Based on a survey on 1620 students in primary school and secondary school., by adopting Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), we got the following findings : 1. There is close relationship between emotionality characteristics of temperament and mathematics academic achievement of the subjects at Grade 5 (Primary 5), Grade 8 (Junior Secondary 2), and Grade 10 (Senior Secondary 2). Also there is close relationship between internal-external directivity characteristics of temperament and mathematics academic achievement at Grade 5 and Grade 8. While there is not close relationship between internal-external directivity characteristics of temperament and mathematics academic achievement at Grade 10; 2. There is close relationship between temperament types and mathematics academic achievement of the subjects from the three grades. Superior temperament, which benefit learning mathematics, are sanguine, sanguine-phlegmatic and phlegmatic; While inferior temperament types, which don't benefit learning mathematics, are choleric, melancholic and choleric-melancholic. With the rising of grade, temperament types of benefiting learning mathematics converts from external directivity emotion balance to balance of internal-external directivity emotion stability. While temperament of no benefiting learning mathematics converts from internal directivity emotion balance to balance of internal-external directivity emotion instability; 3. In mathematics education, students' temperament difference, which affects learning mathematics, should be recognized. Mathematics teachers should find out the best teaching ways, forms and methods which are suitable for student's temperament type, so that the students with different temperament types can gain better mathematics academic achievement.
This primary purpose of this study was to analyze relations between child temperament and parental disciplinary practices. The subjects were 220 mothers and 220 fathers of kindergarten children. Child temperament was assessed using Colorado Childhood Temperament Inventory and parental disciplinary practices were measured by Parenting Scale. Resets indicated that (1) Fathers recognized their male children's temperament as more soothable and less emotional than those of female children whereas mothers recognized their male children's temperament as more active than those of female children. (2) Fathers recognized their children's temperament as more active than did mothers, but mothers recognized their children's temperament as more soothable than did fathers. (3) Children who were more sociable, less emotional, more sootable, and had longer attention span and persistence were related to more effective patemal disciplinary practices. (4) Children who were less emotional and had longer attention span and persistence were related to more effective maternal disciplinary practices. (5) Paternal disciplinary practices were explained by children's emotional temperament, whereas the best predictors of maternal disciplinary practices were children's emotional temperament and attention span and persistence.
This study was performed was performed to identify the predictability of maternal attitude from infant's temperament and mother's mental stability. It was focused on the comparison of the degree of predictability between infant's temperament and mother's mental stability. Data were collected from sixty-five mothers of infants. Mother's affective attitude was explained by both the maternal mental stability and the infant's temperament. After controlling the effect of mental stability, infant's temperament could explain the affective attitude. This result meant that infant's temperament showed the powerful effect on the maternal affective attitude. However, maternal controlling attitude was only explained by her mental stability but not by infant's temperament. This meant that infant's temperament could not explain mother's controlling behavior. However, interactive effect between infant's sex and temperament was found in the controlling attitude. Mothers showed more controlling attitude toward the difficult boys but not toward the difficult girls.
The purpose of this study examined the path model of maternal emotional expression, temperament and self-esteem on emotion regulation among children. The subjects were 487 5th and 6th graders. Data was gathered through questionnaires reported by children and their mothers and analyzed by structural equation modeling. The results showed that children's 'activity level' temperament and maternal negative emotional expression directly affected maladaptive emotion regulation. Children's 'emotionality' temperament and maternal positive emotional expression directly affected adaptive emotion regulation. Children's 'approach-flexibility' temperament and self-esteem directly affected both maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation. Maternal emotional expression and children's self-esteem mediated between children's temperament and emotion regulation. Additionally, the most important variable predicting children's maladaptive emotion regulation was the children's 'activity level' temperament, and the most important variable for adaptive emotion regulation was the children's 'emotionality' temperament.
