• Title, Summary, Keyword: the 5~4th century B.C

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A Comparative Study on the Upper Garment in the Ancient East and West (고대(古代) 동서양(東西洋) 상의(上衣) 비교연구(比較硏究))

  • Yu, Song-Ok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.3
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    • pp.29-46
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    • 1980
  • The purpose of this thesis is to find out how the upper garment styles in the Ancient East and est had been influenced with each other. Analytical studies conclude the fellowing findings: 1) Upper garment styles in the feat Asia and the Egypt already highly developed in 28th century B.C. and show us the original style of the wrap-over to the left and that of the round neckline(曲領). Upper garment of the open in the center front shown in Babylonia in 18th century B.C. had been inherited to the caftan of the Hebrew and later succeeded to the Persia. 2) The tunic styles of the round neckline, the wrap-over to the left and the open in the cotter front, which were the basic styles of the upper garment, had teen widely accepted to the central Asia and the East Asia, as well as the Northern Europe, from the West Asia. 3) The styles of the wrap-over to the right originated from China since it had begun to show in the Shang Dynasty(商代, 殷代). 4) The East and the West costumes had been very much intermixed in 4th century B.C. Alexander the Great of Macedoria in 4th century B.C. expanded his territory to the central Asia and built up the Bacteria, when the most western civilization had been greatly transmitted to the Orient. Meanwhile the tunic being clad in the West and Central Asia began to be worn by soldiers in the period of the Warring States in China (326-299 B.C.) and afterwards worn even by civil officials since the age of the T'ang Dynasty of China. 5) The Upper garments of the open in the center front, the wrap-over to the right, the wrap-over to the left and the round neckline were found in Korea, which mean that the upper garment styles in the Ancient Korea were intermixed of the factors from the West Asia, the central Asia and the East Asia. 6) The styles of costume in the East Asia were influenced by the West Asia through the central Asia. The upper garment styles Europe were also influenced by the West Asia. Thus the upper garment styles in the Ancient East and West had been mutually affected with each other.

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Studies on the Malted red pepper catchup and Ginger of Chonla province (전라도(全羅道)의 생강(生薑)과 고추장에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Hwang, Ho-Gwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.351-357
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    • 1988
  • A feature of present fomula of dietary habitus is the result of its traditional succession, as like as the newly established culture is rooted in the inherited traditional culture. So, it is very important to discriminate the kind of korean traditional foods and to discuss the historical background of the foods in use, since they have to develope better dietary conditions in furture by using modern theory of dietetics. But there are few literatures concerning to korean traditional foods clear at a glance. However, some traditional foods including technology of cultivation and processing have been transmitted from generation to generation in some districts. Therefore, author has attempted to investigate the history of traditional foods. The results obtained were as follows. 1. A lots of traditional foods which were gifts to imperial court alloted to districts or civilian foods during Choson dynasty have been transmitted up to date, and the method of cultivation and processing are well preserved. Among them out standing examples are: 1) persimmon and its processed goods. 2) red pepper and malted pepper catchup. 3) ginger and its processed goods. 4) honey, bean sprouts etc. 2. It has been reported that ginger was cultivated in China in 5th century B.C. and in Korea early in 16th century. But historical relationships between them could not be confirmed. However, from SAMKUKSAGI and the report by Lee, Suk Woo(1754-1825) who was governor of Chonla province and remarked ginger as a sacred herb at Wanju county, Bongong town, it is suggested that ginger is a natural growing herb in Korea. 3. Soonchang malted pepper catchup is one of outstanding traditional foods which our ancestor have processed with red pepper. Peru is the place of origin, where they have cultivated pepper from 1st century. It is conceivable that pepper was transmitted from Europe to korea late in 16th century, and the first report on existence of pepper in korea was written in 1613. Therefore, it seems that malted red pepper catchup was processed 30 or 40 years later.

