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Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination; Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice in Final Year Medical Students in Nigeria

  • Ugwumba, Fred O;Ekwueme, Osa Eloka C;Okoh, Agharighom D
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.11
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    • pp.4999-5003
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    • 2016
  • The testicular cancer (TCa) incidence is increasing in many countries, with age-standardized incidence rates up to 7.8/100,000 men in the Western world, although reductions in mortality and increasingly high cure rates are being witnessed at the same time. In Africa, where rates are lower, presentation is often late and morbidity and mortality high. Given this scenario, awareness of testicular cancer and practice of testicular self-examination among future first response doctors is very important. This study was conducted to determine knowledge and attitude to testicular cancer, and practice of testicular self-examination (TSE) among final (6th) year medical students. In addition, the effect of an intervention in the form of a single PowerPoint(R) lecture, lasting 40 minutes with image content on testicular cancer and testicular self examination was assessed. Pre and post intervention administration of a self-administered structured pre tested questionnaire was performed on 151 medical students, 101 of whom returned answers (response rate of 66.8%). In the TC domain, there was a high level of awareness of testicular cancer, but poor knowledge of the age group most affected, with significant improvement post intervention (p<0.001). Notable also was the poor awareness of the potential curability of TC, this also being improved following the intervention (p<0.001). A poor level of awareness and practice of testicular self-examination pre-intervention was found considering the nature of the study group..Respondents had surprisingly weak/poor responses to the question "How important to men's health is regular testicular self-examination?" Answers to the questions "Do you think it is worthwhile to examine your testis regularly?" and "Would you be interested in more information on testicular cancer and testicular self-examination?" were also suboptimal, but improved post intervention p<0.001, p<0.001 and p=0.037. Age, gender and marital status were without specific influence. In conclusion, this study showed poor levels of knowledge regarding epidemiology of TCa and its potential curability when detected early. There was also a poor awareness of, practice of, and poor attitudes to TSE. The significant improvement in these parameters post intervention indicates value in educational intervention. We recommend inclusion of TCa coverage and TSE teaching in the secondary school curriculum (targeting adolescents). Greater emphasis should also be given to testicular cancer in the curricula of medical schools and other training institutions for health care personnel.

Incidence and Mortality of Testicular Cancer and Relationships with Development in Asia

  • Sadeghi, Mostafa;Ghoncheh, Mahshid;Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah;Gandomani, Hamidreza Sadeghi;Rafiemanesh, Hosein;Salehiniya, Hamid
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.9
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    • pp.4251-4257
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    • 2016
  • Background: Testicular cancer is one of the most common cancers among young men between ages 20-34 in countries with high or very high levels of the Human Development Index (HDI). This study investigated the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer and the relationship with the HDI and its dimensions in Asia in 2012. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted based on data from the world data of cancer and the World Bank (including the HDI and its components). Standardized incidence and mortality rates of testicular cancer were calculated for Asian countries. Correlations between incidence and/ormortality rates, and the HDI and its components were assessed with the use of the correlation test, using SPSS software. Results: There was a total of 14902 incidences and 5832 death were recorded in Asian countries in 2012. Among the Asian countries, the five countries with the highest standardized incidence rates of testicular cancer were Israel, Georgia, Turkey, Lebanon and Kazakhstan and the five countries with the highest standardized mortality rates were Turkey, Georgia, Jordan, Cambodia and the Syrian Arab Republic. A positive correlation of 0.382 was observed between the standardized incidence rates of testicular cancer and the HDI (p=0.009). Also a negative correlation of 0.298 between the standardized mortality rate of testicular cancer and the Human Development Index was noted although this relation was statistically non-significant (p=0.052). Conclusions: There is a positive correlation between HDI and the standardized incidence rate of testicular cancer and negative correlation with standardized mortality rate.

Clinical Application of $^{18}F-FDG$ PET in Testicular Cancer (고환암에서 $^{18}F-FDG$ PET의 임상 이용)

  • Yoon, Joon-Kee
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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    • v.42 no.sup1
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    • pp.121-125
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    • 2008
  • $^{18}F-FDG$ PET has a higher diagnostic accuracy than a in initial staging of testicular cancer. In seminoma, it can discriminate residual tumor from necrosis/fibrosis or mature teratoma. $^{18}F-FDG$ PET is also useful for the response evaluation of chemotherapy. However, there's no clinical evidence for the use of $^{18}F-FDG$ PET in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of testicular cancer.

