put more attention on health of college students and provide on-campus health education workshops which meet the student's needs.

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North Koreans' Lives in the United States (미국으로 간 탈북자들의 정착과 적응에 관한 질적 연구)

  • Jun, Myung Hee
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.64 no.4
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    • pp.89-111
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    • 2012
  • Since the U.S. government officially accepted North Korean(NK) as refugees starting in 2006, about 120 North Koreans have come to and been living in the United States. However, little is known in regard to what the North Korean refugees need for a qualify life. This study aims to explore the essential experiences of North Korean defectors who have settled in the United States after escaping North Korea. Research inquiries are why North Korean refugees have chosen the United States for their settlement, and how they are living in the United States. Data were collected from in-depth interviews with eight NK refugees. For data analysis, grounded theory approach by Strauss and Corbin(1998) was employed. The data analysis identified the central phenomenon, protective and risk factors, and core actions and consequences of NK refugees' adjustment in the U.S. The central phenomenon was "voluntary choose to come to the U.S." The core action and consequences in the process of their adjustment were 'searching for the meaning of life,' and 'achieving acculturation.' The findings may provide deeper understanding on the situation of North Korean refugees in the U.S. and implications for how to help them adjust well in the society.

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Comparative Study of Social Integration Policies for Multi-cultural Families in Korea and the United States (다문화가족을 위한 사회통합정책에 관한 한.미 비교연구)

  • Sung, Mi-Ai
    • Korean Family Resource Management Association
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.63-81
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    • 2011
  • This study examined social integration policies for multi-cultural families in Korea and the United States through a literature review and internet research. Because the United States has developed and maintained its own culture, this was an appropriate country to compare to Korea in terms of social integration policy. There were four main results. First, both countries enforce assimilation policies for multi-cultural families. Second, most social integration programs and services for multi-cultural families in Korea are carried out by the Multi-cultural Family Support Centers, which are supported by the national and local governments in Korea. However, because the U.S. government has preserved a laissez-faire approach to policies for immigrant families, there are no government-based support centers for multi-cultural families in the United States. Third, both countries focus on the assimilation of multi-cultural families. Nevertheless, the U.S. government promotes a balance between ethnic identity and U.S. citizenship. Fourth, the U.S. government strongly supports second-generation education and development programs that recognize the second generation as a human resource for the future of society. In summary, even though there were some cultural differences between the two countries, the United States' assimilation policies based on ethnic identity would be useful for Korean integration policies. In addition, it is very important to offer opportunities for mutual integration in everyday life between Korean families and multi-cultural families.

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