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An Analysis of the Landscape Cognitive Characteristics of 'Gugok Streams' in the First Half of the 18th Century Based on the Comparison of China's 『Wuyi-Gugok Painting』 (중국 『무이구곡도』 3폭(幅)의 비교 분석을 통해 본 18세기 무이산 구곡계(九曲溪)의 경물 인지특성)

  • Cheng, Zhao-Xia;Rho, Jae-Hyun;Jiang, Cheng
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.62-82
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    • 2019
  • Taking the three Wuyi-Gugok Drawings, 『A Picture Showing the Boundary Between Mountains and Rivers: A』, 『Landscape of the Jiuqu River in the Wuyi Mountain: B』 and 『Eighteen Sceneries of Wuyi Mountain: C』, which were produced in the mid-Qing Dynasty as the research objects and after investigating the names recorded in the paintings, this paper tries to analyze the scenic spots, scene types and images in the literature survey. Also, based on the number of Scenic type and the number of Scenic name in each Gok, landscape richness(LR) and landscape similarity(LS) of the Gugok scenic spots, the cognitive characteristics of the landscape in the 18th century were carefully observed. The results are as follows. Firstly, according to the description statistics of scenic spot types in Wuyi Mountain Chronicle, there were 41 descriptions of scenery names in the three paintings, among which rock, peak and stone accounted for the majority. According to the data, the number of rocks, peaks and stones in Wuyi-Gugok landscape accounted for more than half, which reflected the characteristics of geological landscape such as Danxia landform in Wuyi-Gugok landscape. Secondly, the landscape of Gugok Stream(九曲溪) was diverse and full of images. The 1st Gok Daewangbong(大王峰) and Manjeongbong(幔亭峰), the 2nd Gok Oknyeobong(玉女峰), the 3rd Gok Sojangbong(小藏峰), the 4th Gok Daejangbong(大藏峰), the 5th Gok Daeeunbyeong(大隱屛) and Muijeongsa(武夷精舍), the 6th Gok Seonjangbong(仙掌峰) and Cheonyubong(天游峰) all had outstanding landscape in each Gok. However, the landscape features of the 7th~9th Gok were relatively low. Thirdly, according to the landscape image survey of each Gok, the image formation of Gugok cultural landscape originates from the specificity of the myths and legends related to Wuyi Mountain, and the landscape is highly well-known. Due to the specificity, the landscape recognition was very high. In particular, the 1st Gok and the 5th Gok closely related to the Taoist culture based on Muigun, the Stone Carving culture and the Boat Tour culture related to neo-confucianism culture of Zhu Xi. Fourthly, according to the analysis results of landscape similarity of 41 landscape types shown in the figure, the similarity of A and C was very high. The morphological description and the relationship of distant and near performance was very similar. Therefore, it could be judged that this was obviously influenced by one painting. As a whole, the names of the scenes depicted in the three paintings were formed at least in the first half of 18th century through a long history of inheritance, accumulated myths and legends, and the names of the scenes. The order of the scenery names in three Drawings had some differences. But among the scenery names appearing in all three Drawings, there were 21 stones, 20 rocks and 17 peaks. Stones, rocks and peaks guided the landscape of Gugok Streams in Wuyi Mountain. Fifthly, Seonjodae(仙釣臺) in A and C was described in the 4th Gok, but what deserved attention was that it was known as the scenery name of the 3rd Gok in Korean. In addition, Seungjindong(升眞洞) in the 1st Gok and Seokdangsa(石堂寺) in the 7th Gok were not described in Drawings A, B and C. This is a special point that needs to be studied in the future.

A study on the origination and transmission of Koh(袴) in Northeast Asia-from the 4th century to 7th century (동북아세아(東北亞細亞) 고(袴)의 발생(發生) 및 전파(傳播)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) - $4{\sim}7$세기(世紀) 중심으로 -)

