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Inhibitory Effects of Extracts from Arabis glabra on Lipopolysaccharide Induced Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandin E2 Production in RAW264.7 Macrophages (RAW264.7 대식세포에서 장대나물 추출물의 Nitric oxide 및 Prostaglandin E2생성 저해효과)

  • Nam, Jung-Hwan;Seo, Jong-Taek;Kim, Yul-Ho;Kim, Ki-Deog;Yoo, Dong-Lim;Lee, Jong-Nam;Hong, Su-Young;Kim, Su-Jeong;Sohn, Hwang-Bae;Kim, Hyun-Sam;Kim, Bo-Sung;Shin, Ji-Sun;Lee, Kyung-Tea;Park, Hee-Jhun
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.568-573
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    • 2015
  • Arabis glabra is a localized common rhizomatous flowering plant, This plant is often used in Korean traditional systems of medicine as a remedy for blood cleaning, detoxification, abscess, gastrospasm, arthritis, contraction and diarrhea. Generally drugs that are used for arthritis have antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties. However, validity of the anti-inflammatory activity has not been scientifically investigated so far. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory potential of A. glabra using the ethanolic extract and its sub-fractions. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects, we examined the inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on RAW 264.7macrophages. Our results indicated that hexane and chloroform fraction significantly inhibited the LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production in the cells. The hexane fraction inhibitory activity for NO tests with IC50 values showed in 21.0 ㎍/㎖. The chloroform fraction inhibitory activity for PGE2 tests with IC50 values showed in 18.0 ㎍/㎖. These efficacy are expected to be able to present the potential for the development of health functional food for the prevention inflammatory diseases because it has sufficient preventive medical possibilities. Further, it is determined that it is necessary to further study the mechanism of cytokine and protein expression associated with inflammation.

The Cultural Landscapes of Wuyi-Gugok of China as seen from the 「Landscape of the Jiuqu River in the Wuyi Mountain」 in British Library (대영도서관 소장 「무이산구곡계전도(武夷山九曲溪全圖)」로 본 중국 무이구곡의 문화경관상)

  • Cheng, Zhao-Xia;Rho, Jae-Hyun;Jiang, Cheng
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.11-31
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    • 2019
  • Taking the painting, 「Landscape of the Jiuqu River in the Wuyi Mountain」 as the study object, which was produced in the middle of Qing Dinasty and collected by the British Library, this paper analyzes the scenery names recorded in the painting, and describes the landscape of the mountain, port and ships, architectural elements, civil elements, character, stone inscription and other scenery in the painting. The investigation results of the cultural landscape properties of each Gok are as follows: According to statistics, there are 28 architectural elements in the painting, including 7 pavilions (25%), 4 temples (14.3%), 3 Colleges and Taoist temple (10.7%), 2 Dowon(道院) and villages (7.1%); 29 civil elements, including 9 holes (31%), 6 Historical Sites (20.7%), 3 Stations(臺) (10.3%), 2 Ferries, 2 Bridges, and 2 Ponds (6.9%), 1 Garden, 1 Gate, 1 Mine(坑), 1 Well and 1 Remains(3.4%). These physical factors and civil factors are the important relics reflected the cultural landscape attributes of Wuyi-Gugok in the middle of the 18th century. Among the shape element in each Gok, the 1st Gok have 12 shape elements(21.1%), the 5th Gok 11(19.3%), the 4th Gok 9(15.8%), the 9th Gok 8(14%), the 3rd Gok 7(12.3%), the 6th Gok 4(7%), the 2nd Gok 3(5.3%), the 7th Gok 2(3.5%), and the 8th Gok 1(2%). Through collation, it is found that the 1st Gok, 5th Gok and 4th Gok have more prominent cultural landscape characteristics. In addition, according to the description of scenic spot types in 『Muisanji(武夷山志)』, there are 38 types of scenery description in the painting, of which, the three scenery of big rock, peak, small rock occupy the vast majority. This reflects the Danxia(丹霞) landform characteristics of Wuyi-Gugok. The cultural connotation of Wuyi Mountain expressed and contained in the painting is analyzed and interpreted, and it is found that the Jiuqu(九曲) River in the Wuyi Mountain has Neo-confucianism culture, Taoism culture, Buddhism culture, Tea culture and so on. In addition, among the 171 scenery names shown in the painting, there are altogether 7 stone inscriptions that are consistent with or have the same meaning as the rock inscriptions site, including 3 for inscriptions praising the landscape, 3 for philosophical inscription and 1 for auspicious language inscription, which is considered as the important basis for the mutual textuality between the pictures and the stone inscriptions.

