• Title, Summary, Keyword: the Commencement Period

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Effect of Parotid Saliva Secretion on Dry Forage Intake in Goats

  • Sunagawa, Katsunori;Nakatsu, Yoshifumi;Nishikubo, Yoriko;Ooshiro, Takeshi;Naitou, Kouta;Nagamine, Itsuki
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.1118-1125
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    • 2003
  • Research was carried out to clarify whether a suppression of dry forage intake during the early stages of feeding in ruminants is caused by feeding induced hypovolemia which is produced by the accelerated secretion of parotid saliva. Goats with a parotid fistula were fed roughly crushed alfalfa hay cubes, commercial ground concentrate feed and $NaHCO_3$ twice daily (10:00-12:00, 16:00-18:00). The animals were free access to drinking water all day prior to, during and after experiments. The animals were intraruminally infused every day prior to the morning feeding period with parotid saliva collected from the parotid fistula over a 24 h period. The present experiment consisted of two treatments, non-infusion (RNI) and intraruminal infusion of parotid saliva (RSF). In the RSF treatment, 4-5 kg of parotid saliva (280-290 mOsm/l) collected over a 24 h period was intraruminally infused 1 h prior to the commencement of the morning feeding. During feeding, eating and parotid saliva secretion rates were measured. Blood samples were also periodically collected from the jugular vein. During and after 2 h feeding, water intakes were measured, respectively. These measurements were used to define thirst levels. It is thought that rumen fill in the RSF treatment was higher than the RNI treatment. Plasma osmolality in the RSF treatment increased in the first half of the 2 h feeding period due to the intraruminal infusion of parotid saliva. Therefore, parotid saliva secretion rates in the RSF treatment were lower than the RNI treatment for 30 min period from 30 to 60 min after the commencement of feeding. On the other hand, plasma total protein concentration and hematocrit in the RSF treatment decreased by 3.2 and 3.3% prior to the commencement of feeding due to the intraruminal infusion of parotid saliva. In the first half of the 2 h feeding period, plasma total protein concentration and hematocrit in the RSF treatment showed a tendency to decrease compared to the RNI treatment. Thirst level in the RSF treatment during feeding was approximately 31.3% less than the RNI treatment. Upon the completion of the 2 h feeding period, cumulative feed intake in the RSF treatment was significantly larger (19.7%) than the RNI treatment. The results suggest that a suppression of dry forage intake during the early stages of feeding in goats is partly caused by feeding induced hypovolemia, which is produced by the accelerated secretion of parotid saliva.

Reproductive Management with Ultrasound Scanner-monitoring System for a High-yielding Commercial Dairy Herd Reared under Stanchion Management Style

  • Takagi, M.;Yamagishi, N.;Lee, I.H.;Oboshi, K.;Tsuno, M.;Wijayagunawardane, M.P.B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.7
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    • pp.949-956
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    • 2005
  • The weekly ultrasound scanner (US) observations of reproductive organs in a commercial dairy herd with the popular stanchion style management were conducted for over 26 months. Based on reproductive records, the following were evaluated: 1) the effect of postpartum period commencement of US monitoring on herd reproductive efficacy, and 2) the effectiveness of a US monitoring-based diagnosis and subsequent treatments of reproductive disorders on postpartum reproductive efficiency. The reproductive parameters of cows, which were subjected to US monitoring between Days 30-40 (Day 0 = day of parturition), Days 41-50, Days 51-60, and above Day 61, were compared. The reproductive parameters of cows diagnosed as having reproductive disorders (RD) with US monitoring before or after the first artificial insemination (AI) were also compared. It was found that the day of commencement of US monitoring in cows diagnosed with and without RD significantly affected the period towards the first AI and the open period. In particular, cystic follicles and anoestrus detected either before or after the first AI significantly affected herd reproductive efficiency. The implementation of US monitoring improved reproductive efficiency by reducing the open period and increasing the number of milking cows in the herd. The results of this field trial indicate that the postpartum reproductive management of dairy cows with the use of the US monitoring system is one strategy to improve reproductive efficiency, especially in a high-yielding dairy herd reared stanchion management style.

