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Factors Affecting South Korean Disaster Officials' Readiness to Facilitate Public Participation in Disaster Management Using Smart Technologies (재난안전 실무자의 스마트 재난관리 준비도에 영향을 미치는 요인에 관한 실증 연구 - 스마트 기술을 활용한 재난관리 민간참여 중심으로 -)

  • Lyu, Hyeon-Suk;Kim, Hak-Kyong
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.62
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    • pp.35-63
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    • 2020
  • As the frequency and intensity of catastrophic disasters increase, there is widespread public sentiment that government capacity for disaster response and recovery is fundamentally limited, and that the involvement of civil society and the private sector is ever more vital. That is, in order to strengthen national disaster response capacity, governments need to build disaster systems that are more participatory and function through the channels of civil society, rather than continuing themselves to bear sole responsibility for these "wicked problems." With the advancement of smart mobile technology and social media, government and society as a whole have been called upon to apply these new information and communication technologies to address the current shortcomings of government-led disaster management. As illustrated in such catastrophic disasters as the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan, the 2010 Haitian earthquake, and Hurricane Katrina in the United States in 2005, the realization of participatory potential of smart technologies for better disaster response has enabled citizen participation via new smart technologies during disasters and resulted in positive impact on the management of such disasters. In this context, this study focuses on the South Korean context, and aims to analyze Korean government officials' readiness for public participation using smart technologies. On this basis, it aims to offer policy suggestions aimed at promoting smart technology-enabled citizen participation. For this purpose, it proposes a particular model, termed SMART (System, Motivation, Ability, Response, and Technology).

A Comparison Study of Aerosol Samplers for PM10 Mass Concentration Measurement (PM10 질량농도 측정을 위한 시료채취기의 비교 연구)

  • Park, Ju-Myon;Koo, Ja-Kon;Jeong, Tae-Young;Kwon, Dong-Myung;Yoo, Jong-Ik;Seo, Yong-Chil
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.153-160
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    • 2009
  • A PM10 (aerodynamic diameter${\leq}$10 ${\mu}m$) sampler is used to quantify the potential human exposure to suspended particulate matter (PM) and to comply with the governmental regulation. This study was conducted to compare and evaluate the same PM10 cutpoint and different slopes between United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) PM10 sampling criterion and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists/$Comit\acute{e}$ $Europ\acute{e}en$ de Normalization/International Organization for Standardization thoracic PM10 sampling criterion through theory and experiment. Four PM10 samplers according to the USEPA criterion and one RespiCon sampler in accordance with the thoracic PM10 criterion were used in the present study. In addition, one DustTrak monitor was used to measure real time PM10 mass concentrations. All six aerosol samplers were tested in a PM generation chamber using polydisperse fly ash. Theoretical mass concentrations were calculated by applying the measured particle size distribution characteristics (geometric mean = 6.6 ${\mu}m$, geometric standard deviation = 1.9) of fly ash to each sampling criterion. The measured mass concentrations through a chamber experiment were consistent with theoretical mass concentrations in that a RespiCon sampler with the thoracic PM10 criterion collected less PM than a PM10 sampler with the USEPA criterion. The overall chamber experiment results indicated, when a PM10 sampler was used as a reference sampler, that (1) a RespiCon sampler had a normalizing factor of 1.6, meaning that this sampler underestimated an average 60% of PM10 mass sampled from a PM10 sampler, and (2) a DustTrak real-time monitor using a PM10 inlet had a calibration factor of 2.1.

The Relationship between Fish Consumption and Blood Mercury Levels in Residents of Busan Metropolitan City and Gyeongnam Province (부산, 경남 일부 지역 주민들의 생선 섭취량과 혈중 수은 농도의 관련성)

  • Kim, Chan Woo;Kim, Young Wook;Chae, Chang Ho;Son, Jun Seok;Kim, Ja Hyeon;Park, Hyoung Ouk;Kang, Yune-Sik;Kim, Jang-Rak;Hong, Young Seoub;Kim, Dae-Seon;Jeong, Baek Geun
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.223-232
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify the relationship between fish consumption and blood mercury levels in a sample of adult Koreans. Methods: The study subjects were 299 residents of Busan (male: 65, female: 234) and 185 residents of Namhae (male: 69, female: 116), South Korea. Demographic characteristics, current smoking, current drinking, fish consumption per week, past history of amalgam treatment, and residential district were recorded by trained interviewers in June and July, 2009. We considered a portion of fish to be equivalent to 70 gm weight, and calculated amounts of fish consumed per week. Using chi-square tests, t-tests, ANOVA, and multiple linear regression analysis, we estimated the relationships between blood mercury levels and amount of fish consumed per week and other factors. Results: The mean blood mercury level of our subjects was 6.61 ${\mu}g/L$, higher than the criterion defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (5.8 ${\mu}g/L$). In multiple linear regression analysis, residential district and amount of fish consumed per week were associated with blood mercury levels. However, marital status, current drinking, and gender, and age were not associated with blood mercury levels. Conclusions: In conclusion, we suggest the implementation of systematic and periodic population-based studies to decrease the risks of mercury poisoning among South Koreans who consume fish as a regular part of the diet.

