• Title, Summary, Keyword: tetracycline

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Stability of Tetracycline Hydrochloride in Reverse Micelles

  • Kim, Hyun-Joo;Lee, Hwa-Jeong;Sah, Hong-Kee
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.333-336
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    • 2005
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the stability of tetracycline HCl on encapsulation into and inside reverse micelles. To do so, tetracycline HCl was first mixed with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, water and ethyl formate to make reverse micelles. The degradation kinetics of tetracycline HCl inside the reverse micelles was then assessed by scrutinizing its stability data. Under our experimental conditions, the reverse micelles formed spontaneously in absence of any mixing devices. During the preparation of the reverse micelles, however, considerable portions of tetracycline HCl underwent a chemical reaction (e.g., epimerization). For instance, $51.4{\pm}0.6%$ of an initial concentration of tetracycline HCl was transformed into a degradation product. Once dissolved inside the reverse micelles, the degradation of tetracycline HCl followed an exponential decay pattern. The plot of log{the degradation rate of tetracycline HCl} versus log{tetracycline HCl concentration} made it possible to determine the order of degradation reaction and rate constant. It was proven that the degradation of tetracycline HCl inside the reverse micelles followed a first order kinetics with a rate constant of 0.0027 $hour^{-1}$. Meriting further investigation might be formulation studies to stabilize tetracycline HCl on encapsulation into and inside the reverse micelles.

The Fate of Tetracycline Resistant Bacteria in Biological Wastewater Treatment Plants (생물학적 하수처리장에서 테트라싸이클린 저항 세균의 거동)

  • Kim, Sungpyo
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.527-533
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    • 2006
  • Tetracycline is one of the mostly used antibiotics around the world. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fate of two different types of tetracycline resistant bacteria in biological wastewater treatment plants. Tetracycline resistant enterics and heterotrophic bacteria were monitored under two different lab-scale experimental conditions. Tetracycline resistant enteric bacteria showed the lower percentages of total enteric bacteria and net specific growth rate in the monitored activated sludge system as compared to tetracycline resistant heterotrophic bacteria. Therefore, total enterics, potentially E.coli, might not be the best indicator microorganism for evaluating the antibiotic resistant bacteria in biological wastewater treatment plant.

Susceptibilities of Quinolones against Erythromycin- and Tetracycline-Resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae Isolates (Erythromycin과 tetracycline에 저항성인 Myoplasma pneumoniae의 quinolone계 항생물질에 대한 감수성)

  • Chang, Myung-Woong;Park, In-Dal;Kim, Kwang-Hyuk
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.799-805
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    • 2006
  • The in vitro activities of quinolones were determined with 36 strains of tetracycline- resistant, 39 strains of erythromycin-resistant, 21 strains of both resistant to tetracycline and erythromycin, and 27 strains of both susceptible to tetracycline and erythromycin of the M. pneumoniae isolates which have been isolated and classified in previous studies. The $MIC_{90}$ of moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and clarithromycin against 36 strains of tetracycline-resistant M. pneumoniae isolates were 0.125, 0.39, 0.125, 1.0, 1.0, 15.6, and $1.56\;{\mu}g/ml$, respectively. The $MIC_{90}$ against 39 strains of eryhtromycin-resistant M. pneumoniae isolates were 0.06, 0.39, 0.125, 1.0, 1.0, 15.6, and $25.0\;{\mu}g/ml$, respectively. The $MIC_{90}$ against 21 strains of both resistant to tetracycline and eryhtromycin of M. pneumoniae isolates were 0.125, 0.39, 0.125, 1.0, 1.0, 3.9, and $1.56\;{\mu}g/ml$, respectively. The $MIC_{90}$ against 27 strains of both susceptible to tetracycline and eryhtromycin of M. pneumoniae isolates were 0.125, 0.39, 0.125, 1.0, 1.0, 7.8, and $0.09\;{\mu}g/ml$, respectively. These result suggest that moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, and sparfloxacin of the quinolones might be promising antimicrobial agents for the treatment of tetracycline- and erythromycin-resistant M. pneumoniae infection. However, selection of ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and clarithromycin for the treatment of M. pneumoniae infection should be cautious decision with antimycoplasmal susceptibility test.