Clinical Profile, Treatment and Survival Outcome of Testicular Tumors: A Pakistani Perspective

  • Bhatti, Abu Bakar Hafeez;Ahmed, Irfan;Ghauri, Rashid Khan;Saeed, Qamar;Mir, Khurram
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.277-280
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    • 2014
  • Background: Testicular cancer management is considered a marvel of modern science with excellent treatment results. Pakistan has a distinct ethnic variation and geographic distribution but data regarding clinical presentation of testicular tumors and their management is under reported. The objective of this study was to determine clinical profile, treatment modalities and survival outcome of testicular tumors in the Pakistani population. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of patients who received treatment for testicular cancer at Shaukat Khanum Cancer Hospital from January 2009 to December 2012 was performed. Patient demographics, clinical features at presentation and treatment modalities were assessed. For categorical variables chi square test was used. Survival was calculated using Kaplan Meier survival curves and Log rank test was employed to determine significance. Results: The most common tumor was mixed germ cell tumor in 49% patients. For all tumor variants except seminoma, stage III was the most common clinical stage at presentation. Majority of patients with non seminomatous germ cell tumors presented in the15-30 year age group as compared to seminoma which was most prevalent in the 30-40 year age group. Orchiectomy followed by chemotherapy was the most common treatment modality in 80% patients. Expected 5 year survival for seminomas and non-seminomatous germ cell tumors was 96% and 90% respectively which was not significantly different (p=0.2). Conclusions: Despite a distinct clinical profile of testicular tumors in Pakistani population, survival is comparable with published reports.

Effects of Small-Group Education for Testicular Self-Examination on Knowledge, Self-efficacy, and Performance Intention in Male College Students (고환자가검진에 대한 소그룹 교육이 남자 대학생의 지식, 자기효능감 및 수행의도에 미치는 효과)

  • Park, So-Mi;Chung, Chae-Weon;Park, Mi-Jeong
    • The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.292-300
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: This study examined the effects of Testicular Self-Examination (TSE) small-group education on knowledge, self-efficacy, and performance intention in male college students. Method: A non-equivalent pre-post test of quasi-experimental design was used. Out of 74 male college students selected by convenient sampling, 37 students were assigned to the experimental group and were given TSE small-group education. A 60-minute program consisted of lecture, demonstration, practice, discussion, and Q&A. Result: With an initial homogeneity between the two group, scores of knowledge about testicular cancer (p<.001), self-efficacy for TSE (p<.001), and performance intention of TSE (p<.01) of the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the control group after the intervention. Conclusion: Small group education for TSE was effective in improving knowledge about testicular cancer, self-efficacy for TSE, and intention to perform TSE. Thus, this education program is considered to be useful for testicular cancer prevention and reproductive health promotion in male college students.

Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice of Testicular Self-examination among Male University Students from Bangladesh, Madagascar, Singapore, South Africa and Turkey

  • Peltzer, Karl;Pengpid, Supa
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.4741-4743
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    • 2015
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitude and practice of testicular self-examination (TSE) among male university students from low income (Bangladesh, Madagascar), middle income (South Africa, Turkey) and emerging economy (Singapore) countries. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 2,061 male undergraduate university students aged 16-30 (mean age 21.4, SD=2.4) from 5 universities in 5 countries across Asia and Africa. Overall, 17.6% of the male students indicated that they knew how to perform TSE; this knowledge proportion was above 20% in Bangladesh and Singapore, while it was the lowest (12.2%) in Madagascar. Among all men, 86.4% had never practiced TSE in the past 12 months, 7.1% 1-2 times, 3.5% 3-10 times, and monthly TSE was 3.1%. The proportion of past 12 month TSE was the highest (17.6%) among male university students in South Africa and the lowest (7.3%) among students in Singapore. Logistic regression found that TSE importance or positive attitude was highly associated with TSE practice. TSE practices were found to be inadequate and efforts should be made to develop programmes that can increase knowledge related to testicular cancer as well as the practice of testicular self-examination.

Characteristics of Incident Testicular Cancer in Lebanon - 1990-2015 Single Institutional Experience

  • Assi, Tarek;Nasr, Fadi;El Rassy, Elie;Ibrahim, Toni;Jabbour, Hicham;Chahine, Georges
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.1899-1902
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    • 2016
  • Background: Despite the fact that testicular cancer is a major health issue with its increasing incidence, very few studies have described its characteristics in the Middle East, particularly in Lebanon. Materials and Methods: We report in this paper a retrospective pilot study of the characteristics of testicular cancer in Lebanon. The demographic, epidemiologic and survival characteristics of 178 patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2015 at an oncology clinic affiliated to Hotel Dieu de France Hospital were analyzed. Results: The mean age at diagnosis was $32{\pm}10years$. The most prevalent testicular tumor was the germ cell type (GCT) (95.2%) of which non-seminomatous tumors (NST) were the commonest (64.7%). Most of our patients were diagnosed at an early stage. Lymph node spread affected most commonly the retroperitoneal region and distant visceral metastases occurred in 14.6%. All patients underwent orchiectomy with 67% receiving adjuvant treatment, mainly chemotherapy. After a median follow up of 2,248 days (75.9 months) 16 patients were reported dead. Two, five and ten-year overall survival rates were 96%, 94% and 89% respectively. The median overall survival rate was not reached. Conclusions: Despite being part of the developing world, demographic, epidemiologic and survival analyses of testicular cancer reported in our study are in line with those reported from developed countries and would allow us to extrapolate management plans from these populations.

