• Title, Summary, Keyword: the Type of CSR Activities

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The Influences of Consumer Behavior according to their Perceived Suitability toward the Type of Corporate Social Responsibility Activities (패션기업의 CSR 활동 유형에 대한 소비자의 인지적 적합성이 소비자 행동에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jung-Im;Shin, Su-Yun
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.888-899
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    • 2011
  • Fashion companies make use of diverse strategies to have a competitive edge as there is a growing fierce competition. According to earlier studies, consumers prefer the products and services of companies that direct their energy into CSR activities if there's little disparity in quality of products and services among the companies. The way consumers look at the CSR activities of businesses is very important for the companies since it is linked to their evaluation and image of the companies and indulgencies on their word-of-mouth, purchase and loyalty. It's not quite advisable for fashion companies to make an investment in CSR activities without any specific plans or conviction of the effectiveness of the activities. Actually, lots of domestic companies fail to success their CSR activities, despite of their hard efforts. This study was to examine the appropriateness of corporate CSR activities, the attitude of customers to companies and their intention of recommendation and purchase in detail, and to provide some information on strategy setting for the CSR activities of fashion businesses.

The Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility on Corporate Activity: Comparing Domestic and Multinational Corporations in Korea

  • Jung, Young-Su;Kang, Shin-Ae
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.31-41
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    • 2016
  • Purpose - This study investigates whether corporate social responsibility(hereafter CSR) management activities affect companies' performance. Depending on the CSR management activities and companies' type (national and multinational), we examined whether there is any difference in their CSR activities on Corporate Performance. Research design, data, and methodology - Data were collected from 230 surveys with a sample group consisting of employees in multinational corporations located in Seoul and Gyeonggi and 224 copies were used from 3 May 2016 to 17 May 2016. The data was analyzed by SPSS 21.0. Results - The empirical results show that CSR management activities positively influence on financial and non-financial corporate achievement and CSR may be interpreted as a strategic method to improve corporate value. But the impacts of CSR activities on performance were different between domestic and multinational corporations. The reason that the legal responsibility was overruled as a factor for financial and non-financial achievement in domestic company may be that CSR management activity is perceived as an indulgence to hide or beautify negative behavior regarding corporate illegal behavior, thus it does not deliver value. Conclusions - CSR activities can be delivered differently between domestic and multinational corporations, and further study should be done why there are differences between corporations.

The Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility on Organizational Trust, Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention (건설기업의 사회적 책임 활동이 조직신뢰, 직무만족과 이직의도에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho, Jin-Ho;Kim, Byung-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Construction Engineering and Management
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.83-94
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    • 2019
  • Recently, the proportion of overseas orders of domestic construction companies is increasing, and the global market demands management transparency on corporate social responsibility activities. Therefore, domestic companies are faced with the need to systematically prepare for social responsibility activities. The purpose of this study was to examine whether CSR activities have a moderating effect on the relationship between organizational trust, job satisfaction, turnover intention and contract type. This study analyzed the effect of CSR activities on organizational trust, job satisfaction and turnover intention. The study targets regular and irregular workers in construction companies who promote CSR activities through the homepage, public service ad, and media. The questionnaire distributed 300 copies online. The final valid sample is 255 (145 Regular and 110 Irregular). Empirical analysis used a structural equation model. The results of the study are as follows. First, in CSR activities, economic responsibility, philanthropic responsibility and ethical responsibility had a positive (+) effect on organizational trust. Second, organizational trust had a positive (+) effect on job satisfaction in CSR activities. Finally, the magnitude of the Moderate effect of the type of labor contract according to the group classification showed that the CSR activity on organizational trust had many regular employees with economic responsibility. Also, organizational trust in job satisfaction was found to be large in regular employees. The results of this study can be a guide to CSR activities of construction companies in terms of organizational effectiveness.

A Study on CSR Types of Cosmetic Companies to Gain Customer Loyalty of Product Brand (제품 브랜드의 고객 충성도를 확보하기 위한 화장품 기업 CSR 활동 유형 연구)

  • Chung, Da-Hae;Sung, Jung-Hwan
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.19 no.12
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    • pp.184-192
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    • 2019
  • In the domestic cosmetics market, it is important to secure high customer loyalty in order to stably enter the market. To do this, customers should have a deep sense of trust and bond through the authenticity of the brand. At this time, among the components of brand authenticity, only corporate authenticity has a positive effect on customer brand attachment and loyalty. This paper suggests marketing strategies based on CSR activities that can most effectively show corporate authenticity. First, only cases where the activity was continued for more than one year and the activity contents and results were clear and recognized for authenticity were selected. Twenty cosmetic brands met this condition and 28 CSR activities which conducted by the brand are analyzed. The characteristics of each area were derived by dividing it into four areas of desirable society presented by the EU, and a marketing strategy for each type was presented. This research will be of practical help in conducting CSR activities later in the enterprise.