Antimicrobial Activities of Root Surfaces Treated with Tetracycline-containing gel and a Mixture of tetracycline and citric acid-containing gel;in vivo study (테트라싸이클린 및 테트라싸이클린-구연산 혼합젤로 처리한 치근면의 항 미생물 활성 변화에 관한 연구;In Vivo Study)

  • Cheong, Hee-Sun;Han, Soo-Boo;Nam, Seok-Woo;Shim, Chang-Koo;Kye, Seung-Beom
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.79-90
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    • 1997
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the substantivity of experimentally developed gel type tetracycline HCl and a mixture of tetracycline-citric acid gel, and compare to those of solution type tetracycline HCl. 11 extracted anterior teeth were subjected to this study. After scaling and root planing teeth were randomly divided into 3 treatments groups : group 1; 3 teeth were irrigated with tetracycline HCl(50mg/ml) solution , group 2; tetracycline gel (5%) was inserted in the periodontal pockets of 3 teeth, group 3; a mixture of tetracycline and citric acid gel was inserted in the pockets of 3 teeth. And 2 teeth treated in 0.9 % sterile saline served as controls. After 5-minute exposure, each tooth immediately extracted and incubated at room temperature for 22 days in tris-buffered saline as a desorption media. The total volume of TBS was removed and replaced with fresh TBS, at 24-h intervals. Removed desorption media transferred to a sterile vial and stored at -70 oC. This procedure was repeated every 24 h throughout the 22-day desorption period. Using Porphyromonas gingivalis as an indicator organism, a microtiter assay was used to evaluate antimicrobial activity desorbed from the teeth. 1. 50mg/ml tetracycline HCl solution exhibited the longest antimicrobial activity. Compared to saline treated group, it showed significant difference on the day 1 and day 2 desorption period. 2. The ODs of 5% tetracycline gel and a mixture of tetracycline-citric acid gel were significantly different during the first 24 hour only. 3. There was no statistically significant difference after the day 3 between the groups.(p<0.05). Despite our expectation a mixture of tetracycline-citric acid gel did not show longer antimicrobial activities than those of tetracycline gel, and the solution type exhibited the longest activities. Because the gel type agents may stay in the subgingival environment longer than the solution, if the teeth were not extracted immediately after the delivery of the agent, the result could be different. hus this result suggests the possibilities of practical use of these kind of gel type agents.

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EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECT OF TETRACYCLINE ON GROWTH OF TIBIA AND MANDIBLE IN RATS (Tetracycline이 백서의 경골 및 하악골발육에 미치는 영향에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Lee, Mi Dae
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.33-41
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    • 1975
  • To study the effect of the tetracycline-HCl on the growth of the rats, the author made a daily injection of tetracycline-HCl in the amount of 40mg/kg of body weight to the lactating mother and weanling rats for 7 days. Lactating and weanling young rats were killed at a week intervals and removed tibia and mandible from soft tissues. The effect of the tetracycline on the growth of rats were analysed from the weight, the length of tibia and the size of mandible. The results were as follows: 1. Tetracycline inhibited the growth of young rats. 2. Inhibitory effects were greater ill the weanling group than the lactating group. 3. The inhibitory effect was marked just after the injection of tetracycline-HCl in body weight and after a week in mandible and tibia. 4. The inhibitory effect of growth nab continued for 2-3 weeks in body weight and 3-4 weeks in tibia and mandible. 5. In growth of mandible, the antero-posterior growth was more inhibited than the vertical.