  • Park, Kyung-Ja;Lee, Jean-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.15
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    • pp.177-194
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    • 1990
  • Koh(袴) was a type of dress worn on the lower part of the body which was commonly used in the Northeast Asia. It was originally used by the Northern race for the need of nomadism or hunting. The origin of the Koh which appeared in the area would be found from the trousers of the Huns who influenced in the Northeast Asia, and became in the part of the Scythian culture. The Scythians are the nomadizing race inhabited in the Northern Caucasas on the wast of the Black Sea and influenced on the inland Eurasian steppe as the first typical horse-riding race. The objectives of Koh which had been worn in the Scythian, Mongolia, Korea as well as Japan as a part of Dongho dress and ornaments and to contemplate the transmission process by cultural exchange among different races for the period from 4th century to 7th century. 1. The Origination of the Koh The Koh was originated by the environmental factor to protect the cold in the North but also from the heat in the South, and was changed and developed as gradually satisfying to the needs of the times. In the Northeast Asia the Koh was in the class of the Northern Chinese garment, and was used widely by the horse riding Scythians who moved widely from the Eurasian inland to Japan. The oldest original which could reflect the type of the Northern clothes was a pair of trousers discovered in the Huns remains of Noin Ula. This showed the exact form of hunting clothes and had a similar form with the Korean female tro-users. Since the same form of trousers drawn on the wall painting of which was excavated 4-5th century ancient Koguryo(高句麗) tomb was the same form the trousers of Noin Ula seemed to be the original form of Koh in the Northeast Asia. 2. The Chinese Trousers It was the time of the King Mooryung(武靈王) in the Cho(趙) Dynasty B.C. 3th century that the trousers used regularly in China. However, the Koh had been used as undergarment which functioned for the protection of the cold not the horseriding garment. The trousers seemed to be not very obviously shown off since the Poh (袍) was long, but mainly used by the people from lower class. As people learned the adapted the trousers. It was essential for the times of war and quarrel. The king himself started wearing the Koh. The Chinese trousers were influenced by the Huns, the Northern clothes of the Scythian culture, and similar to the Korean clothes. 3. The Korean Trousers Korean was a race bared from the Eastern foreign group. It was obvious that the clothes was Baji-Jeogori(바지 저고리), the garment of the Northern people. This had the same form of the Scythian dress and ornaments which was excavated from the Mongolian Noin Ula. The Scythian dress and ornaments were influenced from the Ancient West Asia Empire and transmitted to the Northeast Koguryu by the horseriding Scythian. The trousers were kept in the traditional style by the common people in Korea were transmitted to Japan which were for behind in cultural aspect, as well as got used to the Chinese as the efficient clothes though active cultural exchange. 4. The Japanese Trousers The ancient Japanese clothes were influenced by the Southern factor but not the form of the Koh. As the Korean people group was moving towards Japan and conquer the Japanese in the 4-5th century, however, North Altaic culture was formed and at the same time the clothes were also developed. The most influenced clothes at this time were those of Baekge(百濟) and the trousers form called Euigon became the main form. Because of the climatic regional factor, it was tied not at the ankle but under the knee. From the view the ancient Japanese clothes disappeard about that time, it could be due to the conquest of the culturally superior race but not the transmission of the culture. In the latest 7th century both the Chinese and Japanese dress forms were present, but the Dongho(東胡) dress and its ornament from Korea was still the basic of the Japanese dress form.

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Prediction of the Spawning Ground of Todarodes pacificus under IPCC Climate A1B Scenario (IPCC 기후변화 시나리오(A1B)에 따른 살오징어(Todarodes pacificus) 산란장의 변동 예측)

  • Kim, Jung-Jin;Min, Hong-Sik;Kim, Cheol-Ho;Yoon, Jin-Hee;Kim, Su-Am
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.253-264
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    • 2012
  • In the northwestern Pacific, spawning of the common squid, Todarodes pacificus, occurs at continental shelf and slope areas of 100-500 m, and the optimum temperature for the spawning and survival of paralarvae is assumed to be $18-23^{\circ}C$. To predict the spawning ground of Todarodes pacificus under future climate conditions, we simulated the present and future ocean circulations, using an East Asia regional ocean model (Modular Ocean Model, MOM version3), projected by two different global climate models (MPI_echam5, MIROC_hires), under an IPCC SRES A1B emission scenario. Mean climate states for 1990-1999 and 2030-2039 from 20th and 21th Century Climate Change model simulation (from the IPCC 4th Assessment Report) were used as surface conditions for simulations, and we examined changes in spawning ground between the 1990s and 2030s. The results revealed that the distribution of spawning ground in the 2030s in both climate models shifted northward in the East China Sea and East Sea, for both autumn and winter populations, compared to that of the 1990s. Also, the spawning area (with $1/6^{\circ}{\times}1/6^{\circ}$ grid) in the 2030s of the autumn and winter populations will decline by 11.6% (MPI_echam5) to 30.8% (MIROC_hires) and 3.0% (MPI_echam5) to 18.2% (MIROC_hires), respectively, from those of the 1990s.