The Effects of the Perceived Motivation Type toward Corporate Social Responsibility Activities on Customer Loyalty (기업사회책임활동적인지인지동기류형대고객충성도적영향(企业社会责任活动的认知认知动机类型对顾客忠诚度的影响))

  • Kim, Kyung-Jin;Park, Jong-Chul
    • Journal of Global Academy of Marketing Science
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.5-16
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    • 2009
  • Corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities have been shown to be potential factors that can improve corporate image and increase the ability of corporations to compete. However, most previous studies related to CSR activities investigated how these activities influence product and corporate evaluation, as well as corporate image. In addition, some researchers treated consumers' perceptions of corporate motives as moderator variables in evaluating the relationship between corporate social responsibilities and consumer response. However, motive-based theories have some weaknesses. Corporate social responsibility activities cause two motives(egoistic vs. altruistic) for consumers, but recently, Vlachos et al. (2008) argued that these motives should be segmented. Thus, it is possible to transform the original theory into a modified theory model (persuasion knowledge model, PKM). Vlachos et al. (2008) segmented corporate social responsibility motives into four types and compared the effects of these motives on customer loyalty. Prior studies have proved that CSR activities with positive motives have positive influences on customer loyalty. However, the psychological reasons underlying this finding have not been determined empirically. Thus, the objectives of this research are twofold. First, we attempt to determine why most customers favor companies that they feel have positive motives for their corporate social responsibility activities. Second, we attempt to measure the effects of consumers' reciprocity when society benefits from corporate social responsibility activities. The following research hypotheses are constructed. H1: Values-driven motives for corporate social responsibility activities have a positive influence on the perceived reciprocity. H2: Stakeholder-driven motives for corporate social responsibility activities have a negative influence on the perceived reciprocity. H3: Egoistic-driven motives for corporate social responsibility activities have a negative influence on perceived reciprocity. H4: Strategic-driven motives for corporate social responsibility activities have a negative influence on perceived reciprocity. H5: Perceived reciprocity for corporate social responsibility activities has a positive influence on consumer loyalty. A single company is selected as a research subject to understand how the motives behind corporate social responsibility influence consumers' perceived reciprocity and customer loyalty. A total sample of 200 respondents was selected for a pilot test. In addition, to ensure a consistent response, we ensured that the respondents were older than 20 years of age. The surveys of 172 respondents (males-82, females-90) were analyzed after 28 invalid questionnaires were excluded. Based on our cutoff criteria, the model fit the data reasonably well. Values-driven motives for corporate social responsibility activities had a positive effect on perceived reciprocity (t = 6.75, p < .001), supporting H1. Morales (2005) also found that consumers appreciate a company's social responsibility efforts and the benefits provided by these efforts to society. Stakeholder-driven motives for corporate social responsibility activities did not affect perceived reciprocity (t = -.049, p > .05). Thus, H2 was rejected. Egoistic-driven motives (t = .3.11, p < .05) and strategic-driven (t = -4.65, p < .05) motives had a negative influence on perceived reciprocity, supporting H3 and H4, respectively. Furthermore, perceived reciprocity had a positive influence on consumer loyalty (t = 4.24, p < .05), supporting H5. Thus, compared with the general public, undergraduate students appear to be more influenced by egoistic-driven motives. We draw the following conclusions from our research findings. First, value-driven attributions have a positive influence on perceived reciprocity. However, stakeholder-driven attributions have no significant effects on perceived reciprocity. Moreover, both egoistic-driven attributions and strategic-driven attributions have a negative influence on perceived reciprocity. Second, when corporate social responsibility activities align with consumers' reciprocity, the efforts directed towards social responsibility activities have a positive influence on customer loyalty. In this study, we examine whether the type of motivation affects consumer responses to CSR, and in particular, we evaluate how CSR motives can influence a key internal factor (perceived reciprocity) and behavioral consumer outcome (customer loyalty). We demonstrate that perceived reciprocity plays a mediating role in the relationship between CSR motivation and customer loyalty. Our study extends the research on consumer CSR-inferred motivations, positing them as a direct indicator of consumer responses. Furthermore, we convincingly identify perceived reciprocity as a sub-process mediating the effect of CSR attributions on customer loyalty. Future research investigating the ultimate behavior and financial impact of CSR should consider that the impacts of CSR also stem from perceived reciprocity. The results of this study also have important managerial implications. First, the central role that reciprocity plays indicates that managers should routinely measure how much their socially responsible actions create perceived reciprocity. Second, understanding how consumers' perceptions of CSR corporate motives relate to perceived reciprocity and customer loyalty can help managers to monitor and enhance these consumer outcomes through marketing initiatives and management of CSR-induced attribution processes. The results of this study will help corporations to understand the relative importance of the four different motivations types in influencing perceived reciprocity.

