• Title, Summary, Keyword: the United States

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Trends in the Home Meal Replacement Market

  • Baskin, Ernest;Choi, Jong-Woo;Heo, Seong-Yoon;Park, Seong-Jin
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.5-15
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    • 2016
  • Purpose - The continuously fluctuating consumer who desires simplicity and convenience has had much influence on the food industry. This trend has led to a new food market sector known as HMR (Home Meal Replacement). This study aims to understand the status of the HMR market in United States. Research Design, Data, and Methodology - In order to research the status of the HMR market, quantitative analysis and secondary research were carried out. By using data from Euromonitor, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, we have estimated food segment sales contributions to the HMR market in United States. Results - HMR products are being sold in various channels such as traditional stores, convenience stores, and even farmers' markets. Some restrictions on the HMR products exist for food safety. Conclusions - HMR industry in United States has expanded continuously. To keep pace with the growth of the HMR market, the United States government has focused on food and safety regulations with regards to the products used in HMR. Finally, this study discusses the implications for Korean HMR market.

A Study of Housing Transaction Market and Commercial Policy in United States in the Perspective of Neuroeconomics (미국의 주택거래시장 동향과 통상정책의 향후방향에 관한 연구: 신경경제학의 관점을 중심으로)

  • Chung, Yong-Kyun
    • International Commerce and Information Review
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.267-288
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    • 2010
  • The collapse of housing market bubble in United States had a considerable impact on the world economy. The collapse of housing market bubble in United States generates the global financial crisis at the worldwide level. The housing market bubble question the efficacy of fundamental proposition of orthodox economics based on the rationality of human choice. According to neuroeconomics and neuroscience, emotion and affect play the important role in purchasing the commodity in retails market. On the basis of the neuroeconomics, this study focuses on the role of affect and emotion in the purchase of subprime loan in United States. Robert Schiller suggests that one of the causes of housing market bubble is the contagion effect of human belief in the society. The structure of this paper is as follows. First, this study investigates the mechanism of human brain and role of various neurons to influence the human behavior in the purchase of house in United States, such as Dophamine neuron and mirroring neuron. Second, this study shows the possibility that the mirror neuron might explain the contagion of human belief in housing transaction market. It can be a seed of housing market bubble. Furthermore, this study show the implications of neuroeconomics is suggestive to the negotiation process in commercial policy in United States.

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The U.S. Courts' Interpretation of Foreign Arbitral Awards Under the NY Convention (뉴욕협약상 외국중재판정에 대한 미국법원의 해석)

  • Ha Choong-Lyong;Park Won-Hyung
    • Journal of Arbitration Studies
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.121-150
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    • 2006
  • Under the New York Convention, parties can petition the courts of the United States to confirm foreign arbitral awards. Although there is no definition in the Convention for 'non-domestic' awards, in the United States, federal and state courts read the Convention broadly and interpret this as permitting the enforcing authority to supply its own definition of 'non-domestic' in conformity with its own domestic law. There are a number of federal cases on this point. The court preferred this broad construction of 'non-domestic' awards because it comported with the intended purpose of the Convention, which was entered into to encourage the recognition and enforcement of international arbitral awards. This means that in applying the New York Convention, U.S. courts have responded to the underlying spirit rather than the technical letter of the Convention. In brief, the New York Convention has much broader application in the United States. It is applicable not only to awards rendered outside of the United States, but also to non-domestic awards rendered within United States. As this article suggests, the general attitude towards foreign awards is more pro-enforcement in the United States, whether the award is rendered in favor of the American party or in favor of the foreign party.