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Analysis of Tetracycline Resistance Plasmids and the Conjugative Transfer of Tetracycline Resistancy in Staphylococcus epidermidis (Staphylococcus epidermidis의 Tetracycline 내성 Plasmid의 분석 및 Conjugation에 의한 내성전달)

  • Chung, Jae-Kyu;Park, Mi-Kyung;Kim, Sung-Kwang
    • The Journal of the Korean Society for Microbiology
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.95-99
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    • 1987
  • When tetracycline resistancy were cured by ethidium bromide treatment, some of the cured strains lost the tetracycline resistance plasmid while other strains kept the plasmids. Both strains of lost and remained plasmids were digested with restriction endonuclease Hind III and these cleaved plasmids were compared with that of parent strains, two plasmid remained strains showed same cleavage patterns between parent and cured strains, however, one plasmid lost strain showed dissimilarity with parent strain, but in the other one strain, among 4 plasmid lost colonies, 2 showed same but other 2 showed different patterns compared to parent strain. Tetracycline was transfered by conjugation in on set(Staphylococcus aureus donor versus Staphylococcus epidermidis, recipient) with relative high frequency but the other 2 sets showed a low degree of frequency and the other 2 sets exhibited no transfer.

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Slow-release local drug delivery effect of tetracycline loaded calcium sulfate (테트라싸이크린 함유 calcium sulfate의 서방형 국소 약물 송달 효과에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Sung-Hee;Choi, Seong-Ho;Cho, Kyoo-Sung;Chai, Jung-Kiu;Park, Kwang-Kyun;Kim, Chong-Kwan
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.751-765
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    • 1997
  • Periodontal disease is a bacterially causal by disease, To remove plaque and bacteria, it has been necessary to prescribe chemical drug to patient to subjugate therapeutic unvalue by mechanical scaling. As a patient on a high dosage of the antibiotics to maintain the effective concentration may produce unfavorable side effects, this decase demands the Slow-release local drug delivery system. The object of the experiment is to study on the slow-release local drug delivery effects of calcium sulfate compounded with tetracycline that mainly used in periodontal disease. Experimental groups were divided into four classes as follow: Group 1 10% tetracycline compounded modified calcium sulfate paste. Group 2 : compounded and hardened 10% tetracycline and calcium sulfate. Group 3 : compounded 10% tetracycline and calcium sulfate, used Just before hardened. Group 4 : tetracycline-ethylene vinyl acetate fiber. In the four groups, release concentration, it's durability and the period of absorption by times are observed and concluded as follow: 1. An effective concentration($4{\mu}g/ml$) remained until 5 weeks in group 1, 9 days in group 2, 7 days in group 3, 15 days in group 4. 2. It was fully fused at 11.8 days average in group 2 and 14.8 days average in group 3. . There were no statistically significant results in tetracycline concentration until a week in group 2 and 3(p<0.05) These results suggest that tetracycline loaded calcium sulfate release sufficient tetracycline and fused in $11{\sim}14$ days, so calcium sulfate is useful carrier as slow release local drug delivery system.

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THE CHANGE OF THE ROOT SURFACE MORPHOLOGY BY DIFFERENT MODES OF TETRACYCLINE HYDROCHLORIDE CONDITIONING (Tetracycline Hydrochloride 적용방법에 따른 치근면 표면 형태 변화의 연구)