A History of Calculus and the Dialectical Materialism (미적분의 역사와 변증법적 유물론)

  • 조윤동
    • School Mathematics
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.521-540
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    • 2003
  • The processes of mathematics development and the results of it are always those of making a conquest of the circumscription by historical inevitability within the historical circumscription. It is in this article that I try to show this processes through the history of calculus. This article develops on the basis of the dialectical materialism. It views the change and development as the facts that take place not by individual subjective judgments but by social-historical material conditions as the first conditions. The dialectical materialism is appropriate for explaining calculus treated in full-scale during the 17th century, passing over ahistorical vacuum after Archimedes about B.C. 4th century. It is also appropriate for explaining such facts as frequent simultaneous discoveries observed in the process of the development of calculus. 1 try to show that mathematics is social-historical products, neither the development of the logically formal symbols nor the invention by subjectivity. By this, I hope to furnish philosophical bases on the discussion that mathematics teaching-learning must start from the real world.

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Assessment of future hydrological behavior of Soyanggang Dam watershed using SWAT (SWAT 모형을 이용한 소양강댐 유역의 미래 수자원 영향 평가)

  • Park, Min Ji;Shin, Hyung Jin;Park, Geun Ae;Kim, Seong Joon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.30 no.4B
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    • pp.337-346
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    • 2010
  • Climate change has a huge impact on various parts of the world. This study quantified and analyzed the effects on hydrological behavior caused by climate, vegetation canopy and land use change of Soyanggang dam watershed (2,694.4 $km^2$) using the semi-distributed model SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool). For the 1997-2006 daily dam inflow data, the model was calibrated with the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiencies between the range of 0.45 and 0.91. For the future climate change projection, three GCMs of MIROC3.2hires, ECHAM5-OM, and HadCM3 were used. The A2, A1B and B1 emission scenarios of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) were adopted. The data was corrected for each bias and downscaled by Change Factor (CF) method using 30 years (1977-2006, baseline period) weather data and 20C3M (20th Century Climate Coupled Model). Three periods of data; 2010-2039 (2020s), 2040-2069 (2050s), 2070-2099 (2080s) were prepared for future evaluation. The future annual temperature and precipitation were predicted to change from +2.0 to $+6.3^{\circ}C$ and from -20.4 to 32.3% respectively. Seasonal temperature change increased in all scenarios except for winter period of HadCM3. The precipitation of winter and spring increased while it decreased for summer and fall for all GCMs. Future land use and vegetation canopy condition were predicted by CA-Markov technique and MODIS LAI versus temperature regression respectively. The future hydrological evaluation showed that the annual evapotranspiration increases up to 30.1%, and the groundwater recharge and soil moisture decreases up to 55.4% and 32.4% respectively compared to 2000 condition. Dam inflow was predicted to change from -38.6 to 29.5%. For all scenarios, the fall dam inflow, soil moisture and groundwater recharge were predicted to decrease. The seasonal vapotranspiration was predicted to increase up to 64.2% for all seasons except for HadCM3 winter.

Assessing Future Climate Change Impact on Hydrologic Components of Gyeongancheon Watershed (기후변화가 경안천 유역의 수문요소에 미치는 영향 평가)

  • Ahn, So-Ra;Park, Min-Ji;Park, Geun-Ae;Kim, Seong-Joon
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.33-50
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    • 2009
  • The impact on hydrologic components considering future potential climate, land use change and vegetation cover information was assessed using SLURP (Semi-distributed Land-Use Runoff Process) continuous hydrologic model. The model was calibrated (1999 - 2000) and validated (2001 - 2002) for the upstream watershed ($260.4\;km^2$) of Gyeongancheon water level gauging station with the coefficient of determination and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency ranging from 0.77 to 0.60 and 0.79 to 0.60, respectively. Two GCMs (MIROC3.2hires, ECHAM5-OM) future weather data of high (A2), middle (A1B) and low (B1) emission scenarios of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) were adopted and the data was corrected by 20C3M (20th Century Climate Coupled Model) and downscaled by Change Factor (CF) method using 30 years (1977 - 2006, baseline period) weather data. Three periods data of 2010 - 2039 (2020s), 2040 - 2069 (2050s), 2070 - 2099 (2080s) were prepared. To reduce the uncertainty of land surface conditions, future land use and vegetation canopy prediction were tried by CA-Markov technique and NOAA NDVI-Temperature relationship respectively. MIROC3.2 hires and ECHAM5-OM showed increase tendency in annual streamflow up to 21.4 % for 2080 A1B and 8.9 % for 2050 A1B scenario respectively. The portion of future predicted ET about precipitation increased up to 3 % in MIROC3.2 hires and 16 % in ECHAM5-OM respectively. The future soil moisture content slightly increased compared to 2002 soil moisture.