The Commencement Period of the Korean Type Bronze Dagger Culture, Seen from the Condition of the Section Polishing Technique - Through the Chronology of Chinese Data - (구분마연 기술로 본 한국식동검문화의 개시 연대 - 중국 자료의 편년을 통하여 -)

  • Heo, Jun-Yang
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.4-29
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study is to grasp the commencement date of Korean-type bronze dagger through the chronology of Chinese data. It focuses on the fact that the same section polishing technique appears both in Korean type bronze dagger and Dongzhou type bronze dagger. Dongzhou type bronze dagger in Anqiu Shandong, in which A1 type section polishing technique is observed, was said to have been collected remains in 1958, but the clear excavation cannot be identified. Therefore, this study presents Tomb No.1 Zuojiawa Jinan, Dongzhou type bronze dagger, and associated products. As associated products, bronze weapon and bronze ware were excavated, whose periods are estimated to be in the Spring and Autumn period, the transition period of Warring States, and the former part of the China's Warring States. Accordingly, the Korean bronze dagger, excavated in the remains of the Han Peninsula appears to have run parallel with the Dongzhou type bronze dagger of the A1 type section polishing technique, excavated in China for a fixed period. In addition, the chronology of Tomb No. 61MI grave in Wanrongmiaoqian, Shanxi is estimated to range from the former part to the middle part of the China's Warring States, which is identified to be connected to the A1 type section polishing technique. Examining the data of the relative date, we can find out that the Commencement Period of the Korean type bronze dagger Culture is seen to be the transition period and the former part of the China's Warring States, which is estimated to be the 5th and 4th centuries BC. This chronology is followed by Tomb No.6512 Zhengjiawazi Shenyang, recorded as the 6th century B.C. which reveals that Liaoning type bronze dagger culture and Korean-typed Bronze Dagger Culture are naturally connected. Furthermore, the A1 type section polishing technique was distributed in the southwestern area of the Korean peninsula and Shandong, China, while the A2 type section polishing technique was distributed in the southern area of the Korean peninsula, Shanxi-Province in China, and Northern Kyushu region in Japan. Seen from the weapon-shaped bronze ware of the section polishing technique, Shanxi area(Central Plains area), China. the southwestern area of the Korean peninsula (northwest area), and Northern Kyushu region in Japan are set up as one traffic road(spreading route). This demonstrates that the section polishing technique emerged around the Han Peninsular, spreading the technique regionally.

Legal Bases for the Termination of a Contract under Common European Contract Law (유럽공통매매법(CESL)상 계약의 종료단계에서의 법적 기준 - CISG와의 비교를 중심으로 -)

  • SHIM, Chong-Seok
    • The Korean Research Institute of International Commerce and Law
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    • v.67
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    • pp.23-47
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    • 2015
  • European Commission drafted and proposed the Common European Sales Law(CESL) to the European Parliament for the realization of a uniform set of international private law rules within the EU internal market. Since its purpose is for free international commercial activities for the sale of goods, for the supply of digital content and for related services, it was proposed to enable EU Member States to adopt or supplement as their substantive law according to their options. This study is relate to the legal bases on termination of a contract under CESL, they are composed of three parts: damages and interest, restitution and prescription. Damages and interest are divided into damages, general provisions on interest on late payments, and late payment by traders. Damages are explained by dividing into right to damages, general measure of damages, foreseeability of loss, loss attributable to creditor, reduction of loss, substitute transaction, and current price. Restitution is described by dividing into restitution on revocation, payment for monetary value, payment for use and interest on money received, compensation for expenditure and equitable modification. Prescription is explained by dividing into general provisions, periods of prescription and their commencement and extension of periods of prescription. General provisions explain right subject to prescription into a right to enforce performance of an obligation and any right ancillary to such a right. Regarding period of prescription, the short one is two years and the long one is ten years. However, in the case of a right to damages for personal injuries, period of prescription for such right is thirty years. Regarding commencement, the short one begins to run from the time when the creditor has become, or could be expected to have become, aware of the facts as a result of which the right can be exercised, while the long one begins to run from the time when the debtor has to perform. However, in the case of a right to damages, the CESL clarifies that it begins to run from the time of the act which gives rise the right.