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Changes in the Clothing Expenditure using Difference in Difference Model: Comparison between Korean and U.S. Households (이중차이 모형을 적용한 1990년대 중반 이후 한국과 미국소비자의 피복비 지출 변화 분석 및 비교)

  • Lee, Mi-Young
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.349-362
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    • 2012
  • This paper explores differences demonstrated by changes of consumers' clothing expenditure in Korea and the United States since the mid-1990s. Evidence for this study was extrapolated from annual data provided by the Household Expenditure Survey, which was carried out in Korea between 1996 and 2008, and the Consumer Expenditure Survey, which was carried out in the United States during the same time period. The results include: (1) The proportion of the clothing expenditure decreased during the subject period in both Korea and the United States; (2) The decrease in proportional clothing expenditure was greater in Korea than in the United States; (3) Although the relative prices of clothes decreased greatly during this period in both countries, it was determined that the decrease in clothing prices in the United States was greater when compared to those in Korea; and (4) By using the DID(Difference in difference) model, the author contends that a decrease in clothing purchases contributed to the decrease of prices for clothing in the United States, while in Korea, the decrease in prices for clothing was also impacted by other factors including changes in household expenditures for education and communication.

Cross-Cultural Study on the Pregnant and Childbirth Practices in Mother-Grandmother Generations of Korea, Hong-Kong, and the United States (임신 및 출산 풍습에 관한 비교문화연구: 한국, 홍콩 및 미국의 어머니-할머니 세대를 중심으로)

  • 민하영;유안진
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.157-168
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    • 2003
  • This study was to investigate differences or similarities in pregnant and childbirth practices of Korea, Hong Kong and the United States and of mother-grandmother generations in each culture. The subjects were young mothers(YM) have baby from 2 to 2.5 years and their mothers or mothers-in-law(GM) in Korea(YM=118, GM=118), Hong Kong(YM=126, GM=78) and the United States(YM=105, GM=105). The subjects answered the questionnaires on pregnant and childbirth practices were constructed by specialists of child study in Korea, Hong Kong and the United States. Statistical analyses were by Frequencies, Percentages, Crosstabs, One-wav ANOVA, Scheffe' test, t-test. The results of this study were as follows. 1. Mother and grandmothers of Korea more tended to believe in supernatal being of pregnancy, to expect son, to eat a resortive and a food to help conceive, to inhibit attending a funeral at the time of childbearing, to practice fetal education than of Hong Kong and the United States did. 2. Relating sexual intercourse at the time of ovulation, maternal health care during the pregnancy, childbirth in hospital, husband's being in the hospital waiting room when their wife gave birth were much more prevailant in mothers than grandmothers did in Korea and Hong Kong.

A Comparison of Elementary Science Teaching Materials in the United States and Korea (한국과 미국의 초등학교 자연과 교수 자료의 비교 분석)

  • Kim, Hyo-Nam
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.35-40
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    • 1996
  • Teaching materials are an important aspect to decide the quality of education. Science teaching materials include textbook, workbook, worksheet, OHP materials, posters, computer softwares, experimental equipments, slides, video tapes, and other audio-vidual materials. This comparing research is based on the contemporary teaching materials used in elementary schools of the United States and Korea in 1990s. The results of this study are : 1. The United States has more elementary science teaching materials such as posters, worksheets, computer softwares, OHP materials than Korea. Both countries developed elementary science textbooks, activity books, video tapes, science reading materials, and experimental equipments. 2. The frequancy of using these science teaching materials in Korea is bigger than that in the United States. In Korean elementary science classes, most of instructions are progressed by experimental activities. Korean elementary science textbooks are mostly consisted of science activities, but those of the United States includes science information, science related jobs, STS articles and some portion of science activities. 3. Experimental equipments of the United States are stronger than those of Korea. Various and excellent elementary science teaching materials such as computer softwares, posters, audio-vidual materials, and experimental equipments should be developed and used in elementary science classes for better elementary science education.

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Comparison of dental information websites in some nations (일부 국가의 치과 웹사이트 비교)

  • Kim, Seon-Yeong;Kim, Yun-Jeong;Moon, Sang Eun
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.261-267
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    • 2014
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study was to compare the dental information websites in some nations and to provide the basic data for clinical application. Methods : Two hundred twenty-four dental websites were chosen by using Yahoo search engine. The websites included 59 from the United States, 50 from the United Kingdom, 54 from Canada, and 61 from Korea. The survey was conducted from August 15 to September 30, 2011. Results : The guidance of medical treatment expenses was the most sustainable in the United Kingdom and followed by the United States, Canada, and Korea(p<0.001). Korean dental information website provided the visitor's message. The United Kingdom provided the best type of FormMail and the United States, Canada and Korea also provided(p<0.001). Korean dental information website showed the best types of messages and was followed by the United States, Cadana and the United Kingdom. Korean dental information had the best type of FormMail(p<0.001). Conclusions : In order to make the accurate access to the dental health information website, it is necessary to provide the easy access and continuous research efforts to the information system.