Main constituents and bioactivities of different parts of aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) (아로니아 부위별 주요 성분 정량 및 생리활성 평가)

  • Gim, Sung Woong;Chae, Kyu Seo;Lee, Su Jung;Kim, Ki Deok;Moon, Jae-Hak;Kwon, Ji Wung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.226-236
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    • 2020
  • This study was designed to evaluate the biological activities and main constituents of different parts (fruit, leaf, and stem) of aronia (Aronia melanocarpa). The total phenolic and flavonoidcontents, DPPH and ABTS+ radical-scavenging activity, reducing power, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power were observed to follow the order of: leaves > stems > fruits, regardless of extraction solvents. The inhibitory activity against lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production in Raw 264.7 cells was significantly higher in the aronialeaf extract-treated group than in the groups treated with stem and fruit extracts. The ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) analysis was mainly composed of routine. In addition, the highest content level was measured in the case of the catechinmemberepigallocatechin witha higher value than that found in green tea. Theresults of this studyprovide useful information for understanding the chemical constituents and biological activities of aroniafruits and byproducts.

A Survey on the Application of Preservatives to Processed Food Types (보존료의 가공식품 유형별 사용 현황 연구)

  • Jeong, Eun-Jeong;Jin, Kyoung Nam;Choi, Hyeonjeong;Jeong, Yusang;Kim, Yong-Suk
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.261-270
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    • 2020
  • The application of color retention agents (3 items), preservatives (17 items), and bleaching agents (6 items) as food additives in processed foods were investigated by food type. Among color retention agents, sodium nitrite was used the most with 257 cases, mainly in seasoned jeoktal (71.21%), ready-to-eat foods (7.78%), and breads (4.87%). Of the benzoates (1,236 cases) used as a preservative, sodium benzoate showed up most, in 1,215 cases, while 81.16% of these were in beverages such as beverage base (39.51%), mixed beverages (22.47%), and ginseng/red ginseng beverages (8.89%). Grapefruit seed extracts (3,291 cases) were applied to 44 types of processed foods such as sauces (54.65%), liquid tea (10.46%), and other products (5.15%). Ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate (2,957 cases) was applied to products (total 96.44%) such as sauces (92.15%), blended soy sauce (2.77%), and pickled foods (1.52%). Potassium sorbate was applied to a total of 789 cases, mainly pickled foods (40.43%) and processed fishery products (47.15%). All 27 cases of sorbic acid were applied to fish paste (100%). Of the bleaching agents, sodium bisulfite and sodium hydrosulfite were mainly used in confectioneries, breads or rice cakes, and potassium metabisulfite, sodium metabisulfite, and sulfur dioxide were mainly found in alcoholic beverages including fruit wine, while sodium sulfite was mostly used in pickled foods. These results are deemed useful in applying food additives to processed foods.

Mitigation Effects of Foliar-Applied Hydrogen Peroxide on Drought Stress in Sorghum bicolor (과산화수소 엽면 처리에 의한 수수에서 한발 스트레스 완화 효과)