The purpose of this correlational study was to find the correlation between the infant temperament, mother-infant interaction, and child-rearing environment. The subjects of this study were 37 dyads of healthy mothers and healthy infants. Data were collected from 15th of March to 3rd of September, 1999. Convenient sampling was done at Obstetric wards of one University hospital, and demographic data were collected before discharge. At one month and three month postpartum, we visited subject's home, and collected the data on the infant temperament, and also video taped the mother-infant interaction during feeding. In addition, child-rearing environment was checked by researcher according to HOME(Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment) at three months postpartum. Mother-infant interactions were rated according to the NCAST Feeding Scale later. Data were analyzed by window SPSS program, and correlations between the infant temperament, mother-infant interaction, and child-rearing environment were analyzed by Pearson's correlational coefficient. The results were as follows: 1. Infant temperament. 1) Among the subscales of infant temperament, mothers perceived cuddliness and amenability most positively at one month, and responsivity and amenability most positively at three months. 2) In subscale analysis of stability, amenability, responsivity, and persistence were stable with the time. 3) Significant relationships were found between the malleability and amenability, between the malleability and responsivity at one month, and also between the malleability and amenability, and between the malleability and cuddliness at three months. 2. Correlations of infant temperament and mother-infant interaction. 1) There was no significant relationship between the infant temperament and mother-infant interaction at one month. 2) There was a significant relationship between the infant temperament and mother-infant interaction at three months(r=.335, p<.05). In subscale analysis, there were significnt relationships between the total score of infant temperament and maternal sensitivity to infant's cues(r=.372, p<.05), and between the total score of infant temperament and maternal response to infant's distress (r=.331, p<.05). 3. Correlations of infant temperament and child-rearing environment. 1) There was no significant relationship between the total score of infant temperament at one month and total score of HOME at three months. In subscal analysis, the total score of infant temperament at one showed significant relationships with the organization of environment(r=.413, p<.05), and the emotional, verbal response at three months(r=.337, p<.05). 2) There was a significant relationship between the total score of infant temperament at three months and the total score of HOME at three months (r=.599, p<.01). In subscal analysis, the total score of infant temperament at three months showed significant relationships with the organization of environment(r=.410, p<.05), maternal involvement(r=.482, p,.01), and the emotional, verbal response(r=.695, p<.01) at three months. 4. Correlations of mother-infant interaction and child-rearing environment. There was a significant relationship between the maternal score of mother-infant interaction at one month and three months and the total score of HOME at three months (r=.474, p<.01; r=.452, p<.01). In conclusion, it was proved that infant temperament had significant relationships with mother-infant interaction and child-rearing environment, especially when the infants were getting older. This showed the possibility for changeability of infant teperament by the maternal factors.
This study explored relationships among temperament, multiple intelligences and play characteristics of preschool children. Participants were 150 mothers of preschool children and 10 preschool teachers in Seoul. They responded to questionnaires; data were analyzed by correlation and multiple-regression major results showed there were positive correlations between emotionality sub-areas of children's temperament and play and between multiple intelligences and play as follows : (1) Cognitive play was predicted by linguistic intelligence and response of temperament, (2) Language play was predicted by interpersonal intelligence and physiology-regulation of temperament, (3) Social play was predicted by interpersonal intelligence and response of temperament, (4) Emotional play was predicted by logical-mathematical intelligence and emotions of temperament, and (5) Movement play was predicted by logical-mathematical intelligence.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between mother's temperament and child's and parenting attitude. Methods: One hundred twenty healthy mothers (above 20 ys) who has a child (7-11 ys) participated after informed consent. The temperament of the children was analyzed by the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory 7-11 (JTCI 7-11) by their mothers. The temperament of the mothers was analyzed by the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised Short (TCI-RS) and the parenting attitude of the mothers was analyzed by the Parenting Attitude Test (PAT). The relations between mother and child temperament and parenting attitude were assessed using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: There were some significant correlations between maternal temperaments and child's temperaments and maternal parenting attitude. Maternal temperament and parenting attitude: Novelty seeking (NS) of mother had low positive correlations with punishment, high expectation and inconsistency. Harm avoidance (HA) had low positive correlations with high involvement and high expectation, and had weak negative correlations with supportive expression and rational explanation. Reward dependence (RD) had low positive correlation with rational explanation. Persistence (P) had low positive correlations with supportive expression, rational explanation and superintendence, and weak negative correlation with high expectation. Child's temperament and parenting attitude: NS of child had low positive correlations with achievement press, high involvement, punishment, high expectation and inconsistency. Low positive correlations were found in many sets such as HA and high expectation, RD and supportive expression and rational explanation, P and supportive expression and rational explanation. Conclusions: These results suggest that there are significant relations between mother and child temperament and parenting attitude the temperament of mother and child.
