• 제목, 요약, 키워드: temperate japonica

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Yield Potential of Improved Tropical Japonica Rice under Temperate Environment in Korea

  • Lee, Kyu-Seong;Ko, Jae-Kwon;Kim, Jong-Seok;Lee, Jae-Kil;Shin, Hyun-Tak;Cho, Soo-Yeon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.214-220
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    • 1999
  • Rice production in Korea has markedly increased during the last two decades due to newly developed high yielding varieties and improved production technology. This experiment was conducted to determine the potential of tropical japonica germplasm in enhancing the yield of temperate japonica. The yield performance of two tropical japonicas (IR 65597-29-3-2 and IR66154-52-1-2) and one temperate japonica (Dongjinbyeo) was compared at different plant densities and nitrogen levels under Korean environmental conditions. Although tropical japonicas showed low tillering habit and large panicles, they had similar leaf area index and dry weight at heading stage to Dongjinbyeo of the high tillering type indicating that there was not much difference between tropical and temperate japonica in terms of biomass production. The highest milled rice yield of 6.15 t/ha was obtained from Dongjinbyeo at a high nitrogen level with less planting density (220 kg N/ha and 30 $\times$ 15 cm). However, those of the two tropical japonicas were 5.36 t/ha at the condition of 165 kg N/ha and 30 x 10 cm planting density and 5.06 t/ha at the condition of 165kgN/ha and 15 x 15 cm planting density, respectively. Ripened grain of tropical japonicas ranged from 65 to 87%, while that Dongjinbyeo ranged from 82 to 97% under Korean conditions.

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Study of Vegetation Structure about Shrine Forest in Jirisan National Park with Regard to Global Warming (지구온난화를 고려한 지리산 국립공원 내 사찰림의 식생구조 연구)

  • Lee, Sung-Je;Ahn, Young-Hee
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.23 no.11
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    • pp.1863-1879
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    • 2014
  • This study aims at classifying and interpreting on the shrine forest vegetation located in Jirisan national park affiliated to an ecotone in southern part of Korea, foreseeing a vegetation change based on composition species and dominant species on canopy, and proposing the direction of vegetation management. The shrine forests were classified into the 7 community units as Chamaecyparis obtusa-Cryptomeria japonica afforestation, Pinus densiflora community, Pinus rigida afforestation, Quercus variabilis-Quercus serrata community, Zelkova serrata-Kerria japonica for. japonica community, Phyllostachys bambusoides forest, Camellia japonica community. This research is also expatiated on the analogous results of ordination analysis with phytosociological analysis. The constituents of deciduous broad-leaved forest in the warm temperate zone were appeared in the most vegetations. It emerged less that the constituents of evergreen broad-leaved forest in the warm-temperate zone and deciduous broad-leaved forest in the cold-temperature zone. The life form analyses were made use with the two ways: appearance species in total communities and each community. The species diversity of shrine forests is declined because the high dominances of Sasa borealis and Pseudosasa japonica emerged in the shrub and herb layers. These shrine forests will be succession to Q. variabilis-Q. serrata community as the representative vegetation of deciduous broad-leaved forest in the warm-temperate zone, owing to the temperature rise by global warming, and an evergreen broad-leaved forest will be able to be also formed if a temperate rise will be continued. The one of the artificial management of shrine forests is to consider the introduction of the constituents of evergreen broad-leaved forest in the warm-temperate zone.

Allometric equations, stem density and biomass expansion factors for Cryptomeria japonica in Mount Halla, Jeju Island, Korea

  • Jung, Sung Cheol;Lumbres, Roscinto Ian C.;Won, Hyun Kyu;Seo, Yeon Ok
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.177-184
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to develop allometric equations and to determine the stem density and biomass expansion factor (BEF) for the estimation of the aboveground and belowground biomass of Cryptomeria japonica in Jeju Island, Korea. A total of 18 trees were harvested from the 40-year-old C. japonica stands in Hannam experimental forest, Jeju Island. The mean biomass of the C. japonica was $50.4Mg\;ha^{-1}$ in stem wood, $23.1Mg\;ha^{-1}$ in root, $9.6Mg\;ha^{-1}$ in branch, $4.6Mg\;ha^{-1}$ in needle and $4.3Mg\;ha^{-1}$ in stem bark. The diameter at breast height (DBH) was selected as independent variable for the development of allometric equations. To evaluate the performance of these equations, coefficient of determination ($R^2$) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used and results of the evaluation showed that $R^2$ ranged from 71% (root biomass equation) to 96% (aboveground biomass equation) and the RMSE ranged from 0.10 (aboveground biomass equation) to 0.33 (root biomass equation). The mean stem density of C. japonica was $0.37g\;cm^{-3}$ and the mean aboveground BEF was $1.28g\;g^{-1}$. Furthermore, the ratio of the root biomass to aboveground biomass was 0.32.