  • Shim, Doo-Do;Lee, Seung-Ha;Chung, Jong-Il;Kim, Min Chul;Chung, Jung-Sung;Lee, Yeong-Hun;Jeon, Seung-Ho;Song, Gi-Eun;Shim, Sang-In
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.65 no.2
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    • pp.113-123
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    • 2020
  • Global climatic change and increasing climatic instability threaten crop productivity. Due to climatic change, drought stress is occurring more frequently in crop fields. In this study, we investigated the effect of treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) before leaf development on the growth and yield of sorghum for minimizing the damage of crops to drought. To assess the effect of H2O2 on the growth of sorghum plant, 10 mM H2O2 was used to treat sorghum leaves at the 3-leaf stage during growth in field conditions. Plant height, stem diameter, leaf length, and leaf width were increased by 7.6%, 9.6%, 8.3% and 11.5%, respectively. SPAD value, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm), photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate were increased by 3.0%, 4.9%, 26.0%, 23.4% and 12.7%, respectively. The amount of H2O2 in the leaf tissue of sorghum plant treated with 10 mM H2O2 was 0.7% of the applied amount after 1 hour. The level increased to approximately 1.0% after 6 hours. The highest antioxidant activity measured by the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity assay was 847.3 µmol·g-1 at 6 hour after treatment. However, in the well-watered condition, the concentration of H2O2 in the plant treated by the foliar application of H2O2 was 227.8 µmol·g-1 higher than that of the untreated control. H2O2 treatment improved all the yield components and yield-related factors. Panicle length, plant dry weight, panicle weight, seed weight per plant, seed weight per unit area, and thousand seed weight were increased by 8.8%, 18.0%, 24.4%, 24.7%, 29.9% and 7.1%, respectively. Proteomic analysis showed that H2O2 treatment in sorghum increased the tolerance to drought stress and maintained growth and yield by ameliorating oxidative stress.

The foundation and Characteristic on the Aesthetic of EuiJae Huh BaekRyun' Namjonghwa (의재(毅齋) 허백련(許百鍊) 남종화(南宗畵)의 예술심미 고찰)

  • Kim, Doyoung
    • The Journal of the Convergence on Culture Technology
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2020
  • EuiJae Hu BaekRyun is a symbol of Honam Namjonghwa and is respected as a teacher of Honam culture. He is from JinDo and is a relative of Sochi Heo Ryun and a disciple of Misan Heo Hyeong. The spirit of traditional Namjongghwa and the dignity of painting faithful to its technique have been obtained by themselves, and have made it his own. EuiJae organized a 'Yeonjinhoe' in Gwangju to raise his students. After liberation, a house was built under Mudeungsan Mountain. And showed another aspect as a social educator who emphasized and practiced national spirit while being a tea ceremony man. He excelled in Chinese poetry and painting theory, and expressed a unique field in calligraphy. especially worked as an artist good at poetry, caligraphy, and painting. EuiJae showed exceptional talent, especially in landscape painting. His tendency to paint was to follow Ye Chan's technique of drawing with a dry brush, placing importance on the energy of learning, and constantly trying new experiments with the technique of gisaeng. The world of EuiJae's works can be divided into three periods, based on the signature using the trend of painting or the change of perspective pursued, the era of EuiJae, the era of EuiJaeSanin, and the era of EuiDoin, which had a tendency of independent painting. EuiJae's contribution surpassed the artistic historical assessment that he had formed a big stem for the authentic Namjongghwa of Korean painting culture, which was part of Oriental painting. And recognizing that he was a fundamental teacher connecting modern times through the actual scenery based on NamDohwa's universal spirit and regional characteristics and the creative succession of emotions, he should inherit his passion for artistic spirit and tradition and experimental spirit.

Trends of Cancer Mortality in Gyeongsangbuk - do from 1991 to 1998 (경상북도 주민의 암사망 추이)