Worsening Tension Between the United States and China in the South China Sea, A Sign of 'Thucydides Trap'? (미(美) Lassen 함(艦)의 남중국해(南中國海) 기동(機動)은 '투키디데스 함정'의 전조(前兆)?)

  • Yang, Jeong-Sung
    • Strategy21
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    • pp.287-320
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    • 2015
  • On October 27, 2015, USS Lassen(DDG82), a 9,200 ton class Aegis destroyer of the United States Navy, began its operations within 12 nautical miles of Subi Reef, one of the seven artificial islands that China has built and claimed sovereignty over. The maneuver was joined by anti-submarine patrol airplanes such as P-8A and P-3. The White House press secretary mentioned that the President of the United States approved the operation. In response, China announced that it warned the US Navy ship about the 'illegal violation' by sending two destroyers(PLAN Lanzhou and Taizhou). This event represents a close call case where tension between the United States and China in the South China Sea might have been elevated to a conflict between the two navies. Moreover, considering that this happened only one month after Chinese president Xi's state visit to the United States, the event shows that the positions of the two countries have become starkly different to the extent that they are so hard to be reconciled. The United States' position is different from those of Vietnam and the Philippines. Countries like Vietnam and the Philippines have been directly involved in disputes with regard to sovereignty claims across the waters in the South China sea. As for the United States, being a third party in the disputes, it still cannot be a by-stander watching the whole waters in the region fall under the influence of China. Accordingly, the United States maintains that all countries bear the rights of innocent passage and military operations in the Exclusive Economic Zones(EEZ) as stipulated by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea(UNCLOS). In contrast, China claims that, historically, the South China sea has been part of China's territorial waters, and that foreign countries are not allowed to conduct military operations within the waters. It strongly accuses that such military operations are illegal. Against this background, this paper tracks the different positions of the United States and China on the issues regarding the South China sea. It also carefully looks at the possibility that, in the process of dealing with the issues, the two countries may get into an armed conflict as the phrase 'Thucydides Trap' predicts.

Coming To America: The Use of 28 U.S.C. § 1782

  • Robertson, Ann Ryan;Friedman, Scott L.
    • Journal of Arbitration Studies
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.59-90
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    • 2015
  • Since 1855, the federal courts of the United States have been empowered to assist in the gathering of evidence for use before foreign tribunals. Today, the source of that authority is 28 U.S.C. ${\S}1782$ which permits the courts to order a person "to give [ ] testimony... or to produce a document ... for use in a proceeding in a foreign or international tribunal${\cdots}$ ." It was generally assumed, until the United States Supreme Court's decision of Intel Corp. v. Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. in 2004, that arbitration tribunals were not "foreign tribunals" for purposes of 28 U.S.C. ${\S}1782$. While the issue in Intel did not involve an arbitration tribunal, a statement by the Supreme Court in dicta has called into question the exact parameters of the words "foreign tribunal," resulting in a split of opinion among the federal courts of the United States. This article explores the legislative history of 28 U.S.C. ${\S}1782$, examines the United States Supreme Court decision in Intel, and discusses the split among the courts of the United States regarding the interpretation of "foreign tribunal." The article further surveys emerging issues: is an arbitration tribunal in a case involving foreign parties and seated in the United States a "foreign tribunal"; does agreeing to the use of the IBA Rules on the Taking of Evidence in International Arbitration circumscribe the use of 28 U.S.C. ${\S}1782$; can a party be ordered to produce documents located outside the United States; and is there a role for judicial estoppel in determining whether an application pursuant to 28 U.S.C. ${\S}1782$ should be granted?