Impact of $CO_2$ Increase on East Asian Monsoon

  • Kripalani, R.H.;Oh, J.H.;Chaudhari, H.S.
    • The Korean Journal of Quaternary Research
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.50-54
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    • 2005
  • Some basic summer precipitation features over East Asia during the $20^{th}-21^{st}$ century as simulated / projected by the 22 coupled climate models under the IPCC AR4 program are investigated. Keeping in view that these are climate runs without prescribed SSTs, models perform well in simulating the regional annual cycle, spatial patterns (not shown) and the inter-annual variability. The projections under the 1% increase in $CO_2$ compounded until reaching double and held constant thereafter reveal that (a) Precipitation is likely to increase in all the months in particular during the summer monsoon (JJA) months. (b) The mean summer monsoon rainfall can increase from 4.2 to 13.5% and its variability is also likely to increase in the warming world due to increase in $CO_2$ (c) Extreme excess and deficient seasonal monsoons are likely to become more intense (not shown here) (d) Once the increase in $CO_2$ is cut-off, the system will reach a state of equilibrium, and then the rate of increase in precipitation is also expected to remain constant.

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The Commencement Period of the Korean Type Bronze Dagger Culture, Seen from the Condition of the Section Polishing Technique - Through the Chronology of Chinese Data - (구분마연 기술로 본 한국식동검문화의 개시 연대 - 중국 자료의 편년을 통하여 -)

  • Heo, Jun-Yang
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.4-29
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study is to grasp the commencement date of Korean-type bronze dagger through the chronology of Chinese data. It focuses on the fact that the same section polishing technique appears both in Korean type bronze dagger and Dongzhou type bronze dagger. Dongzhou type bronze dagger in Anqiu Shandong, in which A1 type section polishing technique is observed, was said to have been collected remains in 1958, but the clear excavation cannot be identified. Therefore, this study presents Tomb No.1 Zuojiawa Jinan, Dongzhou type bronze dagger, and associated products. As associated products, bronze weapon and bronze ware were excavated, whose periods are estimated to be in the Spring and Autumn period, the transition period of Warring States, and the former part of the China's Warring States. Accordingly, the Korean bronze dagger, excavated in the remains of the Han Peninsula appears to have run parallel with the Dongzhou type bronze dagger of the A1 type section polishing technique, excavated in China for a fixed period. In addition, the chronology of Tomb No. 61MI grave in Wanrongmiaoqian, Shanxi is estimated to range from the former part to the middle part of the China's Warring States, which is identified to be connected to the A1 type section polishing technique. Examining the data of the relative date, we can find out that the Commencement Period of the Korean type bronze dagger Culture is seen to be the transition period and the former part of the China's Warring States, which is estimated to be the 5th and 4th centuries BC. This chronology is followed by Tomb No.6512 Zhengjiawazi Shenyang, recorded as the 6th century B.C. which reveals that Liaoning type bronze dagger culture and Korean-typed Bronze Dagger Culture are naturally connected. Furthermore, the A1 type section polishing technique was distributed in the southwestern area of the Korean peninsula and Shandong, China, while the A2 type section polishing technique was distributed in the southern area of the Korean peninsula, Shanxi-Province in China, and Northern Kyushu region in Japan. Seen from the weapon-shaped bronze ware of the section polishing technique, Shanxi area(Central Plains area), China. the southwestern area of the Korean peninsula (northwest area), and Northern Kyushu region in Japan are set up as one traffic road(spreading route). This demonstrates that the section polishing technique emerged around the Han Peninsular, spreading the technique regionally.