Correlation between Leaf Size and Seed Weight of Soybean (콩의 잎 크기와 종실 무게와의 상관)

  • Park, Gyu-Hwan;Baek, In Youl;Han, Won Young;Kang, Sung Taek;Choung, Myoung Gun;Ko, Jong Min
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.58 no.4
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    • pp.383-387
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    • 2013
  • This study was carried out to examine whether the leaf size is likely to be used as a selection criterion for large seed genotype in soybean (Glycine. max (L.) Merr.) breeding program. Two hundred twenty nine soybean germplasms which had collected in Korea, United States, China and Japan were used in this experiment. The area of unifoliate leaf, middle leaflet of first trifoliate and third trifoliate leaf ranged from $3.2cm^2$ to $33.8cm^2$, 9.2 to $29.5cm^2$, and 7.2 to $58.9cm^2$, respectively. One hundred seed weight also showed great variation from 2.7 to 39.0 gram. The average leaf area of unifoliate, middle leaflet of first trifoliate and third trifoliate leaf were $15.7cm^2$, $18.1cm^2$ and $32.7cm^2$, respectively, and that of seed average weight was 17.2 gram per one hundred seed. Significantly positive correlations were observed between seed weight and leaf area of unifoliate (r=$0.80^{**}$), first trifoliate (r=$0.75^{**}$) and third trifoliate (r=$0.67^{**}$), respectively. Both the leaf length and leaf width of unifoliate, middle leaflet of first trifoliate and third trifoliate leaf were significantly positively correlated with seed weight and both the correlations of unifoliate were higher than the other leaves. The correlations of leaf width in soybean leaflet were higher than those of leaf length. Leaf length/width (L/W) ratio of upper leaf was higher than that of lower leaf in the leaf size. Both the leaf area and leaf width of unifoliate leaf are the most suitable predictive characteristics of early selection in related to seed weight for soybean breeding program.

Sorghum Extract Enhances Caspase-dependent Apoptosis in Primary Prostate Cancer Cells and Immune Activity in Macrophages (수수 추출물에 의한 primary 전립선 암세포의 caspase 의존성 apoptosis 유도 및 대식세포 면역활성 증가)

  • Cho, Hyun-Dong;Kim, Jeong-Ho;Hong, Seong-Min;Lee, Ju-Hye;Lee, Yong-Seok;Kim, Du-Hyun;Seo, Kwon-Il
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.12
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    • pp.1431-1437
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    • 2016
  • Sorghum bicolor L. is one of the important minor cereals in Asia, Africa, and the central United States, and it is considered a rich source of polyphenols, flavonoids, and dietary fiber. However, there is a lack of data on the anti-cancer activity of Sorghum in prostate cancer cells and immune activity in macrophages. This study aims to investigate the potential effects of an ethanol extract of S. bicolor L. (SE) on inducing apoptosis in RC-58T/h/SA#4 cells and immunomodulatory activity in RAW 264.7 cells. SE significantly inhibited the viability of RC-58T/h/SA#4 primary prostate cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. The morphology of RC-58T/h/SA#4 cells treated with SE was shrunken and involved the formation of an apoptotic body and nuclear condensation. In addition, SE markedly activated caspase-8, -9, and -3; increased the protein levels of Bax, p53, cleaved PARP, and cytosolic cytochrome c; and decreased Bcl-2 protein expression. Furthermore, the inhibition of caspases in RC-58T/h/SA#4 cells with z-VAD-fmk attenuated SE-induced cell growth inhibition. The production of nitric oxide (NO) was also elevated by SE treatment, as revealed by immune response parameters. These results suggest that SE inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in primary human prostate cancer cells in a caspase-dependent manner, and it modulates the immune functions in macrophages. Therefore, Sorghum bicolor L. may be used as a functional food to prevent prostate cancer and enhance immune activity.