  • Kim, Byung-Guk;Lee, Sung-Kook;Kim, Tea-Woong;Lee, Do-Young;Lee, Kyeong-Soo
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.59-78
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    • 2001
  • Data on reported cancer mortality in the Gyeongsangbuk- do province from 1991 to 1998 were collected and analyzed using the existing mortality reporting system as well as the public health network to furnish accurate data on reported cancer death and to collect data to establish a high quality district health plan. The overall crude death rate in Gyeongsangbuk province in 1991 was 74.56 deaths per 100,000-person but this rate increased to 79.22 in 1998. Among the deaths, the overall death rate of cancer was 16.7% in 1991, which increased to 19.3% in 1998; specifically the death rate of men increased from 19.4% in 1991 to 22.3% in 1998 while that of women increased from 12.4% in 1991 to 15.5% in 1998, showing a more increase among women. The types of cancer and associated death rates in 1991 were gastric cancer(41.5%), followed by liver cancer (28.8%), and lung and bronchogenic carcinoma(8.7%) and in 1998, gastric cancer (24.7%), followed by liver cancer(22.7%), lung and bronchogenic carcinoma(19.3%), showing the same order. For men and women, gastric cancer(40.2% and 44.7%, respectively) was the most common cancer death, followed by liver cancer(33.7% and 16.7%, respectively), and lung and bronchogenic carcinoma(10.2% and 5.0%, respectively) in 1991. However, in 1998, gastric cancer(27.8%) was still the most common type among both men and women, followed by liver cancer (18.5%) and lung and bronchogenic carcinoma(12.7%), showing the most decrease in gastric cancer but most increase in lung and bronchogenic carcinoma. The age- adjusted mortality rates by gastric cancer, hepatoma, laryngeal carcinoma were decreased in both male and female, and also uterine cancer was decreased in female. The age- adjusted mortality rates by lung and bronchogenic carcinoma, pancreatic cancer, rectal cancer were increased in both male and female, and also breast cancer was increased in female. The calculated overall age-adjusted death rate based on the 1995 population was 84.25 in 1991, which decreased to 77.67 in 1998. Male death rate decreased significantly from 119.81 in 1991 to 101.82 in 1998 while the female death rate increased from 48.64 in 1991 to 53.80 in 1998. A census of cancer death rate using accurate death records is important for the establishment of proper and high-quality district health and medical plan and policy. The effort to improve the accuracy of death reports using the health facility network, as had been attempted by this study, can be continued. Furthermore, there must be a way for the Health and Welfare Department to use the death reports to improve the present reporting system. Lastly, additional studies need to be conducted to investigate how much the accuracy was improved by the supplemented death reports in this study.

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Developmental Plans and Research on Private Security in Korea (한국 민간경비 실태 및 발전방안)

  • Kim, Tea-Hwan;Park, Ok-Cheol
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.9
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    • pp.69-98
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    • 2005
  • The security industry for civilians (Private Security), was first introduced to Korea via the US army's security system in the early 1960's. Shortly after then, official police laws were enforced in 1973, and private security finally started to develop with the passing of the 'service security industry' law in 1976. Korea's Private Security industry grew rapidly in the 1980's with the support of foreign funds and products, and now there are thought to be approximately 2000 private security enterprises currently running in Korea. However, nowadays the majority of these enterprises are experiencing difficulties such as lack of funds, insufficient management, and lack of control over employees, as a result, it seems difficult for some enterprises to avoid the low production output and bankruptcy. As a result of this these enterprises often settle these matters illegally, such as excessive dumping or avoiding problems by hiring inappropriate employees who don't have the right skills or qualifications for the jobs. The main problem with the establishment of this kind of security service is that it is so easy to make inroads into this private service market. All these hindering factors inhibit the market growth and impede qualitative development. Based on these main reasons, I researched this area, and will analyze and criticize the present condition of Korea's private security. I will present a possible development plan for the private security of Korea by referring to cases from the US and Japan. My method of researching was to investigate any related documentary records and articles and to interview people for necessary evidence. The theoretical study, involves investigation books and dissertations which are published from inside and outside of the country, and studying the complete collection of laws and regulations, internet data, various study reports, and the documentary records and the statistical data of many institutions such as the National Police Office, judicial training institute, and the enterprises of private security. Also, in addition, the contents of professionals who are in charge of practical affairs on the spot in order to overcomes the critical points of documentary records when investigating dissertation. I tried to get a firm grasp of the problems and difficulties which people in these work enterprises experience, this I thought would be most effective by interviewing the workers, for example: how they feel in the work places and what are the elements which inpede development? And I also interviewed policemen who are in charge of supervising the private escort enterprises, in an effort to figure out the problems and differences in opinion between domestic private security service and the police. From this investigation and research I will try to pin point the major problems of the private security and present a developmental plan. Firstly-Companies should unify the private police law and private security service law. Secondly-It is essential to introduce the 'specialty certificate' system for the quality improvement of private security service. Thirdly-must open up a new private security market by improving old system. Fourth-must build up the competitive power of the security service enterprises which is based on an efficient management. Fifth-needs special marketing strategy to hold customers Sixth-needs positive research based on theoretical studies. Seventh-needs the consistent and even training according to effective market demand. Eighth-Must maintain interrelationship with the police department. Ninth-must reinforce the system of Korean private security service association. Tenth-must establish private security laboratory. Based on these suggestions there should be improvement of private security service.