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Analysis on the Hairstyle of Female University Students - Centering around Commencement Albums from 1980 to 2003 - (여대생 헤어스타일 분석 - 1980년부터 2003년까지의 졸업앨범사진을 중심으로 -)

  • Park Su-Jin;Park Kil-Soon;Kim Seo-Youn
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.55 no.3
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    • pp.59-68
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the changing process of hairstyle and the fashion trend of hairstyle in the environment where it is possible to change one's hairstyle easily arid .display oneself in various ways and the interest in hairstyle is increasing. To examine the change of real university girls' hairstyle, I selected commencement pictures of Chungnam University as material. As a method of analysis, I compared and anaylized each time period's fashion trend and the change of real university girls' hairstyle after abstracting formative element of hairstyle on the basis of preceding studies on hairstyle and measuring frequency by element of each time period. Analyzing university girls' pictures showed that many of them had curls when various perms appeared and majority of them had straight style when straight perm and magic iron appeared. When products of hairstyling were on the market and globalization changed sense of beauty, it was highly popular to set up forelock with hairstyling products. In a pluralistic social environment, desire for color aspect other than formative aspect increased. As various hairdyes were developed, hairdyeing was generalized and university girls came to accept it as natural. Fashion trend of each time period and university girls' hairstyle showed generally similar trend. In mid 1980s, curl was popular, and, in late 1980s, straight style and setting up forelock with hairstyling products were on the increase. In early 1990s, the emergence of coating perm which combined perm and hairdyeing increased hairdyeing. In late 1990s, straight style was popular and layers expressed naturalness. In early 2000s, university girls showed off their long hair in various ways and hairdyeing drastically increased.

ANALYSIS OF PROSTHODONTIC AND SURGICAL TREATMENT OF ACQUIRED PALATAL DEFECT AFTER MAXILLECTOMY (상악절제술 후 외과적 재건과 보철적 치료의 비교)

  • Kwon, Ho-Beom;Hong, Jong-Rak
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.143-151
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    • 2007
  • One of the treatment methods for maxillary cancers or infections in maxilla is maxillectomy. Palatal defect can be resulted from this operation and it may cause functional problems with swallowing and speech, and psychological problems of patients. After maxillectomy, as rehabilitation, there can be two options. One is a prosthodontic treatment using obturator and the other is surgical reconstruction of defect with graft. As both methods have advantages and disadvantages, in determining treatment method after maxillectomy, various factors have to be considered. The purpose of this study is to compare the prosthodontic group to surgical group after maxillectomy with elapsed days prior to commencement of postoperative oral feeding, and to analyze the results of prosthodontic treatment and surgical treatment. During the period from March of 2000 to June of 2006, 74 patients were treatment by prosthodontic methods for maxillary defect. Among these patients, patients who had only velopharyngeal deficiency after surgery, whose data were incomplete, whose causes of palatal defect were not the treatment of diseases in maxilla, and who already had palatal defect due to previous surgery were excluded in this study. The patients who underwent maxillectomy for the treatment of diseases in the maxilla and were treated immediately after operation using surgical reconstruction or prosthodontic rehabilitation were included in this study. The records of 43 patients were reviewed to compare and to analyze the prosthodontic treatment and surgical reconstruction after maxillectomy. The median of days elapsed prior to commencement of postoperative oral feeding in the prosthodontic group was compared with data of surgical group. The data was analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test (${\alpha}$=.05). Days elapsed prior to postoperative oral feeding commencement in the prosthodontic group were less than those in the surgical group.

A Study on the Main Contents of the Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits, 2007 Revision, ICC Publication No. 600(UCP 600) (제6차 개정 신용장통일규칙(UCP 600)의 주요 내용에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Suk-Jae
    • The Korean Research Institute of International Commerce and Law
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    • v.33
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    • pp.63-89
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    • 2007
  • The UCP is an authoritative compilation of the customs and practice of letters of credit observed by most of the participants in the transaction. It remains the most successful set of private rules for trade ever developed. First issued in 1933, the UCP has been through five revisions, the latest being the present UCP 500, which came into force in 1994. Since 1994, new developments in transport, insurance, electronic commerce and banking industry have spurred the current revision of the rules. The ICC Banking Commission approved UCP 600 on October 25, 2006 by a unanimous vote of 91 to 0. The revision, which will come into effect on July 1, 2007, incorporates a number of changes from UCP 500 as follows : UCP 600 has a leaner set of rules, with 39 articles rather than 49 articles of UCP 500; New sections on "definitions" and "interpretations" have been added to clarify the meaning of ambiguous terms; The phrase "reasonable time" for acceptance or refusal of documents has been replaced by a firm period of five banking days; UCP 600 allows for the discounting of deferred payment credits. However, UCP 600 has two main problems such as the inconsistency with insurance industry and the banking community-oriented rules. We have some months before the commencement of UCP 600. From today to the commencement of UCP 600, we should study the full contents of UCP 600 and the influences on the trade industry.