Potential Applicability of Moist-soil Management Wetland as Migratory Waterbird Habitat in Republic of Korea (이동성 물새 서식지로서 습윤토양관리 습지의 국내 적용 가능성)

  • Steele, Marla L.;Yoon, Jihyun;Kim, Jae Geun;Kang, Sung-Ryong
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.295-303
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    • 2018
  • Inland wetlands in the Republic of Korea provide key breeding and wintering habitats, while coastal wetlands provide nutrient-rich habitats for stopover sites for East Asia/Australasia Flyway(EAAF) migrants. However, since the 1960's, Korea has reclaimed these coastal wetlands gradually for agriculture and urban expansion. The habitat loss has rippled across global populations of migrant shorebirds in EAAF. To protect a similar loss, the United States, specifically Missouri, developed the moist-soil management technique. Wetland impoundments are constructed from levees with water-flow control gates with specific soils, topography, available water sources, and target goals. The impoundments are subjected to a combination of carefully timed and regulated flooding and drawdown regimes with occasional soil disturbance. This serves a dual purpose of removing undesirable vegetation, while maximizing habitat and forage for wildlife. Flooding and drawdown schedules must be dynamic with constantly shifting climate conditions. Korea's latitude ($N33^{\circ}25^{\prime}{\sim}N38^{\circ}37^{\prime}$) is comparable to Missouri ($N36^{\circ}69^{\prime}{\sim}N40^{\circ}41^{\prime}$); as such, moist-soil management could prove to be an effective wetland restoration technique for Korea. In order to meet specific conservation goals (i.e. shorebird staging site restoration), it is necessary to test the proposed methodology on a site that can meet the required specifications for moist-soil management. Moist-soil management has the potential to not only create key habitat for endangered wildlife, but also provide valuable ecosystem services, including water filtration.

Comparison of TME Values of Imported Corns and ME Values Determined by In vitro Method (수입 옥수수들의 TME가와 In vitro 방법에 의해 측정한 ME가의 비교)

  • Cho, J.H.;Paik, I.K.;Hyun, Y.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.49 no.6
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    • pp.737-744
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    • 2007
  • An experiment was conducted to compare the ME values of imported corns measured by In vivo(TME) and In vitro(MEn, ME and MEpc) methods and to investigate the true amino acid availability(TAAA) and the true nutrient availability(TNA) of imported corns. For TME assay, twenty four 57-weeks-old Hy-Line roosters were assigned to fasting group(4 roosters) and four corn groups(5 roosters each): USA; corn produced in the United States, ARG; corn produced in Argentina, CHN; regular corn produced in China, CHNP; premium corn produced in China. The MEn, ME and MEpc values were determined by equations based on chemical analysis. The TME value of USA(3,745kcal/kg) in as fed basis was significantly (P<0.01) higher than ARG(3,555kcal/kg) and CHNP(3,518kcal/kg) but was not significantly different from CHN(3,671kcal/kg). The TME value of USA(4,144kcal/kg) in DM basis was not significantly different from CHN(4,060kcal/kg) and CHNP(4,008kcal/kg) but was significantly(P<0.05) higher than ARG(4,001kcal/kg). There were significant differences in TAAA of phenylalanine, histidine and arginine among imported corns. Those of USA were highest but overall TAAA was not significantly different among imported corns. True availability of NFE of USA, ARG and CHN was significantly(P<0.05) higher than that of CHNP. However, true availability of crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber and crude ash were not significantly different among corns. The correlation coefficient between TME and MEn value was 0.91 which was significant at P<0.1 but correlation coefficient between TME and ME value and between TME and MEpc value was 0.90 and 0.83, respectively which was not significant at P<0.1. In conclusion, US corn was highest in TME values and Chinese premium corn was not significantly different from regular Chinese corn. The MEn value obtained by equation based on chemical analysis may be used as a tool to evaluate TME value of corn.

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Industrial Organic Sludge from Wastewater Treatment Facilities in Korea (폐수처리시설에서 발생된 유기성 슬러지에 함유된 다환방향족탄화수소의 농도 특성)

  • Nam, Seong-Nam;Lee, Mi-Young;Yeon, Jinmo;Jeon, Taewan;Shin, Sun Kyoung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.34 no.8
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    • pp.574-582
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    • 2012
  • This study presents the concentrations of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed as priority pollutants by United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), in 98 sludges from 54 industrial wastewater treatment facilities of South Korea. The mean concentrations of ${\Sigma}_{16}PAHs$ were ranged from 32.5 ${\mu}g/kg-dw$ to 1189.3 ${\mu}g/kg-dw$ by industries, and the highest content was found in the petrochemical industry, followed by chemical, clothing manufacturing and dying, pulp and papermaking, secondary wastewater treatment, and food/beverage producing industries. Comparisons to the EU and Danish standards of ${\Sigma}_{16}PAHs$ in sewage sludge for land application showed only two samples (one from petrochemical, and the other from chemical industry) exceeded the limits. ANOVA test with PAH concentrations as variables revealed no statistically significant influences by industrial types and sampling time (i.e., seasonal variations). Pearson correlations between individual PAHs showed strong relationships (r>0.7) among 4-ring PAHs. Concentrations of acenaphthylene, anthracene, fluoranthene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(f)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene presented strong correlations to ${\Sigma}_{16}PAHs$. Principal component analysis discriminated entire samples into three groups by two principal components (PC1 and PC2) with 70% of data variations, in which industrial types were not of importance, but a dominance of certain PAHs. Samples in group-I, which is high PC1 and low PC2, were characterized by a dominance of 2-ring PAHs, and in group-II, PC1 and PC2 showed a linear relation, was dominant 4-ring PAHs. Group-III with low PC1 and high PC2 includes 17 samples showing a noticeably high contribution of 3-ring PAHs to ${\Sigma}_{16}PAHs$. This study provides concentrations of PAHs in industrial sludges collected from a wide variety of sources (six industrial types) and two seasons of sampling events, and the comparison of ${\Sigma}_{16}PAHs$ with other studies are also discussed.