Genetic Analysis of Traits Associated with Panicle and Flag Leaf in Tropical Japonica Rice

  • Chang, Jae-Ki;Oh, Byeong-Geun;Kim, Ho-Yeong;Lim, Sang-Jong;Kim, Soon-Chul;Sohn, Jae-Keun
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.135-140
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    • 1998
  • Diallel analysis was conducted with FI's derived from crossing in all combinations without reciprocals among six rice varieties; three tropical japonica and three temperate japonica varieties, with different traits associated with panicle and flag leaf. Epistasis was observed in the number of primary branches (PB) per panicle and of spikelets per panicle, while flag leaf length, flag leaf color, PB length and neck node thickness were explained with the additive-dominance model. The estimated genetic mode of flag leaf length and PB length was a positive complete dominance model with high heritability, and that of flag leaf color and neck node thickness was an incomplete dominance model. In particular, tropical japonica varieties with low-tillering and heavy-panicle appear to have higher number of dominant genes for flag leaf length and PB length than temperate japonica varieties.

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Association of Grain Filling Duration and Leaf Activity with the Grain Yield in Field-Grown Temperate Japonica Rice

  • Yang, Woonho;Kang, Shingu;Park, Jeong-Hwa;Kim, Sukjin;Choi, Jong-Seo;Heu, Sunggi
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.63 no.2
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    • pp.120-130
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    • 2018
  • Improvement in rice grain yield has been approached by means of genetic amendment, cultural management, and environmental adaptation. Subjecting the plant during the grain filling period to an appropriate environment plays a key role in achieving a high grain yield in temperate rice. Field experiments were conducted for two consecutive years with two planting times to assess the relations among grain filling traits, loss of leaf activity during the ripening period, and the grain yield of temperate japonica rice with wide environmental variation. Higher grain yields were attained in 2017 than in 2016 and with late planting than with early planting. The high grain yield accompanied a comparatively lesser increase in grain weight at the early filling stage but more gain in grain weight occurred during the late filling stage. Final grain weight correlated positively with grain filling duration but negatively with grain filling rate. Extended grain filling duration was associated with higher cumulative temperature and cumulative solar radiation for an effective grain filling period. The reduction in SPAD value ${\times}$ leaf dry weight from heading to harvest significantly correlated with final grain dry weight in a positive manner. No significant relation was found between grain filling duration and the decrease in SPAD value ${\times}$ leaf dry weight during the grain filling period. The results suggest that grain filling duration and loss of leaf activity during ripening independently contribute to environmentally induced yield improvement in temperate japonica rice.

Variations of Yields and Growth-related Characteristics Shown by Different Ecotype of Rice Varieties in the Temperate and Tropical Zones I. Variation of Heading Time and Growth-related Characteristics Shown by Varieties in Temperate and Tropical Zones (온대와 열대에서 생태형이 다른 수고품종의 수량 및 생육형질의 변이 I. 온대와 열대지방간의 품종별 출수기 및 생육형질의 변이)

  • ;Eun-Woong Lee
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.277-285
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    • 1986
  • A total of 16 varieties from Korea and Indonesia were tested at Suwon, Korea (126$^{\circ}$19'E, 37$^{\circ}$16'N and 37m above sea level) and Bali, Indonesia (115$^{\circ}$ 14'E, 8$^{\circ}$42'S and 10m above sea level). Japonica-type varieties showed pre-matured heading at Bali, tropical zone, while Bulu varieties showed no heading at Suwon, temperate zone. The varieties of Indica-type and Ind./Jap. showed faster heading in tropical zone than in temperate zone. Dry matter of the varieties weighed more difference among varietal groups in tropical than in temperate area, while plant height responsed differently depending on variety and test region.

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Comparison of Amylogram Properties among Several Subspecies of Rice (여러 아종 벼 품종들간 아밀로그램 특성 비교)

  • Kwak Tae-Soon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.186-190
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    • 2005
  • This experiment was conducted to collect the basic information on the varietal diversity in amylogram properties of 3 different rice sub-species under tropical conditions in IRRI 2001 wet season based upon correlation and principal component analysis. The peak viscosity and breakdown property of Tongil type, i.e.; temperate Indica species showed higher similarity with Japonica type species rather than typical Indica and tropical japonica types. The amylogram properties such as final viscosity, pasting consistency and setback of Tongil type varieties were lower than those of typical Indica and tropical japonica types. The peak viscosity showed positive correlation with trough, while the breakdown showed negative correlation with setback in all tested 3 rice subspecies. The first principal component was applicable to increase the gelatinization temperature, final viscosity, pasting consistency and setback, and applicable to decrease the peak viscosity and breakdown. Varietal classification by the principal component score of each pedigree could be applied to the interpretation of the community by the scatter diagram for the amylogram properties to the different sub-species of rice at IRRI conditions.