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Salivary Secretion Volume Related Ruminal Distension and Suppression of Dry Forage Intake in Large-type Goats

  • Thang, Tran Van;Sunagawa, Katsunori;Nagamine, Itsuki;Ogura, Go
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.8
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    • pp.1100-1111
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    • 2011
  • Two experiments under sham feeding conditions were conducted to determine whether or not ruminal distension brought about by feed boluses entering the rumen is a factor in the marked suppression of feed intake after 40 min of feeding. In experiment 1, a comparison was made between the intraruminal insertion of a water filled balloon (RIB) treatment and normal control (non-insertion of a balloon, NIB). In experiment 2, saliva lost due to sham feeding conditions was replenished via an intraruminal infusion of iso-osmotic artificial saliva. A comparison of dry forage intake was then conducted between the intraruminal replenishment of iso-osmotic artificial saliva and insertion of a balloon (RRIAS-RIB) treatment, and the intraruminal replenishment of iso-osmotic artificial saliva and non-insertion of a balloon (RRIAS-NIB) control. In experiment 1, eating rates in the RIB treatment 30 min after the commencement of feeding tended to be lower than those in the NIB control. In comparison with the NIB control, cumulative dry forage intake in the RIB treatment was 29.7% less (p<0.05) upon conclusion of the 2 h feeding period. The secreted saliva weight in the NIB control and the RIB treatment during the 2 h feeding period was 53.2% and 60.9% total weight of the boluses, respectively. In experiment 2, eating rates in the RRIAS-RIB treatment 30 min after the commencement of feeding was significantly lower (p<0.05) than those in the RRIAS-NIB control. Cumulative dry forage intake in the RRIAS-RIB treatment was a significant 45.5% less (p<0.05) compared with that in the RRIAS-NIB control upon conclusion of the 2 h feeding period. The secreted saliva weight in the RRIAS-NIB control and the RRIAS-RIB treatment during the 2 h feeding period was 54.1% and 64.2% total weight of the boluses, respectively. The level of decrease in dry forage intake in the RRIAS-RIB treatment of experiment 2 was larger than that in the RIB treatment of experiment 1. In the present experiments, due to the sham feeding conditions, the increases in osmolality of ruminal fluid and plasma, and a decrease in ruminal fluid pH which are normally associated with feeding were not observed. The results indicate that the marked decrease in feed intake observed in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period is related to ruminal distension caused by the feed consumed and the copious amount of saliva secreted during dry forage feeding.

Development of a Daily Electricity Business Index by using the Electricity Daily Data of the Manufacturing Sector (제조업 일별 전력 사용량을 활용한 일일전력경기지수(DEBI) 개발)

  • Oh, Seunghwan;Park, Sungkeun
    • Journal of the Korean Operations Research and Management Science Society
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.59-74
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    • 2016
  • Electricity sales are directly measured from individual consumers, which could minimize the time gap between data collection and public announcement. Furthermore, industrial electricity sales are highly linked with production and output. Therefore, industrial electricity consumption can be used to track production and output in real time. By using the high-frequency data of industrial electricity sales, this study develops the daily electricity business index (DEBI) to capture the daily economic status. The steps used to formulate DEBI are as follows: (1)selection of the explanatory variables and period, (2) amendment of the seasonal adjustment to eliminate daily temperature and effective day effects, (3) estimation of the weighted value via variables by using PCA, (4) calculation of DEBI and commencement of validation tests. Our empirical analysis and the Hodrick-Prescott filter analysis show that DEBI is highly related to existing economic indices.

The Effect of Intensive Mobility Training on the Gait Performance of Patients with Parkinson's Disease

  • Lee, In-Hee
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.196-201
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The novelty of intensive mobility training (IMT) is its intensive nature. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of IMT in patients with Parkinson's disease. Methods: Subjects participated in 3 hours/day for ten days (30 hours). Gait parameters of interest were the timed up-and-go test, 10-m walk test, and step length and width. Measures were made at baseline before commencement of training (pre-training) and at the end of the two-week training period (post-training). Results: Seven patients with Parkinson's disease enrolled in the study. On average, participants are able to tolerate 141 minutes of activity during a 180-minute session. Results showed that, after 10 consecutive days training, subjects significantly improved for all parameters; the timed up-and-go test, 10-m walk test, and stride length and step width. Conclusion: This study's findings show that gait properties in patients with Parkinson's disease can be improved with IMT.