Diagnostic Accuracy of 18F-FDG-PET in Patients with Testicular Cancer: a Meta-analysis

  • Zhao, Jing-Yi;Ma, Xue-Lei;Li, Yan-Yan;Zhang, Bing-Lan;Li, Min-Min;Ma, Xue-Lei;Liu, Lei
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.3525-3531
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    • 2014
  • Objective: Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) is a new technique for identifying different malignant tumors using different uptake values between tumor cells and normal tissues. Here we assessed the diagnostic accuracy of 18F-FDG-PET in patients with testicular cancer by pooling data of existing trials in a meta-analysis. Methods: PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Central Trials databases were searched and studies published in English relating to the diagnostic value of FDG-PET for testicular cancer were collected. The summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve was used to examine the FDG-PET accuracy. Results: A total of 16 studies which included 957 examinations in 807 patients (median age, 31.1 years) were analyzed. A meta-analysis was performed to combine the sensitivity and specificity and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs), from diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), positive likelihood ratios (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR). SROC were derived to demonstrate the diagnostic accuracy of FDG-PET for testicular cancer. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.75 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.70-0.80) and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.84-0.89), respectively. The pooled DOR was 35.6 (95% CI, 12.9-98.3). The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.88. The pooled PLR and pooled NLR were 7.80 (95% CI, 3.73-16.3) and 0.31 (95% CI, 0.23-0.43), respectively. Conclusion: In patients with testicular cancer, 18F-FDG-PET demonstrated a high SROC area, and could be a potentially useful tool if combined with other imaging methods such as MRI and CT. Nevertheless, the literature focusing on the use of 18F-FDG-PET in this setting still remains limited.

Distribution of Testicular Tumors in Lebanon: A Single Institution Overview

  • Assi, Tarek;Rassy, Marc;Nassereddine, Hussein;Sader-Ghorra, Claude;Abadjian, Gerard;Ghosn, Marwan;Kattan, Joseph
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.3443-3446
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    • 2015
  • Background: Testicular tumors constitute a rare type of cancer affecting adolescents and young adults with recent reports confirming an increase in incidence worldwide. The purpose of this study was to estimate the epidemiological characteristics and histological subtypes of testicular tumors in the Lebanese population according to the WHO classification of testicular and paratesticular tumors. Materials and Methods: In this single institutional retrospective study, all patients diagnosed with a testicular tumor in Hotel-Dieu de France Hospital University in Beirut between 1992 and 2014 were enrolled. The age, subtype based on the 2004 WHO classification and body side of tumor were analyzed. Results: A total of two hundred and forty-four (244) patients diagnosed with a testicular tumor in our institution were included in the study. Two hundred and one patients (82.4% of all testicular tumors) had germ cell tumors (TGCT). Among TGCT, 50% were seminomatous tumors, 48% non-seminomatous tumors (NST) and 2% were spermatocytic seminomas. The NST were further divided into mixed germ cell tumors (63.9%), embryonic carcinomas (18.6%), teratomas (15.4%) and yolk sac tumors (2.1%). The mean age for testicular tumors was 32 years. The mean age for germ cell tumors was 31 years and further subtypes such as seminomatous tumors had a mean age of 34 years, 28 years in non-seminomatous tumors and 56 years in spermatocytic seminoma. Patients with right testicular tumor were the predominant group with 55% of patients. Three patients (1.2%) presented with bilateral tumors. Conclusions: The distribution of different subgroups and the mean age for testicular tumors proved comparable to most countries of the world except for some Asian countries. Germ cell tumors are the most common subtype of testicular tumors with seminomatous tumors being slightly more prevalent than non-seminomatous tumors in Lebanese patients.

Successful onco-testicular sperm extraction from a testicular cancer patient with a single testis and azoospermia

  • Kuroda, Shinnosuke;Kondo, Takuya;Mori, Kohei;Yasuda, Kengo;Asai, Takuo;Sanjo, Hiroyuki;Yakanaka, Hiroyuki;Takeshima, Teppei;Kawahara, Takashi;Kato, Yoshitake;Miyoshi, Yasuhide;Uemura, Hiroji;Iwasaki, Akira;Yumura, Yasushi
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.44-47
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    • 2018
  • Onco-testicular sperm extraction is used to preserve fertility in patients with bilateral testicular tumors and azoospermia. We report the case of a testicular tumor in the solitary testis of a patient who had previously undergone successful contralateral orchiectomy and whose sperm was preserved by onco-testicular sperm extraction. A 35-year-old patient presented with swelling of his right scrotum that had lasted for 1 month. His medical history included a contralateral orchiectomy during childhood. Ultrasonography revealed a mosaic echoic area in his scrotum, suggesting a testicular tumor. The lesion was palpated within the normal testicular tissue along its edge and semen analysis showed azoospermia. Radical inguinal orchiectomy and onco-testicular sperm extraction were performed simultaneously. Motile spermatozoa were extracted from normal seminiferous tubules under microscopy and were frozen. Eventual intracytoplasmic sperm injection using the frozen spermatozoa is planned. Onco-testicular sperm extraction is an important fertility preservation method in patients with bilateral testicular tumors or a history of a previous contralateral orchiectomy.