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Employees' Preferences on Various Types of Matching Grants (매칭그랜트 기부방식에 대한 기부자 선호도)

  • Lee, Yeong-Ran;Park, Sang-June
    • Journal of the Korean Operations Research and Management Science Society
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.15-27
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    • 2013
  • Because consumers tend to have negative opinion about a company that neglects social issues like poverty or pollution while it focuses on its own profit, a lot of companies have invested their resources in Corporate Social Responsibility(CSR). CSR has merits of image improving and profit gaining, on the other hand, it has also many shortcomings. First, the cost of CSR may become a heavy financial burden. Specifically, CSR tends to be implemented by a company's unilateral backup, and then this may impose a heavy burden on the company. Second, one cannot expect effects of CSR in a short-term. Because of these shortcomings, the unilateral CSR has gone into alteration of the type of CSR since 1980's. Instead of unilaterality, Cause-Related Marketing(CRM) began to be used for mutual profits among company, consumers, and society. That is, CRM has become to be spotlighted as a new type of CSR. It focuses on partnership between a company and consumers based on cause and mutual profit pursuing through this partnership. So, many contemporary companies prefer CRM activities that derive their positive corporate image, that increase their sales, and that reduce their financial cost. The IBM Matching Grants Program, which is the largest of the IBM-Employee partnership programs, is a typical CRM. This program enables employees and retirees to increase the value of their donations to educational institutions, hospitals, hospices, nursing homes, and cultural & environmental organizations with a matching gift from IBM. Hundreds of educational institutions and thousands of nonprofit organizations have benefited from the contributions by IBM. There might be various types of matching grants. For example, an employee might choose a lump-sum expense or partitioning a lump-sum into a series of small ongoing expenses for his (or her) donation, and a firm might match the employee's total contribution with a lump-sum expense or might match the employee's total contribution with a series of small ongoing expenses. However, it is not easy to find an academic research on which type of matching grant is preferred by employees. This paper shows that an employee prefers the type of matching grants that consists of a lump-sum expense for his (or her) contribution and a series of small ongoing expenses for a firm's contribution [or the type of matching grants that consists of a series of small ongoing expenses for an employee's contribution and a lump-sum expense for a firm's contribution] to the other types of matching grants.

The Effect of Corporate Association on the Perceived Risk of the Product (소비자의 제품 지각 위험에 대한 기업연상과 효과: 지식과 관여의 조절적 역활을 중심으로)