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The Content of Minerals and Vitamins in Commercial Beverages and Liquid Teas (유통음료 및 액상차 중의 비타민과 미네랄 함량)

  • Shin, Young;Kim, Sung-Dan;Kim, Bog-Soon;Yun, Eun-Sun;Chang, Min-Su;Jung, Sun-Ok;Lee, Yong-Cheol;Kim, Jung-Hun;Chae, Young-Zoo
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.322-329
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    • 2011
  • This study was done to analyze the contents of minerals and vitamins to compare the measured values of minerals, vitamins with labeled values of them in food labeling and to investigate the ratio of measured values to labeled values in 437 specimen with minerals and vitamins - fortified commercial beverages and liquid teas. Content of calcium and sodium in samples after microwave digestion was analyzed with an ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer) and vitamins were determined using by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography). The measured values of calcium were ranged 80.3~142.6% of the labeled values in 21 samples composed calcium - fortified commercial beverages and liquid teas. In case of sodium, measured values were investigated 33.9~48.5% of the labeled values in 21 sports beverages. The measured values of vitamin C, vitamin $B_2$ and niacin were ranged 99.7~2003.6, 81.1~336.7, 90.7~393.2% of the labeled values in vitamins - fortified commercial beverages and liquid teas, 57, 12, 11 samples. To support achievement of the accurate nutrition label, there must be program and initiatives for better understanding and guidances on food labelling and nutrition for food manufacture.

Effect of Early Pregnant Heifer as Donor on the Ovum Pick-Up Derived Oocyte Aspiration and Embryo Production (초기 임신우의 공란우 활용이 초음파 유도 난자 채취 및 수정란 생산에 미치는 영향)

  • Jin, Jong-In;Kwon, Tae-Hyeon;Choi, Byeong-Hyun;Kim, Sung-Soo;Jo, Hyun-Tea;Bang, Jae-Il;Kim, Sam-Chul;Cho, Kyu-Woan;Lee, Jung-Gyu;Kong, Il-Keun
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.19-25
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    • 2011
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of early pregnant cow as donor for Ovum Pick-Up (OPU) derived oocyte aspiration and embryo production in Holstein heifers. Four non-pregnant and 2 pregnant Holstein heifers were used as donor and then carried out total 17 OPU session for 10 weeks (2 times per week). Recovered cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs) were classified into 4 grade by oocyte cytoplasm and cumulus cells and matured in vitro in TCM-199 supplemented with 10% FBS, 10 mg/ml FSH and 1 mg/ml estradiol in 5% $CO_2$ and over 99% humidity for 24 h. After 24 h co-incubation with post-thaw sperm, the presumed zygotes were cultured in CR1aa medium with 4 mg/ml BSA for 3 days and then changed CR1aa medium with 10% of FBS for another 3~4 days. The Mean number of aspirated follicles and collected oocytes in the early stage pregnant and non-pregnant heifers were $13.0{\pm}4.3$ and $10.6{\pm}3.9$, $5.4{\pm}3.4$ and $7.7{\pm}3.6$ per session, respectively. Rate of collected oocyte from aspirated follicles were 59.2% and 50.5%, respectively. The average number of good quality oocytes (Grade I and II) in the early stage pregnant and non-pregnant heifers was $3.7{\pm}2.7$ and $4.9{\pm}2.6$ (Mean${\pm}$SD). Cleavage and blastocyst developmental rates in Grade I and II were 22.2% and 25.5%, and then $1.7{\pm}0.9$ and $1.4{\pm}1.1$ blastocyst per session, respectively. In conclusion, OPU technology can be used in early stage pregnant and non-pregnant heifers without any problem and so applied OPU derived embryo production to maximize the ability of genetically valuable females.