  • Rew, Seong-Hun;Moon, Jin-Kyun;Kim, Hyung-Seop
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.76-88
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    • 1995
  • The purpose of this was to evaluate the in vitro effects of different application modes of tetracycline HCI on dentin root surfaces. The study group was comprised of 30 teeth with advanced periodontal disease extracted before the start of periodontal therapy. The diseased root surface was vigorously root planed to expose dentin. The teeth were sectioned and cotton pellets. soaked in a saturated solution of tetracycline HCI, were either "placed" or "burnished" on the prepared root surface for 3, 5 min. respectively. Control surfaces were similarly treated with root planing only. Following the various treatments, teeth were fixed. dehydrated, critical point dried, and coated for scanning electron microscopic(SEM) evaluation. The surfaces of tetracycline HCI treated specimens considerably differed from specimens treated with root planing only. Results demonstrated that root-planed, no-tetracycline HCI specimens had amorphous, irregular surface which corresponded to a smear layer. Tetracycline HCI specimens exhibited collagen fibers and dentinal tubules exposed by the removal of the smear layer. Although some differences were seen in surface structures among some specimens. "burnished" application causes more extensive change than "placed" application, and application time of the tetracycline HCl did not seem to have any major impact on the surface morphology.

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Cloning and Characterization of the Tetracycline Resistant Gene, tetB, from Vibrio parahaemolyticus

  • Kang, Min-Seung;Park, Kun-Ba-Wui;Hwang, Hye-Jin;Bae, Hyang-Nam;Lim, Keun-Sik;Eom, Sung-Hwan;Kim, Young-Mog
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.24-28
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    • 2009
  • A tetracycline resistant Vibrio parahaemolyticus, capable of growing on TCBS medium containing tetracycline, was isolated from cultivated fishes. A gene responsible for the tetracycline resistance was cloned from chromosomal DNA of the V. parahaemolyticus strain using Escherichia coli KAM3, which lacks major multi-drug efflux pumps (${\Delta}acrB$) as host cells. The nucleotide sequence and homology analysis revealed an open reading frame (ORF) for tetracycline resistance protein (TetB). In order to characterize the antibiotic resistance of TetB originated from the V. parahaemolyticus strain, the gene was sub cloned into plasmid pSTV28. The resulting plasmid was designated as pSTVTetB and transformated into E. coli KAM3. E. coli KAM3 cells harboring the recombinant plasmid pSTVTetB are able to grow on plates containing tetracycline and oxytetracycline but not doxycycline, indicating that the tetB gene confers the tetracycline- and oxytetracycline-resistance to the host cell.

Simultaneous Quantification of Sulfonamide and Tetracyclines in Fish Muscle Tissue by Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion (MSPD) Extraction and HPLC (MSPD와 HPLC를 이용한 어류의 잔류 설파제와 테트라사이클린계 항생물질의 동시분석)

  • 하대식;김종수;김곤섭
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.117-124
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    • 1997
  • A simple, rapid and simultaneous analytical method is described for the detection of Sulfonamide and Tetracycline residues, i.e., Sulfamerazine (SMR), Sulfamethazine (SMT), Sulfamonomethoxine (SMM), Sulfadimethoxine (SDM), Sulfaquinoxaline (SQN), Oxytetracycline (OXY), Tetracycline (TC), Chlortetracycline (CTC). Blank control and sulfonamide and tetracycline fortified fish muscle samples (0.5 f) were blended with octadecylsilyl (C18, 40 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$, 21% load, 60$\AA$) derivatized silica packing material (2 g). Blended fish samples were washed with hexane, then, benzene and dichloromethace were used for the elution of tetracycline and sulfonamide were analyzed by HPLC. Correlation coefficients of standard curves for individual sulfonamide and tetracycline isolated from fortified samples were linear (0.9993$\pm$0.0003~0.9997$\pm$0.0003, 0.9493$\pm$0.078~0.9753$\pm$0.036), respectively. The average percentage recoveries of sulfonamide and tetracycline ranged as 80.86~96.52% to 85.88~92.23%, and 30.01~37.12% to 65.89~73.40%, for the concentration range (0.1~1.0 ppm) examined, respectively. Limit of detection for sulfonamide was 0.0012 ppm for SMR in Paralichthys Olivacleus and 0.0020 ppm for SMR, 0.015 ppm for SMM in Cyprinus Carpio. The applicability of this procedure is demonstrated by separation and detection of incurred tetracycline and sulfonamide residues in fish muscle tissue.

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