  • Cho, Hyun-Chul;Kang, Suk-Hou;Kim, Jin-Yong
    • Journal of Global Academy of Marketing Science
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.1-32
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    • 2008
  • Brown and Dacin (1997) have investigated the relationship between corporate associations and product evaluations. Their study focused on the effects of associations with a company's corporate ability (CA) and its corporate social responsibility (CSR) on consumers' product evaluations. Their study has found that both of CA and CSR influenced product evaluation but CA association has a stronger effect than CSR associations. Brown and Dacin (1997) have, however, claimed that there are few researches on how corporate association impacts product responses. Accordingly, some of researchers have found the variables to moderate or to mediate the relationship between the corporate association and the product responses. In particular, there has been existed a few of studies that tested the influence of the reputation on the product-relevant perceived risk, but the effects of two types of the corporate association on the product-relevant perceived risk were not identified so far. The primary goal of this article is to identify and empirically examine some variables to moderate the effects of CA association and CSR association on the perceived risk of the product. In this articles, we take the concept of the corporate associations that Brown and Dacin (1997) had proposed. CA association is those association related to the company's expertise in producing and delivering its outputs and CSR association reflected the organization's status and activities with respect to its perceived societal obligations. Also, this study defines the risk, which is the uncertainty or loss of the product and corporate that consumers have taken in a particular purchase decision or after having purchased. The risk is classified into product-relevant performance risk and financial risk. Performance risk is the possibility or the consequence of a product not functioning at some expected level and financial risk is the monetary loss one perceives to be incurring if a product does not function at some expected level. In relation to consumer's knowledge, expert consumers have much of the experiences or knowledge of the product in consumer position and novice consumers does not. The model tested in this article are shown in Figure 1. The model indicates that both of CA association and CSR association influence on performance risk and financial risk. In addition, the effects of CA and CSR are moderated by product category knowledge (product knowledge) and product category involvement (product involvement). In this study, the relationships between the corporate association and product-relevant perceived risk are hypothesized as the following form. For example, Hypothesis 1a($H_{1a}$) is represented that CA association has a positive influence on the performance risk of consumer. Also, the hypotheses that identified some variables to moderate the effects of two types of corporate association on the perceived risk of the product are laid down. One of the hypotheses of the interaction effect is Hypothesis 3a($H_{3a}$), it is described that consumer's knowledges of the product moderates the negative relationship between CA association and product-relevant performance risk. A field experiment was conducted in order to examine our model. The company tested was not real but imagined to meet the internal validity. Water purifiers were used for our study. Four scenarios have been developed and described as the imaginary company: Type A with both of superior CA and CSR, Type B with superior CSR and inferior CA, Type C with superior CA and inferior CSR, and Type D with both inferior of CA and CSR. The respondents of this study were classified into four groups. One type of four scenarios (Type A, B, C, or D) in its questionnaire was given to the respondent who filled out questions. Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire to the respondents, chosen in convenience. A total of 300 respondents filled out the questionnaire but 207 were used for further analysis. Table 1 indicates that the scales in this study are reliable because the range of coefficients of Cronbach's $\alpha$ are from 0.85 to 0.92. The composite reliability is in the range of 0,85 to 0,92 and average variance extracted is in 0.72-0.98 range that is higher than the base level of 0.6. As shown in Table 2, the values for CFI, NNFI, root-mean-square error approximation (RMSEA), and standardized root-mean-square residual (SRMR) are acceptably close to the standards suggested by Hu and Bentler (1999):.95 for CFI and NNFI,.06 for RMSEA, and.08 for SRMR. We also tested discriminant validity provided by Fornell and Larcker (1981). As shown in Table 2, we found strong evidence for discriminant validity between each possible pair of latent constructs in all samples. Given that these batteries of overall goodness-of-fit indices were accurate and that the model was developed on theoretical bases, and given the high level of consistency across samples, this enables us to proceed the previously defined scales. We used the moderated hierarchical regression analysis to test the influence of the corporate association(CA and CSR associations) on product-relevant perceived risk(performance and financial risks) and to identify the variables moderating the relationship between the corporate association and product-relevant performance risk. In this study, dependent variables are performance and financial risk. CA and CSR associations are described the independent variables. The moderating variables are product category knowledge and product category involvement. The results are, as expected, found that CA association has statistically a significant influence on the perceived risk of the product, but CSR association does not. Product category knowledge and involvement moderate the relationship between the CA association and the perceived risk of the product. However, the effect of CSR association on the perceived risk of the product is not moderated by the consumers' knowledge and involvement. For this result, it is necessary for a corporate to inform its customers CA association more than CSR association so that they could be felt to be the reduction of the perceived risk. The important theoretical contribution of this research is the meanings that two types of corporate association that Brown and Dacin(1997), and Brown(1998) have proposed replicated the difference of the effects on product evaluation. According to Hunter(2001), it was an important affair to accomplish the validity of a particular study and we had to take about ten studies to deduce a strict study. Next, there is the contribution of the this study to find that the effects of corporate association on the perceived risk of the product are varied by the moderator variables. In particular, the moderating effect of knowledge on the relationship between corporate association and product-relevant perceived risk has not been tested in Korea. In the managerial implications of this research, we suggest the necessity to stress the ability that corporate manufactures the product well(CA association) than the accomplishment of corporate's social obligation(CSR association). This study suffers from various limitations that imply future research directions. The moderating effects of product category knowledge and involvement on the relationship between corporate association and perceived risk need to be replicated. Next, future research could explore whether the mediated effects of the perceived risk has the relationship between corporate association and consumer's product purchase. In addition, to ensure the external validity of the study will be needed to use realistic company, not artificial.

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