Lee, Soo Jin;Han, Sang Yun;Kim, Hee Young;Choi, Mi Hwa;Chae, Han
Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry
Objectives: The Yin-Yang temperament and the Sasang Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) were reported to have relations with psychopathological problems in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine how domains of Yin-Yang temperament influence on problem behaviors in Korean middle school students. Methods: Subjects of 681 Korean middle school students completed the SPQ for measuring Yin-Yang temperament and the Youth Self-Report (YSR) for measuring problem behaviors. The differences of problem behaviors between Yin and Yang temperament groups were tested with T-test and profile analysis. The associations of the SPQ subscales on problem behaviors was also examined with Pearson's correlation and regression analysis. Results: Yang temperament was related to the externalizing problem while Yin temperament to the internalizing problem. The Emotionality and Behavior dimension of Yin-Yang temperament were found to be a factor of susceptibility and resilience for problem behaviors, respectively. Three dimensions of Yin-Yang temperament have different influences on externalizing and internalizing problems depending on the sex and Yin-Yang temperament groups of subjects. Conclusions: The Yin-Yang temperament would be useful for predicting and preventing the problem behaviors of middle school students. This study would be useful for screening the psychopathological problems and helping Korean adolescents to develop healthy character.
This descriptive study was conducted to explore the mothers' perceived temperament of their preschoolers, and its related factors. Survey from 212 mothers of preschoolers residing in Seoul, Daejeon, and Suwon was performed, and Schaefer's MBRI(Maternal Behavior Research Instrument), and PTQ(Parent Temperament Questionnaire) by Thomas and Chess, Child-rearing burden instrument by Han were used to collect data from September 15 to October 31, 2002. Data was analyzed with SPSS 10.0 Win program. Summaries of results were as follows: 1. There was no significant difference in temperament type-easy or difficult child-depending upon the demographic characteristics. 2. In temperament subscale, boys showed higher activity level than girls, and in working mothers group, adaptability was significantly lower although mood was higher. Preschoolers with expanded families were higher in activity level and intensity of reaction than with nuclear families. 3. Approach-withdrawal, adaptability, and mood showed significant negative relationship with maternal childrearing burden. 4. Temperament showed significant positive or negative relationship with maternal childrearing attitudes. In conclusion, it determined preschoolers' temperament was affected by primary environment such as maternal attitude, childrearing burden, and family type as well as children's gender. It was suggested that parent education and counselling program in nursing would be needed to promote children's desirable temperament.
This study was conducted to test the reliability and validity of "What my baby is like(WBL)" that was developed by Pridham et al. for measuring infant temperament. 37 subjects were participated four times-1, 3, 6, and 12months, and 146 cases were analyzed. The construct validity for the scale was tested by factor analysis with four factor loading solution based on the previous study. One item was excluded because total-item correlation was too low, so that the number of total items were eighteen. The analysis yielded four well defined factors: amenability and persistence, activity, reactivity, and adaptability. These four factors explained 57.62% of the variance in the infant temperament. The criterion related Validity was confirmed by the relationship between the infant temperament and HOME, and between the infant temperament maternal confidence in childrearing. The reliability of the scale was determined with Cronbach's alpha coefficient and Guttman split-half coefficient. Cronbach's alpha was .86, for 18 items, and Guttman split-half cofficient was .81. In subscale analysis, Cronbach's alpha was .56~.84. In conclusion, WBL showed a high degree of validity and reliability, suitable in Korean infants for measuring temperament. In the further study, it would be necessary to refine the concept of temperament and to analyze the correlation between WBL and other temperament inventory.
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