Cytotoxic Mechanism of Docosahexaenoic Acid in Human Oral Cancer Cells (인체 구강암 세포주에서 Docosahexaenoic acid에 의한 세포독성 기전)

  • Hong, Tae-Hwa;Kim, Hoon;Shin, Soyeon;Jing, Kaipeng;Jeong, Soyeon;Lim, Hyun;Yun, Donghyuk;Jeong, Ki-Eun;Lee, Myung-Ryul;Park, Jong-Il;Kweon, Gi-Ryang;Park, Seung Kiel;Hwang, Byung-Doo;Lim, Kyu
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.689-697
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    • 2013
  • In the United States, about 40,000 new cases of oral cancer are diagnosed each year and nearly 7,800 patients died from it in 2012. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been found to have anticancer effects in a variety of cancer cell lines and animal models, but their effect in oral cancer remains unclear. This study was designed to examine the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, a kind of omega-3 fatty acid) on oral cancer cells and the molecular mechanism of its action. We found that exposure of squamous cell carcinoma-4 (SCC-4) and squamous cell carcinoma-9 (SCC-9) human oral cancer cells to DHA induced growth inhibition in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Meanwhile, in addition to the elevated levels of apoptotic markers, such as cleaved PARP, subG1 portion and TUNEL-positive nuclei, DHA led to autophagic vesicle formation and an increase in autophagic flux, indicating the involvement of both apoptosis and autophagy in the inhibitory effects of DHA on oral cancer cells. Further experiments revealed that the apoptosis and autophagy induced by DHA were linked to inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling by AKT inhibition and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in SCC-9 cells. Together, our results suggest that DHA induces apoptosis- and autophagy-associated cell death through the AMPK/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in oral cancer cells. Thus, utilization of omega-3 fatty acids may represent a promising therapeutic approach for chemoprevention and treatment of human oral cancer.

Comparison of Underground Root Growth Characteristics of Major Cool-Season Grasses according to Establishment Stages in Sports Turf Designed by the USGA Soil System (USGA 지반으로 설계된 스포츠 잔디밭에서 조성단계별 주요 한지형 잔디의 지하부 뿌리생육 특성 비교)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Nam
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.166-176
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    • 2015
  • Research was initiated to investigate root growth characteristics of major cool-season grasses (CSG) and to collect basic information useful for sports turf design, construction and maintenance. Several turfgrasses were evaluated in the USGA (United States Golf Association) soil system. Turfgrass entries were comprised 3 blends and 3 mixtures of Kentucky bluegrass (KB, Poa pratensis L.), perennial ryegrass (PR, Lolium perenne L.), and tall fescue (TF, Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Significant differences were found in root growth, rooting potential and rooting development. These characteristics increased with time after seeding, but varied with establishment stages. In early stage, root length was highest with PR, intermediate with TF and lowest with KB. Evaluation in a middle stage indicated that root growth was similar to early-stage evaluation, but decreased by 13 to 31% compared with early-stage values. Root growth of late stage increased by 34 to 85% over middle-stage root growth. Overall, thhere was not much difference in root length among treatments, with all except Mixture I reaching 22cm in root length. Rooting potential ranking was variable with establishment stage, being PR > KB > TF in early stage, PR > TF > KB in middle stage and TF > PR > KB in late stage. At the end of the study, TF was rated best for rooting development, followed by PR and finally KB. Our results showed that TF was the best species in regard to overall rooting characteristics. TF exhibited excellent rooting development with time after establishment. Bunch-type PR showed fast root growth in the early stage, but rooting quality characteristics decreased with time, especially for rooting development. By contrast, rhizomatous-type KB was poor in early-stage root growth, but rooting characteristics improved with time after establishment. These variations in rooting characteristics among CSGs were considered to arise from differences in establishment vigor, growth habit and genetic characteristics. Information on root growth, rooting potential and rooting development by establishment stages will be useful for sports turf design, construction and maintenance.