Genetic Diversity of Korean Rice Breeding Parents as Measured by DNA Fingerprinting with Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) Markers

  • Song, Moon-Tae;Lee, Jeom-Ho;Lee, Sang-Bok;Cho, Youn-Sang;Ku, Ja-hwan;Seo, Kyoung-In;Choi, Seong-ho;Hwang, Heung-Goo
    • Plant Resources
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.16-26
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    • 2003
  • Molecular markers are useful tools for evaluating genetic diversity and determining cultivar identity. Present study was conducted to evaluate the genetic diversity within a diverse collection of rice accessions used for Korean breeding programs. Two hundred eighty-seven rice cultivars, composed of temperate japonica, tropical japonica, indica, and Tongil-type of Korean crossing parents were evaluated by means of 15 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 99 alleles were detected, and the number of alleles per marker ranged from 4 to 11, with an average of 6.6 per locus. Polymorphism information content (PIC) for each of the SSR markers ranged from 0.2924 to 0.8102 with an average of 0.5785. These results, with the result that use of only 15 SSR markers made all rice cultivars examined could be uniquely distinguished, imply the efficiency of SSR markers for analysis of genetic diversity in rice. Cluster analysis was performed on similar coefficient matrics calculated from SSR markers to generate a dendogram in which two major groups corresponding to japonica (Group I) and indica and Tongil type rice (group II) with additional subclasses within both major groups. The narrowness of the Korean breeding germplasm was revealed by the fact that most of the Korean-bred and Japan-bred temperate japonica cultivars were concentrated into only 2 of the sub-group I-1 (143 cultivars) and I-2 (58 cultivars) among six sub-groups in major group of japonica. This is because of the japonica accessions used in this study was a very closely related ones because of frequent sharing of the crossing parents with similar genetic background with synergy effect of the inherited genetic difference between indica and japonica. A rice breeding strategy with the use of molecular markers was discussed for overcoming of genetic vulnerability owing to this genetic narrowness.

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Association of Duration and Rate of Grain Filling with Grain Yield in Temperate Japonica Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

  • Yang, Woon-Ho;Park, Tae-Shik;Kwak, Kang-Su;Choi, Kyung-Jin;Oh, Min-Hyuk
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.112-121
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    • 2007
  • Grain filling is a crucial factor that determines grain yield in crops since it is the final process directly associated with crops' yield performance. Grain filling process can be characterized by the interaction of rate and duration of grain filling. This study was conducted, using 16 temperate japonica rice genotypes, with aims to (1) seek variations in grain filling duration and rate on area basis, (2) compare the contribution of grain filling duration and rate to grain yield, and (3) examine the influence of temperature and solar radiation for effective grain filling on grain yield in relation to grain filling duration and rate. Grain filling rate and duration exhibited highly significant variations in the ranges of $20.7{\sim}46.3\;g\;m^{-2}d^{-1}\;and\;11.2{\sim}35.5$ days, respectively, depending on rice genotypes. Grain yield on unit area basis was associated positively with grain filling duration but negatively with grain filling rate. Grain filling rate and duration were negatively correlated with each other. Final grain weight increased linearly with the rise in both cumulative mean temperature and cumulative solar radiation for effective grain filling. Higher cumulative mean temperature and cumulative solar radiation for effective grain filling were the results of longer grain filling duration, but not necessarily higher daily mean temperature and daily solar radiation for effective grain filling. Grain filling rate demonstrated an increasing tendency with the rise in daily mean temperature for effective grain filling but their relationship was not obviously clear. It was concluded that grain filling duration, which influenced cumulative mean temperature and cumulative solar radiation for effective grain filling, was the main factor that determined grain yield on unit area basis in temperate Japonica rice.

Variation of Yields and Growth-related Characteristics Shown by Different Ecotype of Rice Varieties in the Temperate and Tropical Zones II. Yields and Yield-related Characteristics Variation Shown by Varieties in Temperate and Tropical Zones (온대와 열대에서 생태형이 다른 수도품종의 수량 및 생육형질의 변이 II. 온대와 열대지방간에 품종별 수량 및 수량형질의 변이)

  • ;Eun-Woong Lee
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.391-402
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    • 1986
  • A total of 16 varieties from Korea and Indonesia were tested in Suwon, Korea (126$^{\circ}$9'E, 37$^{\circ}$16'N, 37m amsl) and Bali, Indonesia (115$^{\circ}$ 14'E, 8$^{\circ}$42' and 10m amsl). Most varieties of Indica and India/Japonica types showed adaptability to both areas. Generally Indica-type showed more number of panicles per hill than that of Indica/Japonica, while Indica/Japonica showed better performance in spike let number per panicle and 1,000 grain weight than Indica-type varieties.

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